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Full text of "Year book ... City of Charleston, So. Ca"

REYNOLDS HISTORICAL 
GENEALOGY COLLECTION 



ALLEN COUNTY PUBLIC LIBRARY 



3 1833 02301 0843 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 
in 2013 



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1691928 



WALKER, EVANS & COGSWELL CO., PRINTERS, 
8 Broad Street, Charleston, S. C. 



CITY GOVERNMENT. 



MAYOR AND ALDERMEN, 

ELECTED DEC. 8th, 1891, INAUGURATED 'DEC. 14th, 1S9L 



MAYOR, 

Hon. JOHN F. FICKEN. 

• MAYOR Pro Tem. 
1894-GEO. W. 'WILLIAMS, Jb. 



ALDERMEN. 

Ward 1— G. W. WILLIAMS, Jr., A. B. MURRAY. 
Ward 2— A. A. KROEG, ZIMMERMAN DAVIS. 
Ward S-R. S. CATHCART, C. FRISIUS* 
Wart; 4— JOHN C. TIEDEMAN, J. H. BTEINMEYER. 
Ward 5-C. S. GADSDEN, P. BRODFyRICK. 
Ward 6-H. BAER, T. GRANGE SIMONS, Jr. 
Ward 7— L. D. MAHLSTEDT, T. G. MAIN. 
Ward 8— JOHN B. REEVES, I. V. BARDIN. 
Ward 9- -JOHN D. MURPHY, A. J. RILEY. 
Ward 10— HENRY HAESLGOP, W. F. STRONG'. 
Ward 11— T. S WILBUR, L. C. A. ROESSLER. 
Ward 12— L. E. WILLIAMS, H. L. CADE. 



*C. Frisius died March 3i, 189-1; succeeded by F. Kressel July 10, 189 



iv City Government. 

STANDING COMMITTEES OF CITY COUNCIL, 

APPOINTED DECEMBER 14th, 1891. 



Ways and Means— Dr. IP Baer, Chairman ; C. S. Gadsden, 
George W. Williams, Jr., John B. Reeves, A. B. Murray, John C 
Tiedeman and the Mayor. 

Sewerage— T)v. T, Grange Simons, Jr., Chairman ; Dr. H. Baer, 
H. L. Cade, A. B. Murray, A. A. Kroeg and the Mayor. 

Streets— Geo. W. Williams, Jr., Chairman; T. S. Wilbur, J. H. 
Steinmeyer, Zimmerman Davis, J. I), Murphy, L. D. Mahlstedt 
and the Mayor. 

Accounts— T. G. Main. Chairman ; T, S. Wilbur and the Mayor. 

Lighting the CU1/—O. 8. Gadsden, Chairman ; Dr. H. Baer, Geo. 
W. Williams, Jr., T. S. Wilbur, L, E. Williams. 

Contracts— John B. Reeves, Chairman ; A. A. Kroeg and the 
Mayor. 

Engrossed Bills- -T. S. Wilbur, Chairman ; C. Frisius. * T. G. 
Main. 

Fire Escapes— A. J. Riley, Chairman; R. S. Cathcart, P. 
Broderick. 

Steam Engines- -J. D. Murphy, Chairman ; L. E. Williams, A. 
J. Riley. 

Retrenchment and Belief— EI. Haesloop, Chairman ; J. H. Stein- 
meyer, L. C. A. Roessler. 

.Railroads — John C. Tiedeman, Chairman ; R. S. Cathcart, T, 
G. Main. 

Tidal Drains — H. L. Cade, Chairman; Dr. T. G. Simons, Jr., 
J. V. Bardin. 

Artesian Wells and Lot — L. C. A. Roessler, Chairman; A. J. 
Riley, E V. Bardin. 

Wood and Brick Building Sr-H, L. Cade, Chairman ; W. F. 
Strong, L. E. Williams. 

Journals- and Vacant Offices — A. B. Murray, Chairman ; L. D. 
Mahlstedt, J. H. Steinmeyer. 

Fori and Harbor Improvements — Zimmerman Davis, Chairman ; 
H. Haesloop, P. Broderick. 



Died March 31, 1891; F. Kressel appointed. 



City Government. v 

Water Supply — A. A. Kroeg, ChairmaD ; C S. Gadsden, John B. 
Reeves. 
City Lands— F. Kressel, chairman; L. C. A. Roessler, Zimmerman 

Davis. 

Printing— John IT. Steinmeyer, Chairman ; A. A. Kroeg, H. 
Haesloop, 

City Hall, Clock and Chimes— h. I). Mahlstedt, Chairman; P. 
Broderick, L. C. A. Roessler. 

Pleasure Grounds, Lower Wards— R. B. Cathcart, Chairman ; A. 
B. Murray, A. A. Kroeg. 

Pleasure Grounds, Upper Wards — L. E. Williams, Chairman ; L. 
D. Mahlstedt, W. F. Strong. 

Public Buildings— P. Broderick, Chairman ; J. D. Murphy, F. 
Kressel. 

Fire .Loan Bonds— \N . F. Strong, Chairman; T, G. Main and the 
Mayor. 



CLERK OF COUNCIL, 
W.W.SIMON'S. 

MESSENGER OF COUNCIL, 
ROBT. G. O'NEALE. 

CITY COURT. 
Recorder, WM. ALSTON PRtNGLE. 

Corporation Counsel, CHARLES INGLESBY. 

Sheriff, GLENN E. DAVIS. 

Clerk, EDW. ST. J. GRIMKE. 

BOARD OF EQUALIZATION. 

Dr. H. Baer, C. S. Gadsden, A. B. Murray, J. C. Tiedeman, 2. B< 
Reeves, George W. Williams, Jr. 



vi City Government. 



CITY OFFICERS 

Treasurer — J. 0, Lea, 

Assessor—Wtii. Aiken Kelly. 

Superintendent of Streets— J. C. W. Bisehoff. 

City Surveyor— J. XI, Dingle. 

Assistant City Surveyor— HI, B.Oluey. 

Tidal Drain Keeper — John E. Koster. 

Gangers, of Liquor — Q. W. Bell, ■ ■. 

Hour Inspector -. 

Inspectors and Surveyors of Timber — S. P. Ben net, C. S. Jenkins, 
P. Devereux, Edward B. Moylan, J. G. Rentiers. 

Chimney Contractors—Wards 1 and 2, John J. Kiley; Wards 3 and 
4, Wm. She! ton; Wards 5 and 6, Daniel Lanigan; Wards 7 and 8, 
W. Y. Lovett , Wards 9 and 10, John J. Noland ; Wards 11 and 
12, M. Mood, 



POLICE. 



Chief— J.Elmore Martin. 
JPlrst Lieutenant— ¥. J. Heidt. 
Second Lieutenant — E. A. Muilenhauer. 
Third Lieutenant — J. H. Fordham. 



BOARD OF HEALTH. 

T. R. McGahan, Chairman ; J. B. Beeves, Allard Memminger 
M. D., G. E. Manigault, M.D., C. P. Aimar, M. A. Connor, A. Syd- 
ney Smith, Hall T. MdGee, \V. P. Carrington, Charles G. Matthews, 

Health Officer and Secretary of the Board — II. B. Horlbeck, 
M. D, 

Clerk— Henry F. Faber. 

Sanitary Inspectors — District No. 1, C. L. Trenhoim ; District. No. 
2, J. P. O'Neill; District No. 3, M. Hogan ; District No. 4, B. 8. 
Mikell. 

Health Detective — F. Nipson. 

City Dispensary Physicians—Health District No. 1, R. S. Cathcart, 
M/D., Health District No. 2, Barnard E. Baker, M. D. ; Health Dis- 
trict No. 3, E. J. Kinloch, M. D. ; Health District No. 4, J. Mcrcier 
Green, M. D. ; Health District No. 5, J. Creigbton Mitchell, M. D. ; 
Health District No. 6, G. Y. MacMurphy, M. D. 



City Government vii 



FIRE DEPARTMENT. 

Board, of Fire Masters — F. S. Rodgers, Chairman ; G. H. Walter, 
E. F. Sweegan, A. Stemmermann, R. C Barkley, C. R, Valk, and 

the Mayor. 

Chief -0. G. MarjenhoH. 
First Assistant Chief —Xi . II. Smith. 
Second Assistant Chief— T. B. Sigwald, 
Clerk— B. M. Strobel * 



COLLEGE OF CHARLESTON. 

Trustees — The Mayor and City Recorder are ex-offieio members of 
the Board ; Hon. G. S. Bryan, Alderman C. S. Gadsden and W. St. 
Julian Jervey, with the ex-offieio members, represent the City in the 
Board. The remaining members of the Board are : Messrs. Chas. H- 
Simonton, President of the Board ; Hon. J no. F. Ficken, Vice-Presi- 
dent ; G. Lamb Buist, Rev. C. C. Pinckney, I). D., H. A. M. Smith, 
G. H. Sass, A. C. Kaufman, J. Adger Smyth, 

Secretary and Treasurer— Jacob Williman. 



HIGH SCHOOL OF CHARLESTON- 

Trustees— Julian Mitchell, President ; Rev. C. C. Pinckney, D D„ 
J. H. Steinmeyer, Zimmerman Davis, J. P. K. Bryan, Dr. H. Baer, T. 
P. Lowndes, Rev. Edward T. Horn and the Mayor ex-offieio. 

Secretary— R- G. O'Neale. 

*Died April 11, 1894, 



viii City Government. 



DEPARTMENT OF CHARITIES, 



WM. EN ST ON HOME. 

Trustees of the Fund for Surviving Annuitants — Hon. Win. A. 
Courteuay, Chairman ; John F. Ficken, W. Enston Butler. 

Trustees' of the IIome—*W. E. Huger, President; Alva Gage, 1st 
Vice-President; E. H. Jackson, 2nd Vice-President; W.E.Butler. 
3rd Vice-President; Dr. C, P. Aimar, W. J. Miller, J. P. K. Bryan, 
G. W. Williams, Jr., C. R. Valk, W. G. Muckenfuss, E. H. Pringle, F. 
E. Taylor, and the Mayor ex-officio. 

Superintendent — Miss L. 0. Bonnell. 

Secretary-— M. B. Paine. 

ORPHAN HOUSE. 

Commissioners— 'Geo. W. Williams, Chairman ; Dr. J'. S. Buist, V. 
C. Dibble, H. H. DeLeon, J. M. Eason, Geo. H.Tucker, T. G. Main, 
Dr. B. A. Muckenfuss, F. J, Pelzer, T. A. Wilbur, A. F. C. Cramer, 
L. D. Mablstedt. 

Principal and Superintend ent—JSliss A. K. Irving. 

Teachers— 1+iAss M. L. LeQueux, Mrs. A. L. Reilly, Miss C. Arnold, 
Miss M. McNeill, Miss M. E. Hamlin, Miss K. Lent. 

Matrons— Miss M. F. Perry, Mrs. M. P. Shaw, Mrs. A. E. Herbert, 
Miss S, E. Terrell, 

Sewing Department — Mrs. A. V. Webb, Miss M. F. Ebe-rie. 

Engineer — A. L. Barton. 

Secretary of the Board and Treasurer of the Private Fund—lb. 
Montague Grimke\ 

CITY HOSPITAL. 

Commissioners— Zimmerman Davis, Chairman ; Hall T. McGee, 
Vice-Chairman; Thos. Delia Torre, Secretary ; A. W. Taft, H. W. 
Hummell, A. Stemmermann, T. T. Hyde, W. L. Jones, Julius E. 

Cogswell. 
Superintendent— C. L. PuBos. 



^Elected in place of Hon. Wm. A. Courtenay, who resigned in 1804, and was ap- 
pointed Trustee Emeritus. 



City Government. ix 



ALMS HOUSE. 

Commissioners— R. S. Burnham, Chairman ; H. Klatte, Vice-Chair- 
man ; J. M. Con nelley, Secretary and Treasurer; J. H. Graman,* 

Morrris Harris, A. Johnson, Dr. B. M. Lobby,* J. D. Murphy, A. B. 
Murray, C. Wulbern, Dr. R. B. Rhett, S. E. Welch. 

Master— H. G. Fraser. 

Matron— Mrs. E. M. Fraser. 

Clerk-M. B, Ryan. 

ASHLEY RIVER ASYLUM. 

Commissioners of Public Lands.— L. E. Williams, Chairman; C. C. 
Leslie, Vice-chairman ; R. B. GH-ice, Secretary and Treasurer ; W. G. 
Rehkopf, H. Haesloop, Daniel Boinest, W. J. Parker, ILL. Williams. 
F. A. Lord, Thomas Clark, L. D. Mahlstedt, J. Laflan. 

Steward Ashley Itiver Asylum— Thomas M. Holmes. 

Matron Ashley River Asylum— Mrs. Adeline J. Holmes. 

Grave Digger— Boston Sweeper. 

MARKETS AND GREEN GROCERIES. 

Commissioners— T. Campbell, Chairman ; J. H. Graman, John 
Burns, S. C. Gilbert, Robt. Graham, J. G. Graddick, George M. Le- 
vack, John McElree, W. J. Miller, T. S. Wilbur, D.C.Robertson, Jno, 
B. Beeves, D. A. Walker, Jr. 

Chief Clerk— -G. W. Bouse. 

Assistant Clerk — J. M. Axson. 

CteW.; Weights and Measures — J 'no. G. Chalk. 

MARION SQUARE. 

Commissioners— Co]. A. Coward. Chairman ; Mai. B. H. Rutledge, 
Gen. R. Siegling, (Died March 14th, 1894) Maj. G. B. Edwards, Gen. 
T. A Huguenin, Maj. Alex. W. Marshall, 

COLONIAL COMMON AMD ASHLEY RIVER 

EMBANKMENT. 

Commissioners — Casper A. Chisolm, Chairman; S. S. Buist, Secre- 
tary and Treasurer ; C. Wulbern, C. F. Steinmeyer, Dr. Wra. P. 
O'Neill, Jos. R. Robertson, Robert P. Evans, Eugene P. Jervey, 
A. DeCaradeuc, Lanier Eason and the Mayor. 



♦Kesigned Dec. 37,1894- 



City Government. 



COMMISSIONERS OF BATHING HOUSES. 

Dennis O'Neill, Chairman ; John 0. Tiedeman, Secretary; L. E, 
Williams, Zimmerman Davis, J. B. Reeves, J. D. Murphy, I. V. 
Bard in, 

BOARD OF COMMISSIONERS FOR THE 

MANAGEMENT, CUSTODY AND CARE OF 

CONVICTS- 

A. A. Kroeg, Chairman; J. D. Murphy, Yice-Chairmarj ; Gadsden 
Phillips, Secretary ; Benjamin Mclnnes, Jr., Henry Sohl. 
Superintendent of the Guard — G. A. Schifiley, 



C O M M I S S I O N E R S F O R T H E P L A N T I N G A N D 

PROTECTION OF SHADE TREES. 

Alderman. Zimmerman Davis, C. R. Valk and C. A. Chisolm. 



INDEX, 



Page. 

Mayor Ficken's Review .... , 1 

Treasury Department 29 

Report of City Assessor 35 

Report of City Sheriff...... . 62 

Report of Corporation Counsel ... 65 

Report of Superintendent of Streets ..„.,, 73 

Department of Health — 

Report of Health Officer 84 

Meteorological Summary for 1893. 108 

Report of Tidal Drain Keeper 130 

Department of Chakities — 

' Charleston Orphan House........ , 131 

Shirras Dispensary 143 

City Hospital .'. 153 

Alms House..... ■..,....., .166 

William Enston Home- 169 

Old Folk's Home 171 



Department of Police- 



Report of Fire Department 173 

Report of Chief of Police...... 178 

Pleasure Grounds — 

Marion Square 195 

Colonial Common and Lake. 196 

Lower Wards Pleasure Grounds.. ..,....< 197 

Upper Words Pleasure Grounds.....^ ...198 

Public Markets ... 199 

City Surveyor's Report ...200 

Port of Charleston— 

Harbor Master's Report 211 



xii Index. 

Education in Charleston — page. 

Superintendent Archer's Animal Report 215 

High School of Charleston 223 

College of Charleston 229 

Acts of the Legislature Relating to the City of Chab£eston, 

Passed During the Year 1894 232 

Ordinances Ratified During the Year 1894- 234 



APPENDIX 



I. History of the Carolina Art Association , 243 

IT. Sketch of St Andrew's Society -274 

III. Fragments of the Journal of Rev. Wm. Tennent. 1775, of his 

Journey into Upper Carolina as Agent of the Council 
of Safety .\... 295 

IV, A Letter from Carolina in 1715, and Journal of the March into 

the Cherokee Mountains in the Yemassee War. 314 






CITY OF CHARLESTON, 
Executive Department, 
28th March, 1895. 

Jb £Ac City Council of Charleston : 

We ask leave to submit herewith, the annual reports of the 
several departments of the municipal government for the 
year 1894, together with a review of the same and such 
recommendations as are tc be made. 

It will be seen that, as in the preceding years of our ad- 
ministration, 1he appropriations have in no instance been 
exceeded, and the total expenditures have been ' carefully 
kept within the limits of the income of the year. 

DEPARTMENT OF THE CITY TREASURY. 

The clear and elaborate report of the City Treasurer fur- 
nishes a detailed and interesting statement of the financial 
transactions of the city for the past year. That portion of 
our debt which matured during the year was promptly re- 
deemed, and the interest on our outstanding bonds was 
paid as it became due. All of the appropriations were fully 
met, leaving at the end of the year a surplus in cash which 
as is usual has been placed to the credit of the general in- 
come account for the new year. 

The total income of the City for the year ending 31st 
December, 1894, including the proceeds of the sale of the 
new five per cent, bonds issued on 1st October last, sum- 
med up $649,270.04 .which with the surplus of $18,032.07 



2 Mayor Ficheri's Annual Review. 

brought forward from the year 1893 (in which surplus is 
included §1,144.77 in bonds receivable) gave as the total 
resources of the year, $667,302.71. 

The tola! expenditures during the year 1804, including 
unexpended balances of appropriations, and including the 
amount paid for the redemption of the bonds which ma- 
tured, amounted to $052,557.33, leaving a surplus at the 
end of the year of §14,745.38. In this surplus is included 
$1,144.77 of bonds receivable. 

The total net receipts and expenditures for the year 1894 
may be summarized as follows: 

Surplus from the year 1S93 % 18,032.07 

Net receipts from taxes of 1891 457,174.87 

Net receipts of unpaid taxes of previous years . 15,082.39 

Net receipts of License tax for 1894 . . . . . . 90,235.00 

Net receipts of License tax for previous years . 2,412.50 

Penalties on same 1,101.25 

Receipts from State Liquor Dispensaries .... 3,904.65 

Fines from Police Department 3,670.52 

Net receipts from the Public Market ..... 1,766.55 

Interest on Bank Deposits . 8,191.88 

Proceeds of sale of §62,500 five per cent, bonds 
issued for the redemption of bonds which ma- 
tured 1st October, 1891 63,281.25 

From miscellaneous sources . .• 1,849.18 



$667,302.71 



$00/ 



EXPENDITURES. 

The total expenditures, including unexpended 
balances of appropriations, and the redemp- 
tion of £62,500 of seven per cent, bonds which 
matured 1st October, 1894, amounted to . . $652,557.33 

Surplus on hand 31st December, 1894, inclu- 
ding $1,141.77 bonds receivable 



Mayor Fickerfs Annual Review. 3 

During the past year the Public Debt of the City was re- 
duce! to the extent of $29,000 as follows: $10 500 by the 
purchase of one hundred and five 7 per 'cent, bonds, each of 
the denomination of one hundred dollars, all of which 
matured on the 1st October, 1894, and §18,500 by the, pur- 
chase of that amount of 4 per cent, bonds (due 1909.) There 
were also purchased two 7 per cent, bonds of the denomina- 
tion of one hundred dollars each, making $200 which had 
matured on 1st October, 1893, but had not previously been 
presented for payment, and also §98 of matured City ol 
Charleston G per cent, stock, 

These purchases were made by the Commissioners of the 
Sinking Fund with a part of the proceeds of the taxes levied 
for the purposes of this Commission. 

There remains outstanding the amount of seven hundred 
dollars of 7 per cent, bonds of the denomination of one 
hundred dollars, which matured on the 1st October, 1894, 
but were not presented for payment, the interest upon 
which, however ceased on- that date — thus effecting a fur- 
ther reduction of interest charges amounting; to $784 on the 
7 per cent, bonds and $740 on the 4 per cent, bonds pur- 
chased — being together a permanent annual saving of $1,524, 

The bonds purchased as above stated were all cancelled 
and destroyed, a report of which was made at the time to 
your honorable body. 

It will also be noted that there has been a reduction du- 
ring the past year of two per cent, in the rate of interest 
on $62,500 of our Public Debt, thus further saving annually 
an interest charge of twelve hundred and fifty dollars. 
This reduction is due to the redemption of the seven per 
cent, bonds, which matured on October 1st, 1894, and the 
issue for the purpose of such redemption of ?62,500 of five 
per cent, bonds which is tantamount to refunding that 
amount of the debt at five per cent. The result of this 
transaction together with the purchase and retirement by 
the Commissioners of the Sinking Fund of certain other 
bonds as above stated, has effected altogether during the 
year a permanent annual saving in interest of $2,774. 



4 Mayor Ficken's Annual Review. 

In this connection attention is called to the fact that our 
four per cent, bonds Lave recently sold as high as 96, and 
this after the payment of the January interest, being the 
highest price at which these bonds have ever been sold ; 
it has been confidently predicted that these securities will 
reach par in the near future. 

It should also be noted that we received during the past 
year for interest on our daily bank deposits the sum of 
eight thousand one hundred and ninety-one -£ b %- Dollars, 
the [largest amount ever received by the City in any one 
year from this source; our receipts are deposited in the 
Bank of Charleston, National Banking Association, and by 
a special agreement we are allowed interest on our average 
daily balances at the rate of four 3/4 (4|) per cent, per an- 
num. 

It is gratifying to note the feet that the wholesome prac- 
tice of gradually reducing the Public Debt through the aid 
of the special tax levied for the benefit of the Sinking 
Fund has been closely adhered to during the past year. 

Although these annual reductions in themselves when 
compared with the total aggregate of the debt appear small, 
they in the course of time will make a marked impression 
on the volume of our bonded indebtedness. 

The entire cash at the disposal of the Commissioners of the 
Sinking Fund, with the exception of $1,168.9.0, was ex- 
pended during the past year in reducing the volume of the 
public debt. The sum of $16,931.97 was brought forward 
from the year 1893, to the credit of the fund, and the levy 
for 1S94 yielded §10,972.93. The collection of interest on 
City bonds purchased, which interest matured and was paid 
before the destruction of said bonds, amounted to $518, thus 
placing at the disposal of the Commissioners for the year a 
total of §28,422.90, all of which, with the exception of a 
balance of $1 ,168.90,, was expended in the reduction of the 
public debt, as has already been stated. The said balance 
was brought forward and placed to the credit of the account 
for the year 1895. 

The bonded investments held by the ,l Trustees of the 



Mayor Fichrts Annual Review. 5 

Orphan House Funds and Estate" have been slightly in- 
creased during the past year by the purchase of three hun- 
dred and thirty-three 78-100 dollars (1833,78,) of State of 
South Carolina four one-half (4 -?,) per cent, stock. 

The receipts from the License Tax during the year con- 
tinue to sliow the extent of the diminution of revenue 
occasioned by our inability to collect license taxes for the 
sale of intoxicating liquors. In round numbers, the liquor 
licenses yielded us from $28,000 to $30,000 per annum. In 
lieu thereof we have received during the year from, the State 
Liquor Dispensaries only the sum of $3,904.65. 

The total bonded indebtedness of the City of Charleston, 
as it existed on the 31st December, 1894, will appear in the 
following statement : 

PUBLIC DEBT.— DECEMBER 31, 1894. 

4 p. ct. Bonds, due Jany. 1st, 1009, % 1,622,000 
4 p. ct. " " July 1st, 1909, 1,749,700 

——-^ga^Ti^oo oo 



5 p. ct. 


a 


a 


5 p. ct. 


c. 


(C 


5 p. ct. 


a 


41 


6 p. ct. 


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It 


p. ct. 


(C 


(i 


6 p. ct. 


(C 


CC 


7 p. ct. 


cc 


u 


7 p. ct. 


u 


a 


7 p. ct. 


<< 


(C 


7 p. ct. 


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<< 


7 p. ct. 


u 


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i< 


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Oct. 1st, 1922, 50,000 
Oct, 1st, 1923, 56,000 
Oct. 1st, 1924, 02,500 



163,500 00 
Oct. 1st, 1883, 1,000 00 

ApL 1st, 1898, 91,500 
Oct. 1st, 1898, . 18,000 



Oct. 1st, 1888, 500 

Oct. 1st, 1891, 500 

Oct. 1st, 1893, 300 

Oct, 1st, 1894, 3,700 



109,500 00 



5.000 00 



Oct. 1st, 1895, 91,500 
Oct. 1st, 1896, 67,000 
Oct. 1st, 1897, 20,000 

— - 178,500 00 

5 per cent. Stock, (College). ....... 23,000 00 

Old 6 per cent. Stock . . 649 75 

$3,857,849 75 



G Mayor Mcken's Annual Review. 

The following bonds and stocks are past due, and should 
be deducted from the sum total above stated, the cash for 
the payment of the same being in the Treasury. 

6 p. ct. Bonds due Oct. 1st, 1883 $1,000 

7 p. ct. " " Oct, 1st, 1888 $ 500 
7 p. ct. " <( Oct 1st, 1891 500 
7p,ct. " " Oct. 1st, 1893 300 
7 p. ct. " " Oct. 1st 18M 3,700 

_u— ^ 5.00O 00 
Old City 6 per cent. Stock, . . . 040 75 

$6,049 75 

Leaving a total bonded indebtedness of $3,851,200. 

DEPARTMENT OF TEE CITY ASSESSOR. 

The annual report of the City Assessor for the year 1894 
gives a full statement of the taxable values for the year, 
and will repay a careful perusal. The total value of the 
assessments of real estate for the year 1894 amounted to 
$IG ? GS5,232, and of personalty to $6,636,770. Your atten- 
tion is again called to the fact that there has been a con- 
siderable falling off in the returns of personal property 
during recent years, and it is important to consider how 
best to secure fuller returns. 

Real estate, as matters now stand, is made to bear the 
brunt of taxation, and large amounts of personal property 
escape altogether. It has been suggested that if the rate of 
taxation for personalty were considerably reduced below 
that of the tax on real estate, the returns of personalty 
would be so much larger as to yield even greater revenues 
than under the present system. 

It is not competent for us, however, to try the experi- 
ment. The Constitution of South Carolina requires that 
the rate of taxation shall be uniform and equal, and there- 
lore the taxation on realty and personalty must be main- 
tained at one and the same rate. 



Mayor Mcken's Annual Review,, 1 

DEPARTMENT OF THE CITY SHERIFF. 

During the past year the City Sheriff collected on account 
of delinquent taxes, a total of $22,874.94. This amount was 
composed of general taxes, amounting to $17,954; license 
taxes amounting to §3,535, and school taxes amounting to 
$1,385.94. These collections were made from an arrearage 
extending over a period of several years. 

For many years there has been a gradual accumulation 
in the Sheriff's office of claims for unpaid taxes. Prece- 
ding administrations have struggled with this evil, and so 
has the present administration. When we came into office, 
we found an arrearage of uncollected taxes extending over 
all the intermediate years as far hack as 1831. Persistent 
efforts on our part to collect these claims have been made, 
and continue to be made, and although we have succeeded 
to some extent in reducing the amount, there is still un- 
collected alarc;e sum. This arrearage is due in a measure 
to the imperfect and unsatisfactory means of collection at 
the command of the municipal authorities. In order to 
overcome these defects and furnish a more effective system 
of enforcing the payment of taxes, we caused, with your 
assent, an Act of the General Assembly of the State to be 
passed at its last session, clothing the city with the same 
rights and remedies as are employed by the State in the 
collection of taxes. This should now be followed by the 
adoption of a proper Ordinance providing for the advertise- 
ment and sale for unpaid taxes of the property of delin- 
quent tax-payers. In this way the prompt payment of 
taxes will be better secured. 

Included in the arrearage of unpaid taxes above referred 
to, is a considerable amount due on personal property, 
which property, and its owners, have disappeared. It 
is earnestly recommended that a special committee of 
the City Council, in conjunction with the City Sheriff, 
shall be charged with the duty of examining the list 
oi delinquent taxes, in order that such claims as shall 



8 Mayor Ficlcen's Annual Review. 

be found valueless may be so declared, and eliminated from 
the delinquent list. 

THE STREET DEPARTMENT. 

It is with great pleasure that we direct your attention To 
the extensive and most excellent work done by the Street 
Department during the past year, under the able and intel- 
ligent management of Mr. J. 0. W. Bischoff, the Superin- 
tendent of Streets. The character of work done and the 
manner of its execution, have elicited most favorable com- 
ments from the tax -payers in general. Much credit is due 
to our able Committee on Streets, who projected the work, 
for the valuable results achieved and to the marked executive 
ability of Alderman George W. Williams, Jr., the zealous 
Chairman of the Committee, for the thorough and satisfac- 
tory manner in which the plans of the Committee have 
been executed. 

A large area of street roadways was paved during the 
year with Belgian granite blocks in the centre, and wings 
of cobble stones on both sides of the granite bloek-pavkng. 
A very considerable amount of flagstone sidewalks for pe- 
destrians was also laid during the same period. 

Stone roadways constructed of Belgian granite blocks, 
with wings of cobble stones on either side, were laid chiefly 
in the following streets, as will be seeri from an examination 
of the report of the Superintendent of Streets : In Calhoun 
street> from Elizabeth to East Bay ; in Cumberland street, 
from State to East Bay ; in Pritchard street, from Concord 
to East Ba} T ; and in Spring street, from Chinquapin to 
Chesnut street. A few yards of granite blocks were also 
laid at the east end of Atlantic street, at the south end of 
Church street, and at the east end of Water street : and also at 
the intersection of St. Philip street with Spring, Calhoun, 
George and Wentworth streets, and on St. Philip street in 
front of St. Patrick's Church. 

The granite blocks were laid, it is to be noted, at the re- 
markably low cost of #1.88 per square yard for labor and 
material ! 



Mayor fflcken's Annual Review. 9 

Wings of cobble stone were also laid along a great extent 
of St. Philip street on both sides of the recently constructed 
Pyrites cinders roadway, as well as along the two sides of 
the granite block roadways laid during the year in Cum- 
berland, Pritchard, Spring and Calhoun streets. The aver- 
age cost of laying the cobble stone was 81 3/20 cents per 
square yard for labor, the material being on hand. 

A very marked improvement lias been made at several 
street intersections by removing the angular corners of the 
sidewalks, and rounding them with a gradual curvature, 
thus widening the roadways at such points and facilitating 
the passage of vehicles from one street to another. ' Nota- 
bly was this improvement effected at the northeast and 
southwest corners of Broad and Meeting streets, at the north- 
east corner of Wentworth and Meeting streets, and at the 
northeast corner of Ru Hedge avenue and Calhoun street, 
and also at Marion Square on the northeast corner of King 
and Calhoun and at the northwest corner of Meeting and 
Calhoun streets. 

A vast improvement to the sidewalks of the city was 
made during the year. In many places the entire width of 
the sidewalk was paved with flag stone. In other streets 
lines of flag stone of the. width of three feet, and in still 
others of the width of four feet were laid. Flagstones were 
laid for the entire width of the sidewalk in the following 
streets: Atlantic street, north side, east of Church street ; 
Cumberland street, north side, east of State street; Calhoun 
street, north side, from Smith street to Rutledge avenue; 
Calhoun street, north side, west of Lucas; Calhoun street 
south side, for a short distance east of King; East Battery, 
west side, north of Water street; East Bay, west side, from 
Tradd street to Longitude Lane; Gendron street, north 
side, east of East Bay ; King street, east side, from 
Broad to Tradd ; King street, east side, from Shepard to 
Line ; King street, east side, from Columbus to Line ; Meet- 
ing street, west side, from Line southwardly nearly to Co- 
lumbus street; Meeting street, east side, from Line toShepr 
ard street ; Pinckney street, north side, from Meeting 



10 Mayor Ficken's Annual Review. 

street to Maiden Lane; Queen street, north side, from 
Church to State street, and from Archdale to Mazyck street; 
Wentworth street, south side, from Meeting to Anson 
street; Wentworth street, north side, from Lynch to Gads- 
den street, and on the south side of Queen street, along the 
premises of the Huguenot Church. Truly an amazing 
quantity of excellent work, greatly needed ! 

Lines of flagstones of the width of four feet, covering the 
sidewalk for that width, were laid on the north side of 
Calhoun street from Rutledge avenue to Lucas street; and 
of the width, of three feet on the north side of Beaufain 
street from Lynch to Gadsden street; on the east side of 
Lynch street from Beaufain to Bull street; on the south 
side of Mary street from King to the South Carolina Bail- 
way Company, and on the same side of Mary street from 
America to Aiken street ; and on the north side of Went- 
worth street from Lynch to Gadsden street. These im- 
provements have been made at an average cost for labor 
and material of 1 8 34 cents per square yard for the entire 
width of the sidewalk, \ti\ cents per square yard for that 
of the width of four kQ\ } and 13f cents per square, yard for 
that of the width of three feet. 

A new style of sidewalk less costly than the flagstone 
work, and very durable, has been laid to a small extent in 
some of our streets. It is made of a concrete, composed of 
crushed stone and Rosendale cement, well rammed, and 
covered with a good coating of Portland cement, It is 
smooth, hard, and apparently lasting, and is very much 
cheaper than flagstone. 

The few wooden plank roads now left in our city, were 
badly damaged by the August cyclone of 1893, especially 
those located in Drake and Columbus streets, but they were 
all promptly repaired. It is to be hoped that the day is not 
far distant when all such, roadways will be removed and 
stone roadways substituted in their place. 

One of the greatest improvements of the year was made 
in St. Philip street, which heretofore consisted simply of 
earth-— dusty in dry weather and boggy during rains. A 



Mayor fflcken's Animal Review. 11 

magnificent roadway, constructed of the cinders of iron 
pyrites, was laid during the year the entire length of St. 
Philip street, from Beaufain to Line street, then eastwardly 
from Line to King street. It has proven, a great success, 
and is used, by many people who go out of their way to 
enjoy a drive over this modern roadway. The average c6st 
of this improvement is 52 7-12 cents per square yard for 
labor and material, a perfect marvel of cheapness! With 
the experience acquired, we are inclined to think it can be 
constructed in the future, at a total cost of from 40 to 45 
cents per square yard. It not carefully graded and curved 
so as to shed water promptly it will wear into holes at cer- 
tain points, but a few spadesfui of the material thrown into 
such holes and properly graded, will always serve to keep 
the road in the best condition. 

The shell road, on Meeting street, north of Line, and a 
short stretch at the west end of Spring street, although 
badly damaged by the cyclone of August, 1893, are again 
in good condition. 

In obedience to the urgent request of the Board of Health, 
a considerable amount of pipe drains were laid during the 
year. These drains were laid principally in America, Bee, 
Charlotte, Lynch, Jackson, Ladson, Mary, Mount, Nassau, 
President, Payne and Simons streets, at an average total 
cost for labor and material of 23 5-6 cents for eight inch 
pipe, 35 6-7 cents for twelve inch pipe, 43 9-10 cents for 
fifteen inch pipe, and 54| cents for eighteen inch pipe. The 
brick drain in Water street, extending from Church street 
to East Battery, was overhauled, and to a great extent re- 
built, and is now in a first-class condition. 

Before the asphalt was' laid on the roadways of East and 
South Battery., a new and complete system ot drain pipes 
were laid under the grass plats, near to the line of dwellings, 
so that they could be easily reached in case of need, without 
disturbing the bed of the new roadways. 

We have generally discarded the use of wooden curbing 
for our sidewalks, and substituted blue;stone instead, We 
have not, however, been able to do this altogether. A 



12 Mayor Fickcnh Annual Review. 

limited amount of wooden curbing was laid during the 
year in Ogier. Hanover, South, Nassau, President, Line, 
Coming, Norman, Duncan, Lucas, Ashton, Shepard, Laurel, 
Percy, and a few other streets. 

Blue stone curbing was laid during the year at the outer 
edge of the sidewalks in Atlantic, Ashley, Calhoun, Coming* 
Cumberland, East Battery, East Bay, Cendron, King, Lynch, 
Mary, Meeting, Montague, Pritchard, Pinekney, Queen, 
Spring. Tradd, Wentworth and Wilson streets. 

During the past year Poinsett street was opened from King 
street to the track of the South. Carolina and C4eorgia Kail- 
road Company. Stewart street was continued to the track 
of the Northeastern Railroad Company, and President street 
was built up and extended southwardly from Doughty to 
Mill street, through low lands hitherto covered by tide 
water. By far the most important work of this character 
undertaken was the opening up and the extension of Cal- 
houn street from its former terminus at the western line of 
the City Hospital lot straight out to within a few feet of 
Ashley River. The West Point Mill Company, which owned 
a large area of land in this locality, conveyed to the city 
a long strip thereof of the uniform width of sixty feet, ex- 
tending through their pond almost to the edge of the river, 
also an additional strip of the same, running southwardly 
from Calhoun street, extended to their warehouses on the 
high ground at their Mill seat, on condition that the city 
authorities would fill up and complete streets thereon. This 
great work is now well under way, and will soon become a 
delightful driveway on Ashley River. These streets are 
being constructed of selected garbage free from animal 
matter, on a soft mud foundation entirely covered by salt 
water, and the deposits are carefully covered with clean 
sand procured from the opposite shore. The Superintendent 
of Streets, Mr. Rischoff, deserves great credit for the skilful 
and successful manner in which this important public work 
is being done. 

In tb is connection, it is earnestly recommended that an 
Ordinance be forthwith passed forbidding the opening of 



Mayor Fickcvis Annual Review. 13 

any new street of less than sixty feet in width, and requiring 
that all new streets designed to run in an easterly and 
westerly direction should extend from river to river. It would 
be a wise proceeding to cause a plat to be prepared, looking 
to the opening of such streets, and to require a close con- 
formity to the streets thereon projected. In this way we 
would secure for our new Charleston wide and beautiful 
streets running from the Ashley to the Cooper River. 

The results accomplished by the Scavenger Department, 
under the intelligent superintendence of Mr. W. M. Ogilvie, 
are worthy of the highest praise. The streets of our city 
have been kept scrupulously clean, and it is gratifying to 
note the fact that their cleanly condition has attracted the 
notice of many strangers who have visited the city, and 
elicited their favorable comment. The new street sweeping 
machine works admirably, and from the rapidity with 
which the work can now be done, secures a thorough clean- 
ing of the streets more frequently than has hitherto been 
the case. 



THE HEALTH DEPARTMENT. 

This department has been conducted with great pru- 
dence, discretion and energy. Sanitary regulations have 
been rigidly enforced, and wholesome precautions looking 
to the preservation of the general health were closely ob- 
served. The report of the Health Officer is both interest- 
ing and instructive, and the suggestions therein contained 
are earnestly commended to your serious consideration. 
The number of deaths from diarrhoea! and kindred diseases 
during the year was large, and it would seem that the 
causes are to a great extent removable. A better sup- 
ply of pure water and an abandonment of the privy 
vault system with its noisome odors would greatly tend to 
remedy this evil. The extension of our new sewerage sys- 
tem will ultimately lead to the rapid removal from the city 
of all sewage matter and its complete destruction at the 



14 Mayor Fickcris Annual Review. 

place of final disposal. In this way one of the most fruit- 
ful sources of disease will be removed. 

During the past summer an opportunity to purchase 
Plum Island at a reasonable cost presented itself, and after 
a conference with members of the Board of Health we 
caused the property to be bid in for the city at a sale by the 
County Sheriff, at the price of four hundred and twenty dol- 
lars. In your wisdom you subsequently confirmed this ac- 
tion.- This property is indeed a desirable acquisition, and 
is well adapted for the location of an hospital for contagious 
diseases. It may be used, however, for other municipal pur- 
poses such as the establishment of a home for harmless im- 
beciles, or a Reformatory School for youthful criminals. 

The future growth of the city will find many uses for the 
property, and it was regarded as a wise measure to secure 
it for the municipality. 

THE REPORT OF THE CORPORATION COUNSEL. 

This report gives an account of the work done dur- 
ing the year by the Corporation Counsel. The adminis- 
tration was confronted with grave questions in the solution 
of which it became necessary to rely in a large measure on 
the interpretation of the law given by the legal adviser of 
the city. The duties devolved upon the police force under 
the provisions of the Dispensary law had to be definitely 
ascertained, and the Corporation Counsel was called upon 
for opinions with great frequency. Indeed no important 
step in this matter was taken until he had been consulted 
as to our duties in the premises. 

The Corporation Counsel has discharged his important 
duties in an eminently satisfactory manner. His opinions 
were full and clear and were given with great promptitude. 

THE TIDAL DRAINS. 

The report of the keeper of the Tidal Drains sets forth 
the cost of this department for the past year. 



Mayor Ficken's Annual Revieiv. 15 

continue to do their work in a reasonably satisfactory man- 
ner, but your attention is again called to the fact that the 
bottoms of these drains arc in a bad state of repair. Being 
constructed of wood they have become greatly worn and 
dilapidated. It is earnestly urged that these bottoms be 
constructed of brick or concrete and built in a curved form. 
A plan should be at once adopted and the work begun. It 
could be prosecuted in instalments from year to year, and 
in a very short while the entire system could be reconstruc- 
ted. These drains have done more for the health of 'our 
city than all other causes combined. They have greatly 
lowered the water level, and since their construction some 
forty years ago the City of Charleston has been almost en- 
tirely free from the epidemics of yellow fever which prior to 
that time visited us with appalling frequency and regularity. 
It is proposed at an early day to create the office of su- 
perintendent of Sewers, so that the new separate system of 
sewerage may be under a proper supervision, and in that 
event it is earnestly recommended that the office of tidal 
drain keeper be abolished at the close of the present incum- 
bent's term of office, and his duties devolved upon the Su- 
perintendent of Sewers. 

DEPARTMENT OF CHARITIES. 

The affairs of our City Orphan House, as will be seen 
from the very satisfactory report of the Board of Commis- 
sioners, are in an excellent condition. The School is doing 
good work and the pupils are carefully trained for their du- 
ties in life. The accomplished and efficient principal, 
Miss Irving, continues to manage this cherished Institution 
with signal ability and success. 

The Sbirras Dispensary did good service during the past 
year. Its usefulness is generally recognized, and a vast 
amount of relief has been administered through its instru- 
mentality to thQ deserving poor who have learned to appre- 
ciate its value. The reports show the character and extent 
of relief furnished. 



16 Mayor Fickcns Annual Review. 

The City Hospital is one of our most useful institutions 
It has been well managed under the able and conscientious 
supervision of our excellent Boardof Commissioners. Capt. 
DuBos, the superintendent, has rendered faithful service. 

The department of the Hospital known as the Riverside 
Infirmary is kept in a first-class condition, and has been 
well patronized during the current yeai\ It is under the 
care of Miss Nora Pruitt, whose skill and devotion to her 
duties have in no. small degree contributed to its success. 
The report of the commissioners is worthy of your careful 
examination and study. During the year the Board pur- 
chased from the West Point Mill Company a small strip of 
land adjoining the Hospital grounds which is a great addi- 
tion to the property, giving an increased frontage on the 
navigable creek which constitutes a part of its boundary. 

The worthy charity dispensed at our city Alms House 
has furnished food and a home to a large number of our 
poor people. In addition to this, rations have been sup- 
plied to a good many outside pensioners. The annual re- 
port of the Board which shows the amount of receipts and 
expenditures is commended to your careful consideration. 

The Wm. Enston Home is in a highly satisfactory con- 
dition. The cottages are in a good state of repair and the 
grounds are neatly kept. Here old age is indeed made 
" comfortable," and it is believed that this is done in a 
manner which would receive the cordial approval of the 
great-hearted philanthropist to whose generosity our com- 
munity is indebted for this grand charity. The annual ac- 
count oi the trustees sets forth all receipts and expendi- 
tures. 

The account of the trustees of the Wm. Enston Annui- 
tants' Fund, shows the present state of this Fund, and also 
the items of receipts and expenditures for the year. As is 
well known this fund is set apart and held by three trus- 
tees in order to provide from the income thereof for the an- 
nuities which are directed, by the late William Enston in 
his last will and testament, to be paid to the parties therein 
named. Upon the death of the last annuitant the entire 



Mayor Ficken's Annual Review. 17 

fund will be paid over to the trustees of the Wm. Enston 
Home to be used in the erection of additional cottages and 
otherwise expended for the benefit of the Home. This 
fund amounts to about two hundred thousand dollars in 
good securities. 

The report of the commissioners of Public Lands sKows 
that the Ashley River Asylum lias been prudently man- 
aged during the past year. The inmates of this Institution 
are aged persons of color. They find at this Asylum food 
and shelter and enjoy the comforts of a pleasant home. A 
few colored orphan children have also been supported in 
the Asylum. It is earnestly recommended that you seri- 
ously consider the establishment on a small scale of an 
Orphan Asylum for colored children of our city. It could 
be made for the present an annex to this Institution. 

THE FIRE DEPARTMENT. 

The report of the Board of Firemasters states the cost of 
supporting the department for the year 1894. The Board 
have been unwearied in their attention to the responsible 
duties which devolve upon them. The administration of 
Capt. 0. G. Marjenhofr, the energetic chief of the depart- 
ment, has been characterized by vigor, intelligence and 
good results. 

On the 14th April, 1894, the Board of Firemasters and 
our entire community suffered a sad loss in the death of 
Air. B. Markley Strobed, who for fifty-seven years had been 
connected with the Fire Department of Charleston. At the 
time of his death he was in the seventy-sixth year of his 
age and it is believed that lie had been in active service 
for a longer continuous period than any other fireman in 
the entire United States, For several years prior to his 
death lie held the position of Secretary to the Board of Fire- 
masters, the duties of which office he discharged with great 
accuracy and fidelity. Descended from an old German 
Colonial family, who were among the early settlers of the 



18 Mayor Fichens Annual Review. 

State, he inherited and practiced in daily life the sterling 
virtue? which characterized his ancestors. A man of strict 
integrity, conscientious in the discharge of duty, and- faith- 
ful to the trusts committed to his care, lie was indeed a 
model citizen, and enjoyed the esteem of all with whom r he 
came in contact. 

THE POLICE DEPARTMENT. 

The duties which devolved upon this department during 
the year ealled for the exercise of great tact, forbearance 
and courage. The able and indefatigable chief, Capt, 
J. Elmore Martin and his staff of capable lieutenants, as well 
as the entire force, deserve high commendation for the 
manner in which they discharged their respective duties 
under very trying circumstances. A ceaseless war was waged 
upon lotteries and gambling of every species, and vigorous 
efforts were continuously made to enforce such portions of 
the State Liquor Dispensary law, as under the Act of the 
Legislature it was made the special duty 7 of the Municipal 
Police to enforce. 

The improvements made to the property situate on the 
north-east corner of King and Hudson streets, which was 
purchased for the use of the department, have been of in- 
est i suable benefit to the service. The main building fronting 
on King street is in a bad state of repair, however, and 
needs attention. It is respectful!} 7 suggested that the top 
story he taken down and that the structure be converted 
into a two-story building. The lower story could be used 
as a Court room for the City Court, and the upper story as 
an office for the Recorder. 

THE PUBLIC MARKET. 

The annual report submitted by the Clerk of the "Market 
sets forth the revenue derived from the Public Market. 
The increasing number of green groceries operates to di- 
minish the income which the Market has heretofore yielded. 



Mayor Ficken's Annual Review. 19 

The situation is such as to demand your careful considera- 
tion. Many of the stalls are now unoccupied, and the space 
taken up by the empty stalls might be otherwise used with 
greater advantage to the public. It has been suggested. 
that the small market Rouse situated between Anson and 
State streets should be removed, and the space which 'it 
occupies be converted into a park, thus affording greater 
facilities for the passage of vehicles from Anson across 
Market into State street. Before this proposition is acted 
upon, the grant of the Market lands should be carefully 
examined in order to ascertain whether the changes sug- 
gested are permissible, 

REPORT OF THE HARBOR MASTER. 

This report is commended to your careful perusal. It 
shows the extent of our shipping interests and indicates in 
a limited degree the volume of our foreign business. 

Col. James Armstrong, the Harbor Master, continues to 
discharge in a most satisfactory manner the duties of his 
office, and the able and intelligent Board of Harbor Com- 
missioners have given their close attention to the important 
matters committed to their care. 

The work of increasing the depth of water on the bar at 
the mouth of our harbor has been vigorously continued 
under the skillful supervision of Capt F. V. Abbot, of the 
Corps of United States Engineers. The depth already at- 
tained has attracted the attention of foreign shippers and 
augurs well for the complete success of the undertaking. 
The stone jetties have been strengthened during the year 
and a vast amount of dredging has been done- 

THE CITY HALL. 



It presents a shabby appearance outwardly and would be 
greatly improved by a coating of .'cement, which would 
serve to conceal the cracks caused by the great earthquake 



20 Mayor Fickens Annual Review. 

of 1886. The crack near the lop of the wall on the extreme 
southwest corner of the building has not widened of late, 
but the condition of "the wall at this point requires atten- 
tion. 

The office occupied by the City Treasurer is too small 
and contracted for the great volume of business which is 
annually transacted therein. The projection immediately 
north of this office could be extended about fifteen feet 
without marring the proportions of the building, and in 
this way additional office room for the Treasury Department 
could be obtained. This improvement would also furnish 
a room in the story above in the rear of the City Court- 
Room, which is needed as a jury room. 

PARKS AND PLEASURE GROUNDS. 

White Point Garden, or Battery Park, has again been put 
in complete order, and no longer shows any of the effects of 
the- great cyclone." It would be a decided improvement to 
this resort if the general level of the grounds could be 
raised, and it is to be hoped that this may be done in the 
near future. 

The work of filling Cannon Park to a higher level has 
been pushed with great energy during the year. That por- 
tion fronting on Lynch street, which was purchased by the 
present administration, added to what the city previously 
owned, will make a beautiful and attractive resort whem 
raised and properly graded. Alderman R. S. Catheart, the 
zealous chairman of the committee on the pleasure grounds 
of the lower wards, has given much of his time and attention. 
to the supervision of this work, and we are indebted to his 
exertions and the earnest co-operation of his committee for 
the progress which has been made. It will be remembered 
that this property when purchased by the city was rather 
a low area of ground, and needed considerable filling to fit 
it for use as a park. 

Hampstead Mall and Wragg Square have had the care- 
ful attention of Alderman L, E. Williams, the chairman of 



Mayor flicken y s Annual Bedew. 21 

the committee on the pleasure grounds of the upper wards, 
and his colleagues of the committee. 

The other parks of the city have been neatly kept and 
furnish attractive pleasure resorts for the residents of their 

respective vicinities. 

THE BATTERY IMPROVEMENTS. 

A brilliant achievement of the year, and one to which 
we refer with great pride, is the vast improvement made at 
the Battery, the favorite pleasure resort, of our people. The 
restoration of the High Battery was a necessary work. The 
cyclone of August, 1893, had completely demolished this 
splendid promenade from its extreme northern limit at the 
junction with East Bay street to its extreme southern point 
where it unites with the southern sea wall. All of High 
Battery that remained unharmed after the storm was its 
outer or sea wall, which is constructed of granite and which 
has withstood many a severe storm. High Battery had been 
badly broken up by the cyclone of 1885, and was restored 
at that time. The great flagstones which constitute its 
walk were then laid for the first time. There was, 
however, no support for these heavy stones along their east- 
ern lines, where they connect with the sea wall. The sand 
filling upon which they rested, and which occupied the 
space' between the outer and inner walls, was supposed to 
have been support enough. When the water arose in the 
storm of 1898 and washed around the base of the inner wall 
along East Battery, that wall was soon undermined and 
overthrown. The sand was washed out from between the 
inner and outer walls, and the great flagstones fell into the 
cavity below. In restoring this work the inner wall has 
been widened and completely rebuilt in the most substan- 
tial manner. It has been so constructed that as, hereto- 
fore, it supports the western ends of the great flagstones. 
An entirely new wall of concrete has been constructed 
along the inner face of the granite sea wall up to a point 
within a few inches of the top of the latter wall, thus furn- 



22 Mayor Fickeh's Annual Review. 

ishing a substantial, and, as experience proves, a necessary 

support for the eastern or outer ends of the great flagstones. 
The space below has been filled with broken brick and sim- 
ilar debris and it is hoped that this beautiful promenade will 
never again yield to the power of the storm. Four double 
flights of stone steps were placed at suitable points along the 
western face of the inner wall of High Battery, thus furn- 
ishing easy access to the promenade from the asphalt road- 
way. This work was commenced in the winter of 1893 by 
Mr. Colin McK. Grant, and completed by him early in the 
spring of 1894, under the supervision of Mr. J. H. Dingle, 
the City Surveyor. 

As soon as this necessary improvement was finished we 
undertook the important work of constructing on East Bat- 
tery and South Battery roadways a splendid driveway of 
sheet asphalt laid on a concrete foundation of the thickness 
of six inches. This work is the first asphalt roadway ever 
laid in our city. It was done by the Warren-Scharf Asphalt 
Paving Company at a cost of $2.56 per square yard, under 
a five years guarantee. The work thus done on the 
two roadways measures 12,152 square yards; When 
we recall the rough and unsightly condition of the 
old driveway of sand and shell which have now disappeared 
forever, we may with good reason congratulate ourselves 
upon the magnificent transformation which has converted 
our Battery into one of the most attractive parks in the 
country, 

A substantial concrete sidewalk was laid on both sides of 
South Bay street from King to its extreme west end, thus 
affording a fine promenade bordering on the Asphalt road- 
way. The sidewalk on the south side of the street nearly 
opposite to King street, was widened .and an ugly jag there- 
in removed. But these vast improvements speak for them- 
selves and it is unnecessary to do more than briefly refer to 
them. 



Mayor Fichenh Annual Review. 



THE NEW PARK:. 

Nothing that lias been done for our City in recent years 
with the exception of the commencement by this adminis- 
tration of the new separate sewerage system, can exceed in 
importance and permanent worth the establishment of the 
new park on Cooper River. It has been our constant aim 
and desire since our induction into office, to procure for 
Charleston a public park of ample area and convenient lo- 
cation. Many sites have been examined by us, but none 
has so well answered the purposes in view as that which 
has been purchased. Measuring some five hundred and 
seventeen acres it is of ample proportions. Situated at a 
distance of about three miles north of the present City lim- 
its it affords a pleasant drive to those who would seek its 
shades. All of the railroads which enter oar City pass 
within a few yards of its gateway on the State road, making 
it of easy access to those who have not the command of 
vehicles. Possessing a fine water front and a commanding 
view of the harbor it can be approached also by the River 
route. Nearly all of the parks which have been opened in 
recent years in the larger cities of this country are located 
at considerable distances beyond the municipal limits. In 
this way pleasant drives are opened up and the area of the 
City is at the same time gradually extended. 

The spot selected for our park is one of the most beauti- 
ful on the Carolina coast. Its cost — eleven thousand dol- 
lars — is comparatively speaking but a small sum, and in 
making the purchase an opportunity has been embraced 
which is seldom presented. Much however remains to be 
done to develop the park, and it must be done gradually 
and in accordance with a carefully prepared plan. 

A competent landscape gardener should be employed to 
lay out the park and prepare plans for its development. 

It is earnestly recommended that America street which 
now extends a little beyond Magnolia Cemetery, at which 
point it is known as Huguenin Avenue, be continued north- 



24 Mayor Ficlccn's Annual lievieio. 

wardly until it enters the park. The street should be 
widened into a broad avenue of at least one hundred feet 
in width thus affording a splendid boulevard or driveway 
for our people. This is greatly needed. 

We shall submit for your eonsideration at an early da}' 
a Bill providing for the creation of a Board of Park Com- 
missioners to whom shall be entrusted the important work 
of opening up this boulevard and developing this park, as 
well as the duty of caring for the other pleasure grounds of 
the City. 

THE NEW SEWERAGE SYSTEM. 

By fa) 1 the most important work undertaken by our ad- 
ministration, was the commencement of the construction of 
the new separate system of sewerage. Nothing to be con- 
ceived of is fraught with such vital consequences to the 
health and prosperity of our City as a properly constructed 
system of sewerage which will conve} r away promptly and 
rapidly from our homes the domestic wastes that heretofore 
have been allowed to accumulate in our privy vaults and 
drywells to the incalculable detriment of the public health. 
For many years we have been confronted with this problem. 
Previous administrations have given time and thought to 
its solution. It was believed that our City was too low and 
fiat to admit of being properly sewered, and it was feared 
that our water supply was inadequate. In the face of such 
difficulties we undertook to grapple with this important 
matter. 

As will be remembered the first step taken was to secure 
a proper survey of the City in order to determine with ac- 
curacy the grades and levels. Capt. E. F. Hartford C. E. 
of Atlanta, Ga,, was employed to do this work, and it was 
carefully and accurately done. He furnished a map on an 
enlarged scale showing the grades and levels in all of the 
streets of the City. This enabled the sanitary engineer to 
have all of the facts needed in the study of our case. 

As soon as this work was completed Capt. Hartford was 



Mayor Ficken's Annual Review. 25 

employed to furnish plans and specifications for a complete 
system of sewerage and sewage disposal for our City. These 
were furnished in due course and submitted to Mr. 'Samuel 
M.Gray of Providence, R. I., a Civil Engineer of national 
reputation. The plans and specifications for the sewerage 
system as submitted by. Capt. Hartford were approved by 
Mr. Gray and adopted by our committee on sewerage. 

It was thought that as Capt. Hartford had prepared the 
plans, it would be a wise and proper step to retain his ser- 
vices to supervise the construction of the work. Satisfac- 
tory arrangements were accordingly made with him, and 
the great work of constructing the system was begun in 
November last, with the purpose in view of completing du- 
ring the season the system in the two sewer districts em- 
braced in the area south of Broad street. 

Thus has been inaugurated a work which must redound 
to the vast benefit of our City, and which could not with 
safety be longer delayed. The City has been divided 
off into a number of sewer districts each of which can be 
separately sewered and each when completed becoming a 
part of one harmonious whole. In this way the great work 
can be gradually constructed without borrowing money or 
increasing our taxes. It has been the practice for some 
years to devote the proceeds of a two mill tax to the perma- 
nent improvement of the streets. Let this wise practice 
continue and by devoting one-half of the said proceeds to 
the surface of the streets, and the other half to the new sew- 
erage system beneath the surface of the streets, the useful 
and' necessary work can be continued without imposing 
any additional burdens upon the taxpayers of our City. 

Before commencing the construction of the system, speci- 
fications were carefully prepared, and estimates were called 
for. Several bids were submitted but they were all rejected 
under the advice of our engineers who urged that the work 
be done 'by the City by day's labor. Our engineers were of 
the opinion that we could secure better work in this way. 
Besides tins the item of extra work which was sure to be 
encountered bv reason of the existing net work of old drains 



26 Mayor Ficken'i Annual Review. 

was a hidden obstacle. This extra work was an unknown 
and unknowable quantity which might swell the contractors' 
estimates into undue proportions. For this reason it was 
determined to construct the system by day's work under 
proper supervision, and the result will. prove that it was a 
wise conclusion. 

In respect to the adequacy of the water supply we 
are assured by experts that the present supply of water fur- 
nished by the Water Company is amply sufficient for that 
part of the system which will occupy the entire area south 
of Wentworth street. It is calculated that within the area 
now being sewered south of Broad street, more than two- 
thirds of the premises are already supplied with water 
works yielding a sufficient supply. It will only be neces- 
sary that such premises shall be connected with the new 
system, and it will readily be seen that no additional 
supply of water will be needed for them. "When the 
system shall be constructed as far as Wentworth street 
more water will be required and then we will be forced to 
obtain an additional supply. This difficulty however 
should not deter us from continuing the great work. 
More water can and must be obtained. 

The community is under lasting obligations to Dr. T. 
Grange Simons the able Chairman, and to his intelligent 
colleagues of the Committee on Sewerage for the great work 
winch in part has been completed. • 

EDUCATION. 

The educational facilities afforded our people are most 
excellent. The splendid system of common schools con- 
tinues to do very valuable service. The special tax levied 
for the support of these schools has of necessity been high- 
er of late than heretofore, bat as the repairs and improve- 
ments which made the increased tax indispensable have 
been completed, it is expected that a corresponding reduc- 
tion in the tax levy will be made. 

The High School is doing excellent work. The building 



Mayor Ficken*s Annual Review. 27 

is taxed to its utmost capacity to furnish room for the 
pupils and increased space is greatly needed. You have 

very wisely set apart for three consecutive years an annual 
appropriation of four thousand dollars thus creating a fund 
■with which to construct an annex to the School building. 
The accumulation is now sufficient to defray the cost o'f 
erecting the proposed annex to the main school building, 
and the Board of Trustees are arranging for its early con- 
struction. This improvement is much needed and when 
completed will be a valuable contribution to the cause of 
education. 

Our private schools and seminaries are doing first class 
work, and sustain the reputation of our City as an educa- 
tional center. 

The College of Charleston continues to do a very necessary 
work in our community, and furnishes at small cost a col- 
legiate education to many who. otherwise would be deprived 
of so great a blessing. During the year the west wing of 
the College Building was rebuilt. It will be remembered 
that this wing was completely demolished in 18S6 by t)ie 
earthquake. Although the cost of the restoration of the 
wing was paid for out of funds belonging to the college, 
possibly the work could not have been undertaken but for 
the fact that the City Council has of late resumed the 
granting of an annual appropriation towards the support of 
the College. 

The South Carolina Military Academy is in a flourishing 
condition, and although the State has temporarily reduced 
the amount usually appropriated for its support the full 
curriculum is maintained and the Academy is well patron- 
ized. 

The Medical College of the State of South Carolina is 
attracting an increasing number of students. Its able and 
zealous faculty are men of great public spirit, and their 
sacrifices in behalf of the College, have done much towards 
placing it on the high plains which it occupies. 

We gladly embrace this opportunity to again, express our 
cordial thanks to Mr. L. N. Jesunofsky, the Local Forecast 



28 Mayor Fickcn's Annual Review. 

official of the U. S. Weather Bureau at this port for the val- 
uable services which lie continues to render our community 
in furnishing a monthly statement of averages of Tempera- 
ture, .Precipitation of Rain, and wind directions and veloci- 
ties, as well as in promptly and effectively conveying to 
the people at large notice of weather changes and the 
approach of storms. 

Respectfully submitted , 

JNO. F. FICKEN, Mayor. 



Financial Department. 29 



CITY TREASURER'S REPORT. 



CITY OF CHARLESTON, S. C, 

Treasury Depa^tv^nt, 

January 22, 1895. 

To the Honorable Mayor and City Council 

of Charleston, S. C: 

Gentlemen : I respectfully submit herewith the Annual 
Statements of this Department for 1894, as follows: " Cash 
Transactions of the Treasury Department, 5 ' of " Trustees 
Orphan House Funds," of "City College Fund," of ".Commis- 
sioners Sinking Fund,''' and of " Commissioners Sinking Fund, 
Forfeited Lands," all properly signed as " examined and. 
found correct " by the respective Committees'. 

Very respectfully, 

J. O. LEA, 

City Treasurer. 



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1691928 



Final i c ia I Departm cut. 






Cash Transactions City College Fund, from January 
1st, 1894, to December 81st, 1894. 



RECEIPTS. 

To Appropriation Account: 

Appropriated by City Council for cur- 
rent expenses $2,000 

" Interest A c c o u i i t : 

12 months interest on 875.500, 4 per cent. 

City Bonds... 63,020 

12 mouths interest on 123,000, 5 per cent. 
Stock 1,150 4,170 $0,170 

EXPENDITURES. 

By Amount paid Jacob Williman, Treasurer, by order of 

Chairman...... - $6,170 

ASSETS. 

4 per cent. City Bonds $75,500 

5 per cent, City Stock..... ' 23,000 

K espectf nlly submit! ed , 

J. O. LEA, 

City Treasurer. 
Examined and found correct. 

CHAELES EC. SIMOOTOtf, 

President .Board Trustees, 

■ College of Charleston. 



• ; 



30 Mayor Fichais Annual Review. 

Cash Transactions of the Commissioners of the Sinking 
Fund, from January 1st, 1894:, to December 31st, 
1894 



RECEIPTS. 

To balance from last annual statement $16,931 97 

" Appropriation Account: 

From h mill tax collected to December 

31st, 1894 £10,972 93 

" Interest Account : 

Interest on 4 per cent. Bonds purchased 518 00 11,490 93 

§28,422 90 

EXPENDITURES. 
By Stock Account : 

698 City Stock $98 00 $98 00 

" Bond Account : 

$200, 7 per cent, bonds due October 1, 

1893 . 200 00 

' $10,500, 7 per cent, bonds due October 1 , 

1894 10,500 00 

$18,500, 4 per cent, bonds 16,456 00 27,156 00 

" balance 1,168 90 



$28422 90 



Statement : 



7 per cent, bonds due October 1,1893, 

purchased during the year $200 00 

7 per cent, bonds due October 1, 1894, 

puichased during the year 10,500 00 

4 per cent, bonds purchased during the 

-year 18,500 00 $29,200 00 

Cancelled and destroyed ,. 29,200 00 

' City Stock purchased during the year... 98 00 

Cancelled 98 00 

Cash : 

This fund had January 1,1894. $16,931 97 

•Interest Account 518 00 

Received from the I mill tax 10,972 93 $28,422 90 

Expenditures ; $27,254 00 

Balance 1,168 90 $23,422 90 



Respectfully submitted, 

J. O. LEA, 
City Treasurer. 
Examined and found correct. 

II. BAER, 
Chairman Com. \V. and Jf. 



Financial Department. 87 

Cash Transactions of the Commissioner's Sinking Fund 
(Forfeited Lands), from January 1st, 1894:, to 
December 31st, 1894. 



RECEIPTS. 

To balance from last annual statement.... $824 32 

" Interest Account $12 94 

" Arrears State Taxes 15 20 

" State Taxes 1 43 

" Expense Account. .... 13 37 42 94 

$S67 26 

EXPENDITURES. 

By State Taxes, 1S93 133 81 

" balance 733 45 $367 26 



ASSETS. 

Personal Bonds $211 50 

Cash 733 45 

January 1st, 1894, there were on hand 35 pieces of 

properly, assessed © $18,450 00 

Settled during the year 1804, one piece assessed 300 00 

Unsettled December 31st, 1894, thirty-four pieces, 

assessed © $18,150 00 

Respectfully submitted, 
J. O. LEA, 

City Treasurer. 
Examined and found correct. 

H. BAER, 
Chairman Com. W. dk M 



88 Mayor Ficlcen's Annual Review. 

Cash Transactions of the Trustees Orphan House 
Funds and Estate, from January 1, 1894;, to Decem- 
ber 31, 1894 



RECFIPTS. 

To balance from last annual statement $335 81 

" Stock Account : 

Interest on deposits 5 64 

" Interest Account : 

12 months interest on 533,000, 4f per cent. 

State Stock $1,485 00 

6 months interest on $333.78, 44 

per cent. State Stock 7 51 $1,492 51 

12 months interest on $177,900* 4 
percent. City Bonds 7,116 00 8,008 5.1 

$8,949 96 

EXPENDITURES. 

By Stock Account : 

1*333.78 4£ percent. State Stock $311 45 

" Interest Account : 

Amount paid over to City 8,603 51 $.8,949 96 

ASSETS. 

4 percent. City Bonds...., ; $177,900 00 

4^- per cent, State Stock 33,333 78 

Respectful! y su omitted, 

J. O. LEA, 

City Treasurer. . 

Examined and found correct. 

GEO. W. WILLIAMS, 

CK'n Commissioners O. II. y 
and Trustee O. II Funds and Estate. 



City Assessor's Ilipori 39 



CITY ASSESSOR'S REPORT. 



Assessor's Office, City Hall. \ 
Charleston, S. C, December 31st, 1894. \ 

2o the IloRoralle 'Mayor and City Council, 

of Charleston, S. C. 

Gentlemen: I have the honor to submit raj Annual 
Report of this Department, for the fiscal year ending Decem- 
ber' 31st, 1891:. 

The assessed value of Real and Personal Property returned 
for taxation, is as follows : 

Real Estate 816,085,232 

Personal Property 0,636,770 

Total $23,322,002— @21 Mills $489,762 04 

As compared with the assessments for year 1893, the fol- 
lowing differences are shown ; 

Real Estate—increase $ 94,093 00 

Personal Property — decrease ..' 424,835 00 



Total decrease for 1894, as compared with 1893,. ........8330,742 00 



The amount of Regular applications issued for Licenses is. ..,.$91,147 50 



The amount of Licenses assessed is .-. $5,770 00 



The amount of Penalty assessed is $.2,885 00 

As compared with the Regular Licenses issued for year 
1893, the decrease is $7,011 00. 

The gain on Real Estate is accounted for by new buildings 
and improvements, upon which a partial increased assessment 
of £91,093 has been made against an estimated cost of 
$300,100. 

The loss on Personal Property is caused mainly by the 



40 Mayor Ficken^s Annual Review. 

reduced returns of Merchants and Liquor Dealers who have 
had to close out that branch of business under the State Dis- 
pensary Law, and of Banks for investments in new LJ per 
cent. State Bonds, exempt from taxation. 

The decrease in amount of Licenses is in consequence, of 
the provision in the State Dispensary Law, which forbid the 
issue of Liquor License. Otherwise the amount of licenses 
issued would show an increase over that of previous year. 

The amount expended for the erection of .New Buildings, 
and Old Buildings improved, exceed that of year 1893, 
$73,255. 

The following Permits have been issued : — for 

New Buildings 134 Permits Reported cost, £236/250 00 

Old Buildings Improved, 104 *• .. •■ ■; 09,850 00 

Total, 233 " " " §306,100 07 



A detailed statement showing the number of Permits 
issued in the different Wards accompanies this Report, to 
which I refer. 

The record of the sales of Real Estate during the year, con- 
tinues to show an advance over Assessments. 

312 pieces, assessed for 8636,445, sold for $919,84-5, an ad 
vance over assessments of -44.53 per cent. 

A statement showing the comparison of Assessments with 
Sales in the different Wards, and the, general average in the 
City is also attached to this Report. 

I have continued a statement furnished with former 
Reports of a recapitulation of the Assessments and Hates of 
Taxation for years 1S70 to 1894, inclusive, to which I invite 
your attention, as a matter of comparison. 

Accompanying this Report, I beg to send the following- 
annexed statements : 

All of which is respectfully submitted. 

TO. AIKEN KELLY, 

City Assessor. 



City Assessor's Report. 41 

A. 

Statement of the Description and Value of Personal 
Property .Returned for Taxation for Year 1894. 

1364 Horses and Mules......... $ 100,435 

250 Cows..., 7,485 

824 Gold raid Silver Watches and Plate 01,594 

476 Piano Fortes, Melodeons and Cabinet Organs 38,315 

415 Carriages, Buggies, &c 31,710 

014 Wagons, Drays, Carts, &e.. 36,855 

525 Dogs , ; 5,850 

Merchandise, Money and Credits pertaining to business 

of Merchants..'. 1,799,258 

Materials, Machinery, Engines, Tools and Fixtures of 

Manufacturers 922,002 

Moneys, Bank Bills and Circulating Notes on hand or 

deposit, and all Credits 387,902 

Receipts of Insurance Agencies 436.771 

Receipts of Express, Telegraph and Telephone Com- 
panies 32,043 

Returns of Banks, 1,311,580 

Returns of Phosphate Companies 107,188 

Stocks and Bonds of all other Companies, Corporations 

and Persons 825,921 

Vessels, Boats and other Floating Property 107,840 

All other Property, including Household Furniture 386,821 

Total value of Personal Property $6,636,770 

TO AIKEN KELLY, ' 
City Assessor. 

Charleston, S. CI, ."December 31st, 1894. 



42 Mayor FicherCs Annual Review. 

B. 

Statement of the .Retuexs of Heal and Personal Pro- 
perty Assessed foe City Taxes foe Years 1891, 
1892, 1893 and 1894 



1891. 

Ilea) Estate .....$14,878,430 

Personal Property 6,55 1,601 

Total Real and Personal $21,4 33,031— © 22 Mills $ 471,52 6 6S 

1892. 

Real Estate.. $14,960,926 

Personal Property 7,026,196 



Total Real and Personal . $21,987,1 22—© 22 Mills $483,716 68 

As compared with Assessment for 1891 : — 

Gain on Real Estate is .$ 82,496 

Gain on Persona) Property is...... 471,595 

$ 551,091 
Total Gain for 1892, as compared with 1891.... .$554,091 00 

1893. 

Real Estate $16,591,139 

Personal Property 7,061 ,605 



Total Real and Personal. $23,652, 744—© 23 Mills $5 44,0 13 31 

As compared with Assessments for 1892 : — 

Gain on Real Estate is $1,630,213 

Gain on Personal Property is....... 35,409 

$"1,665,622 
Total Gain for 1893, as compared With 1892 -ii^M^ 

Total Gain for 1893, as compared with 1891 ..$ 2,219,713 

1894. 

Real Estate $16,085,232 

Personal Property 6,636,770 

Total Real and Personal..... .$23,322,002—© 2] Mills $4 89,762 04 

As compared with Assessments for 1893 : — 

Gain on Real Estate is $ 94.093 

Decrease on Personal Property is... 424,835 

Total Decrease for 1894, as compared with 1893 '^^±'°JA1 

Total Gain for 1894, as compared with 1891 .$1,888.971 



WM. AIKEN KELLY, 

City Assessor 
Charleston, S. C, December 31st, 1894. 



City Assessors Report. 



43 



C. 

Applications fob Lioenp.es Issued by City Assessoe for 

Yeah 1804. 



BUSINESS. 



@ 



Amount. 



CLASS 1. 

Agencies or Companies, each- 
Academy of Music, Theatre or Opera 

House . . . . 

Bagging Manufacturing Companies, 

each ,. .... — 

Banks, Stale or Savings, those whose | 

capital and surplus exceed $100,000 I 
Those whose capital and surplus j 

exceed 150,000 I 

Those whose capital and surplus are I 

under $-50,000.. 

Breweries or Agencies of Breweries, 

each, »....| 

Building and Loan Associations, each ' 
Cotton Manufacturing Companies, 

each . . .. 

Express Companies or Agencies, each 

Electric Light Companies, each 

Oil Refineries, each 

Ferry (other than steam) Companies 

or Agencies, each 

Gas Com pani es. each 

Fire and Life Insurance Companies 

or Agencies, whose business is less 

than §1,000, each, ........ 

Those whose business exceeds $1,000, 

but is less than $2,000 I 

.Those whose business exceeds $2,000, i 

but is less than $3,000. [ 

For each addition'.! $1,000 or fractional j 

pa rt of $ 1 .000 of busi ness, each @$1 0: j 

9@$160; 7@$I70; 5@$180; 2@$190; 

1©$210; 2@S220; 2@S240; 1(^250; 

]®$260;2@$320; 1@$430; 1@$500; 
Insurance Companies, other than 

Fire and Life, whose business is 

$2,000 or less 

For each additional $1,000 or frac- 
tional part of $1,000 of business, 

'■ each, @$5..... 

Mercantile Agencies— Dun's, Brad- 



street's an 



hers, each 



Phosphate Eock Mining or Manufac- 
turing Companies or Agencies, 

• each, also Fertilizer Companies or 
A genci es , each • 



1? 
1 
5 
2 

7 



200 

500 
250 
200 
150 

100 

50 

500 

500 
500 

75 

10 
500 

50 
100 
150 



50 

55 
150 

50< 



Total, 



200 
500 

1,250 
400 

1,050 

500 

800 

500 

500 

500 

76 

10 

500 

1,450 

I 

1,700 

1,350 

7,120 
350 

110 

300 

5,500 i 



44 Mayor Fickerts Annual Review. 

Licenses Issued 189 _. — Continued. 



BUSINESS. 





@ 


Amount. 


Total. 


Railroad Companies each 


3 

2 
6 
1 
1 

4 

r> 
O 

2 

1 

o 
2 

1 

2 

1 

1 

2 


$ 500 

200 
25 
500 
150 
200 
50 

150 

150 

50 

500 

500 

500 

500 
250 

5C0 


>} 1,500 

400 
125 
500 
150 
800 
150 

300 

150 

100 
1,000 

500 

1,000 

500 
250 

1,000 




Railroad Ticket Agencies, being all 
persons buying or selling Railroad 
Tickets, other than authorized 
agents. of Railroad Companies, each 

Rent Agents or Collectors of Rents or 
other ciaims, each. 

Steamship (regular lines) Agencies or 
Companies, each 




Steam Ferry Boat Agencies or Com- 
panies, each 




Steam Cotton Press, where one is 
located and worked, each 

Steamboat Companies or Agencies, 
for each Steamboat 




Steamship (other than regular lines) 
Companies, Consignee or Agencies, 
each , 




Steamship (other than regular lines) 
and Sailing Vessels combined, 
Companies or Agencies, each 

Sailing Vessel Companies or Agen- 
cies each 




Street Railway Companies, each 

Telephone Companies or Agencies, 
each... 




Telegraph Companies or Agencies, 
each for business done exclusively 
within the City of Charleston, and 
not including any business done to 
or from points without the State, 
and not including any business 
done for the Government of the 
United States, its officers or agents. 

Terminal Warehouse Companies or 




Water Works Companies, each 

Kerosene Oil Companies or Agencies, 
each ., 


$33,090 00 


CLASS 2. 




Auctioneers Real Estate Brokers, 
Brokers of Stocks, Bonds and other 
personal property, at auction or 


2,0 


75 


1,500 


1,500 00 


CLASS 3. 










Artists, Ambrotypists, Paguerrean or 
Photographist, each 


6 


25 


75 


75 00 



Oily Assessor's Report. 

LlCEK S E S Is S U E D ISO 4 . Co N TIN U ED. 



45 



BUSINESS. 



CLASS 4- 

Architects, Civil Engineers or Sur- 
veyors, each , 

CLASS 5. 

Brokers, Pawn, each..... 

Brokers, dealing in Chemicals, Ferti- 
lizer Materials, &c 

Brokers, in Rice 

CLASS 6. 

Bankers, who are all persons or firms 
other than banks, buying and sel- 
ling domestic or foreign exchange, 
or discounting notes or other evi- 
dence of d ebt, each, ........ ........ 

CLASS 7. 
Billiard or Pool Tables, for each table 

CLASS 8. 

Boarding Houses or Hotels- 
Other than Sailor, having less than 

10 rooms, each 

Other than Sailor, having 20 and less 

than 50 rooms, each 

Those having over 100 rooms 

CLASS 9. 

Bakeries, Steam, each 

Bakeries, other than Steam, each 

CLASS 10. 
Barbers, for each chair 

CLASS 11. 
Bill Posters and Distributors, each. .. 

CLASS 12. 
Butchers, for each stall ,. 



71 



20 







Amount. 



Total. 



150 



10 

50 
100 



501$ 



GOO 

400 

150 



>0 00 



qQ 



100 

100 



000 



2.50 



177,50 



80 



1,150 00 



450 00 



•5 00 



100 



250 00 



675 00 



'7 60 



80 00 



100 00 



46 



Mayor Ficken's Annual Review, 
Licenses Issued 1894. — Continued. 





o 

■St* 

6 








BUSINESS. 


@ 


Amount. 


Total. 


CLASS 13, 










Builders, Master Mechanics & Work- 










men of all trades and employ- 










ments not specially named else- 










where — 










Those employing not over ten hands, 










each........: 


13 


% 25 


5 325 




Engravers, each .... 


1 


10 


10 




Gunsmiths or Locksmiths........ 


4 


10 


40 


S 375 00 


CLASS 15. 




Oi reuses, each 


1 


500 


500 


•500 00 






CLASS 16. 






Cook-Shops, each... 


12 


10 


120 


120 00 


CLASS 18. 











Owners of Steam Tags, for each Tug.. 


1 


25 


25 


25 00 


CLASS 19. 






Dye Houses, each 


2 


10 


20 


20 00 


CLASS 20. 






, 




Dealers who arc all Persons, Firms 










or Companies, buying or selling 




















dise — 










Green Grocers, or Dealers in Fresh 










Meats, (sold elsewhere than in the 










market) on production of receipt 










for one year's rent of stall in the 










market, in advance, each , 


29 


100 


2,900 




Other Dealers in Fresh Meats sold 










elsewhere than in the market, and 










not Green Grocers, and who are 










not required under the provisions 










of this Ordinance to take out any 










other license... 


2 


150 


300 


3,200 00 






CLASS 21. 






Dealers in Upland Cotton, or Rice in 










Tierces, or its equivalent in barrels 










'Those buying or selling less than 










5,000 packages, each 


20 


100 


2,000 





Oily Assessor's Report. 
Licenses Issued 1894.— Continued. 



47 



BUSINESS. 



Those buying or selling 5,000 pack- 
ages, and less than 8,000 packages, ] 
each J 

Those buying or selling 8,000 pack-! 
ages, and less than 15,000 packages, j 
each 

Those buying or selling 15,000 pack- 
ages, and less than 20,000 packages, i 
each :....! 

Those buying or selling 30,000 pack- 
ages or more, each 



CLASS 22. 

Dealers in Sea Island Cotton or Long 
Staple Cotton— 

Those buying or selling less than 
1 ,000 pack ages, each 

Those buying or selling 1 0C0 pack- 
ages, and less than 2,500 packages, 
each ...'. 



CLASS 23. 

Cotton Pickers or Buyers and Pacl 
ers ofloose Cotton, each...... 



CLASS 24. 

Agents for or Dealers in Sewing 

Machines, each 

Agents for or Dealers in Bicycles...... 



CLASS 25. 

Importers and Dealers in Fertilizers, 
Cotton Seed Meal, Kainit, Guano. ! 
Phosphate Rock, Marl, Lime, and j 
all or any other like articles used 
or or sold as Fertilizers, or which , 
are used for manufacturing Fertili- 
zers — 

Those selling over 5,000 tons, each 

CLASS 26. 

Dealers in Books and Pictures, on 
streets, or canvassers for same. 



@ 

$ 200 1$ 

300 

350 
500 




Tot An. 



400 

600 

1,050] 
500 I 4,550 00 



500 



10 



300 00 



150 00 



175 00 



500 00 



50 00 



48 



Mayor Ficken's Annual Review. 
Licenses Issued 1894. — Continued. 



BUSINESS. 



1 c 




<D 




M . 






@ 


° 




1 ?< 





CLASS 27. 

Dealers in Horses and Mules, each.... 
Cattle Yard, Sale or Stock Yards, 

each 

Stables, Public or Livery, each 

CLASS 28. 

Dealers, whose Stock never exceeds 
in value the sum of $50, each 

CLASS 29. 

Dealers in Naval Stores — 
Those buving or selling not over 

10,000 packages, each 

Those buving" or selling not over 

20,000 packages, each 

CLASS 30. 

Dealers in Hides and Tallow, Furs, 
and Wool, each 

Dealers in Ice, Oil, Coal, etc. from carts 
or wagons on street, for each cart 
or wagon, exclusive of cart license- 
Dealers in Ice, from branch Ice 
houses, each. 

Dealers in lec or Ice house, each 

Dealers in Ice Cream, or Ice Cream 
Saloons... 

Dealers in Junk, retail, each... 

Dealers peddling goods around the 
city, per week, each 

Dealers in Soda Water sold from 
founts, and Milk Shakes, each 

Dealers in Poultry, Fish, Vegetables 
or Fruit, on street, per month, each 

Dealers in Poultry, Fish, Vegetables 
or Fruit, in market, each 

Dealers retail, in Second-hand Cloth- 
ing only 

CLASS 31. 

Dealers in Coal or Coal Yards, and 
alt importers of Goal, (except such 
as imported directly by officials 
or mechanical, manufacturing or 
industrial enterprises for use for 



7$ 



19, 



4 
8 

41 

25 

265 

4 

1 




50 

150 

50 

10 

10 
100 

15 

50 

5 

10 
1 



100 

100 S 550 00 



970 970 00 



150 

150 



50 

40 

230 
300 

60 

150 

205 

250 

265 

20 

35 



300 00 



1,005 00 



City Assessor's Report. 
Licenses Issued 1894. — Continued. 



49 



BUSINESS. 



such establishments) and all per- 
sons selling Coal from wharves or 
vessels shall be deemed liable to a 

Coal Yard license, each 

Dealers, commercial brokers, who 
sell only on brokerage or on com- 
mission here, each broker or recog- 
nized firm of brokers, not exceed- 
ing two members 

CLASS 32, 

Dealers in Poultry and Country Pro- 
duce, and any and every other 
article of trade or merchandise not 
specially named elsewhere in this 
Ordinance, whose annual sales do 
not exceed §2,000, each 

Whose annual sales are over $2,0$) 
and less than 85,000, each.. 

Those whose annual sales are over 
^ $5,000 and less than $10,000, each... 

Those whose annual sales are over 
$10,000 and less than $15,000, each 

Those whose annual sales are over 
$35,000 and less than $20,00.0, each 

Those whose annual sails are over j 
$20,000 and less than $30,000, each 

Those whose annual .sales are over j 
$30,000 and less than $50,000, each! 

Those whose annual sales are over | 
$50,000, for each additional 81,000 \ 
1@$102; 1©$110; 1@S115; 2(a 8120; | 
3@$125; 1(S>$130; 2@$150; 1©$160; 
1(F:S172; 2(gS200; 20*300; 1@$350; ' 
1@$400 



CLASS 33. 



Fairs, Promenade Concerts, Parties, | 
Public Balls, Glass Blowing, Operas, I 
Minstrels, Panoramas, and every ' 

other kind of public entertainments 
of a like nature, per day or night, 
each ... 

CLASS 3-1. 

.Founderies and Machine Shops whose I 
gross business docs not exceed 

$75,000 , 

A 




20 



354' 
68 

41 
17 
13 

15 



10 



19 



22: 



Amount. 



Total 



4 $ 100 $ 



20 

30 
35 
50 
GO 
75 
100 



400 



500 $ 900 00 



7,080 
2,040 
1,435 
850 
7S0 
1,125 
1,600 



,454 



1,135 



150 



18,364 00 



1,135 00 



50 



Mayor Fickcn's Annual Review. 
Licenses Issued 1894. — Continued. 



BUSINESS. 



o 




Those whose gross business does not 
exceed $100.000 



CLASS 35. 

Factories — 
Basket or Crate Factories operated b> 

power other than hand, each 

Bag (oilier than paper) Factories, 

each 

Barrel Factories operated by hand, 

each 

Barrel Factories operated by power 

other than hand, each. 

Cigar Factories, each..... 

Candy Factories, each 

Cotton Tie Factories, each....' 

Cotton Tie Buckle Factories, each..'... 

Clothing Factories, each 

Harness Factories, each 

Mattress Factories, each 

Shirts and Underwear Factories, each 
Sausage (by steam) Factories, each... 

Sash and Blind Factories, each ,. 

Soap and Candle Factories, each 

Soda Water Factories, and bottlers of 

Soda Water, each 

Factories canning Vegetables, Fruits, 

Fish or Oysters, each 

Ice Factories, each 

Paper Box or Envelope Factories, 

each 

Vinegar Factories each 



CLASS 36. 
Gasiitters and Plumbers, each. 



Laundries, steam each.... 

Laundries, Washing and Ironing 
Houses, each.... 



CLASS 39. 



Lumber Yards, Lumber Ponds other 
than those attached to mills, each.. 



Tot a l. 



100 


$ 100 


50 


50 


100 


200 


50 


50 


100 


100 


10 


50 


15 


105 


10 


10 


10 


20 


15 


15 


15 


45 


15 


45 


15 


15 


• 15 


15 


40 


160 


15 


J 5 


25 


75 


10 


10 


50 


50 


20 


20 


15 


15 


25 


200 


50 


100 


25 


200 


CO 


00 



$ 250 00 



1,065 00 



200 00 



'300 00 



B0 00 



Oity Assessor's Report. 
Licenses Issued 1894. — Continued. 



51 



BUSINESS. 



CLASS 40. 

Lawyers, Physicians, Dentists, Chem- 
ists— 

Whose gross business does not ex- 
exceed $600, each 

"Whose gross business does not ex- 
ceed, $1,600, each 

Whose gross business does not ex- 
ceed $o,000 j each 

Whose gross business does not ex- 
ceed 55,000, each 

Whose gross business exceeds $5,000, 
each..., 

Veteri nery Surgeon e, each 

CLASS 41. 
Marble Yards, each 



CLASS 42. 

Mills, Flour, each 

Mills, Grist, other than horse power, 

each ". 

Mills, Grist, horse power, each 

Mills, Planing, each 

Mills, Saw, each 

Mills, Rice, doing a business of $5,000 

tierces and under, each 

Mills, Rice, those doing a business of 

10,000 tierces and under, each 

Mills, Spice or Coffee, Sea Foam, Self- 

Raising or Prepared Flours, as 

special business, each 



CLASS 43. 

Newspapers, daily, morning.. 

Newspapers, dai 1 y , a ftern oon 

Newspapers, worked by hand, each... 

Printing Offices, Job..." 

Printing offices, Job, hand power, 
each, 



CLASS -14. 
Resta urants, each . . . . 



o 






® 


G 





Amount. 



55 


$ 10 


22 


25 


11 


50 


4 


75 


o 
1 


100 
20 



19 



20 



50 

30 
10 
00 
60 

100 

250 

20 



150 
75 
25 
50 

15 



30 



550 

550 

550 

300 

200 
20 

80 



50 

90 
10 

60 
120 

100 

250 

20 



150 
75 
50 

200 

45 



Total 



$ 2,170 00 



80 00 



'00 00 



520 00 



570 570 00 



52 



Mayor Fickerfs Annual Review. 
Licenses Issued 1894-. — Continued. 



BUSINESS. 



CLASS 40. 
Stevedores, each 



CLASS 47. 

Tailors and Merchant,Tailors — 
Those employing not over three 

hands........ 

Those employing more than three J 

and less than ten hands, for each 

hand employed 

Those employing ten hands and over 
Tailor Shops and Merchants 

CLASS 48. 

Undertakers whose business does not 
-exceed $1.000 

Undertakers whose business does not 
exceed $2,000, each, 

CLASS 49. 

Vehicles, carts, used for business pur- 
poses, (including farm and phos- 
phate carts) Trucks or Wagons, 
Drays. Hacks — 

Drawn by one horse, each 

Drawn by two horses, each....... 

Coaches, Omnibusses, drawn by two 
horses, each 

Buggies and Carriages, drawn by one 



Buggies and Can 
horses, each... 



drawn by two 



CLASS 51. 

Ware-housemen and wharfmen who 
are all persons, firms or companies, 

receiving any article of trade or 
merchandise on storage., either on 
wharves, wharf warehouses, build- 
ings, or stores, in any part of the 
city, or who have piers or wharves 
used for landing or shipping of 
goods from vessels— 
Whose gross receipts do not exceed 



937 
40 

5 

3 

22 



Whose gross receipts do not exceed 
$20,000. each | 1 



Amount. 



G$ 50 



15 



50 



50 



300 



90 



175 
50 



§ 300 00 



'10 00 



225 00 



9,370 

sooj 

150 
30 
440 10,790 00 



150 



225 

150| 375 00 



Oily Assessors BcporL 
Licenses Issued 1894. — Continued. 



5S 





a 








BUSINESS. 


o 


@ 


Amount. 


Total. 


CLASS 52. 








* 


Wheelwright and Blacksmith Shops- 










Wheelwright, one forge, each 


i 


% 10 


% 70 




Wheelwright Shops, for each addi- 












1 


5 






Blacksmith Shops, one forge, each 


18 


10 


180 




Coach, Carriage and Buggy makers 












2 


25 


50 


% 305 00 






CLASS 53. 






Wood Yards (all parties having paid 










for wood yard licenses and licenses 










for carts, shall have the privilege of 










offering wood in the streets with- 










out the addition of a huckster's 










license, provided, however, the 










names of the owners of such carts 










be painted thereon,) each 


10 


30 


300 




Dealers in Wood, other than keep- 










ers of regular wood yards, who sell 










from a stock on hand, shah, in 










addition to the wood cart license, 










pay, each 


1G 


15 


240 


540 00 


Special Licenses- 








1,026 00 


Total Classified and Special Licenses 


$91,147 50 



WM. AIKEN KELLY, ' 
City Assessor 
Charleston, S. C, December 31st, 1894. 



54 



Mayor FicJjen's Annual Review. 
D. 



Assessed -Returns fob Licenses Turned over to City- 
Treasurer for Year 1894. 



BUSINESS. 



m. 



CLASS 1. 

Phosphate Rock, Mining or Manu- 
facturing Companies or Agencies. 
each ; also, Fertilizer Companies 
or Agencies, each 

Sailing Vessel, Companies or Agen- 
cies , each 



CLASS 2. 

Auctioneers, Real Estate Brokers,! 
Brokers of Stocks, Bonds, and other! 
persona] property at auction or! 
private sale, each ..: 

CLASS 4. 

Architects, Civil Engineers or Sur- 
veyors, each 



CLASS 5. 



Brokers, Street... 
Brokers, in Rice. 



CLASS 9, 
Bakeries, other than steam, each, 

CLASS 10. 
Barbers, for each Chair 

CLASS 12. 
Butchers, for each Stall 



CLASS 13. 

Builders, Master Mechanics and 
Workmen of all Trades and Em- 
ployments not specially named 
elsewhere — 

Those employing not over ten hands, 
each , 



13 



© 



Amount 



500 
50 



2,50 



2| 25 



500 
50 



20 



05 



Total. 



City Assessor^ Report. I 

Assessed Returns for Licenses for 1894 — Continued. 



BUSINESS. 



CLASS 16. 



Cook Shops, each , 

CLASS 20. 

Dealers, who are all persons, firms, 
or Companies, buying or selling 
any article of trade or merchan- 
dise — 

Green Grocers or dealers in Fresh 
Meats (sold elsewhere than in the 
Market), on production of receipt 
ior one year's rent of Stall in Mar- 
ked in advance, each 



CLASS 27. 

Dealers in Horses and Mules, each.. 
Cattle Yard, Sale or Stock Yards,each 

CLASS 28. 



Dealers, whose stock never exceeds 
in value the sum of $50, each. 






CLASS 30. 



Ice 



Dealers in Ice, from branch 
House, each. 

Dealers in Ice or Ice House, each 

Dealers in Ice Cream or Ice Cream 
Saloons 

Dealers in Junk, retail, each... 



Dealers in Poultry, 
Fruit in Market 



Fish, Vegetables, 
each 



CLASS 31. 

Dealers in Coal or Coal Yards, and 
lair importers of Coal (except such 
as imported directly by officials or 
mechanical, manufacturing, or in- 
dustrial enterprises for use of such 
establishments), and all persons 
selling Coal from wharves or ves- 
sels, shall be deemed liable to a 
Coal Yard license, each 



@ AMOUN' 



10 



20 



100 



50 
100 



200 



150 
100 



10 

100 

15 

50 



100 



100 

30 
50 



100 



Total 



20 



200 



250 



25 



205 



5G Mayor Ficken's Annual Review. 

Assessed Returns foe. Licenses foe 1894 — Continued. 



BUSINESS. 



' f-v-J 




g S 




^ K2 


® 


*^ 





Amount 



TOTAL 



Dealers, Commercial Brokers, who 
sell only on Brokerage or on Com- 
mission here, each Broker or rec- 
ognized firm of Brokers, not ex- 


5 


25 


125 


225 






CLASS 32. 






Dealers in Poultry and Country 
Produce, and any and every other 
article of trade or merchandise not 
specially named elsewhere in this 
Ordinance, whose annual sales- 
Do not exceed $2,000, each.... 

Whose annual sales are over §2,000 

and less than £5,000, each 

Those whose annual sales are over 
5,000 and less than $10,000, each 


! 

13 
2 

1 


20 
30 
35 


260 
60 
35 


355 


CLASS 35. 
Factories- 
Harness Factories, each 

Mattress Factories, each 

Sausage (by hand) Factories, each 


2 
1 
1 


15 
15 


lo 
5 


50 


CLASS 36. 










Gasfitters and Plumbers, each 


2 


25 


50 


50 


CLASS 40. 










Lawyers, Physicians, Dentist, Chem- 
ist — 

Whose gross business does not exceed 
$600, each 


20 


10 


200 


200 


CLASS 44. 




Restaurants, each 


2 


30 


60 


CO 


CLASS 47. 




Tailors and Merchant Tailors- 
Tailor Shops, not merchants 


1 


5 





5 


CLASS 40. 
Vehicles, Carts, used for business 
purposes (including farm and phos- 
phate carts), Trucks or Wagons, 
Drays, [ lacks- 
Drawn by one horse, each 


1 


10 


10 


10 







City Assessor's Report. 57 

Assessed Returns fok Ltcicnses foe 1894 — Continued. 



BUSINESS. 



fw r-< 




•^ 05 




3 cc 


@ 


wfl 





Amount. 



Total, 



CLASS 52. 










Wheelwright and Blacksmith Shops, 










Wheelwright, one forge, each 


8 
1 


10 
10 


80 
10 




Blacksmith Shops, one forge, each... 


90 


CLASS 53. 










Wood Yards fall parties having paid 










for Wood Yard Licenses and Licen- 










ses for Carls, shall have the privi- 










lege of offering wood in the streets 










without the addition of a Huck- 










ster's License ; provided, however, 










the names of the owners of such 










Carts be painted thereon,) each.... 


1 


30 


30 




Dealers in Y ood, other than keepers 










of regular Wood Yards, who sell 










from a stock on hand, shall, in 










addition to the Wood Cart License, 










pa v, each , 


5 


15 


75 


105 


CLASS 25— A. 










Dealers in Wines, Cider, Brewed or 










Malt Liquors — 










Retail dealers, each.....,.,.. 


29 


100 




2900 






Total Assessed Licenses 




$5,770 


Penalty 50 per cent ... 








2,885 
$8,655 


Total Assessed Licenses and Penalties 









WM. AIKEN KELLY 



Charleston, S. C,, December 31st, 1894. 



City Assessor 



58 



Mayor Ficlcen's Annual Review. 
E. 



Statement of the Number 



OF 



Permits Issued for New 



Buildings, and Old Buildings Improved, 
Year 1894 



FOR 



the 



NEW BUILDINGS. 
134 Permits. Reported cost, $236,250. Distributed in the City as follows: 
Permit. Reported cost $ 



Ward 1... 

Ward 2 3 

Ward 3 17 

Ward 4 7 

Ward 5 .....13 

Ward 6 7 

Ward 7 7 

Ward 8 11 

Ward 9 3 

Ward 10..... 1(3 

Ward 11 19 

Ward 12 31 



47,500 
18.300 
12,300 
31,950 
19,000 
12,800 
20,650 

2,000 
1 3,900 

7,400 
43,250 



Total 



.134 



$236,250 



Classified as follows : 

Store Frame 1 Reported cost 

Stores and Dwellings combined "8 ■• •■ 

Warehouse..... Brick 1 

Physician's Office...... ". 1 

Saw Mill Frame 1 

Photograph Studio Glass and " 1 

New Bridge, Ashley River.... 1 

College annex Brick 1 

Schoolhouse Frame 1 

Library .Brick and Stone 1 

Church Frame 1 

Sunday-school.... Composite 1 

Dwellings Brick and Stone 2 

Dwellings ,...,. Composite 1 

Dwellings.... ...Frame 112 



Total permits 



,134 



... $5,000 


... 13.000 


... 3,500 


... 1,400 


500 


... 1,500 


... 30,000 


... 7,000 


... 1,200 


... 7,000 


... 1,000 


... 5,000 


... 48,000 


... 2,000 


... 110,150 


...§230,250 



City Assessor's Report. 



OLD BUILDINGS IMPROVED. 



101 Permits. Reported cost, $60,850. Distributed in the city as follows 
Ward 1 7 Permits. Reported cost % 5,600 



Ward 2 4 

Ward 3 7 

Ward 4... 9 

Ward 5 8 

Ward 6..:.. 17 

Ward 7 ~6 

Ward 8 7 

Ward 9 2 

Ward 10 6 

Ward 11 23 

Ward 12... 8 



4,800 
18,200 

7,000 , 

3,325 
17,600 

2,500 

2,175 
700 
900 

5,800 

1,250 



Total 104 



$00,850 



TOTAL OF NEW BUILDINGS AND IMPROVEMENTS. 

New Buildings-... .........134 permits. Reported cost $230,250 

Old " Improved. ..104 " - " 69,850 



Total 238 



... 306,100 



WM AIKEN KELLY 



City Assessor 



Charleston, S. C, December 31st, 1894. 



CO Mayor jFickertfs Annual Review. 

F. 

Comparison of Assessments with Sales of Real Estate 
for Year 1894. 



WARDS. 



Ward 

Ward 

Ward 

Ward 

Ward 

Ward 

Ward 

Ward 

Ward 

Ward 

Ward 11 

Ward 12 



o » 



i^P, 



11 
20 
24 

27 
25 

29 
27 i 

la 
36 
36 
43 ! 



Amount of Amount of j Advance over 
Sales. Assessments. I Assessments. 



$76,475 
41,070 
211,620 
116,875 
87,920 
96,870 
65,690 
60,410 
17,410 
41,035 
80,455 
23,115 



Totals .....312 



$919,845 



$48,910 
25,015 

158,700 
92,370 
57,205 
63,430 
39,100 
39,190 
12,285 
31,375 
52,620 
16,245 

$630,445 



$27,565 

16,955 

52,920 

24,505 

30,715 

33,440 

26,590 

21,220 

5,125 

9,660 

27,835 

6,870 



$283,400 



Per 

Cent 



56. 36 
67.78 

33.35 
26.53 
53.69 
52.72 
6S.01 
54.15 
41.72 
30.79 
52.90 
42.29 



296 Pieces sold above Assessment..... ^5£d:^i!? 

Amount' of Sales $867,895 

Amount of Assessments 578,465 

Per Cent, of Sales over Assessments 50.03 

16 Pieces sold below Assessments $6,030.00 

Amount of Assessments.... $57,980 

Amount of Sales 51,950 

Per cent, of sales below Assessments ..." ...11.60 



¥1. AIKEN KELLY, 



Charleston, S. C, December 31st, 1894 



City Assessor. 



City Assessor's Report. 



61 



G. — Assessments and Rates of Taxation for Years 
1870 ro 1894, Inclusive. 



Year 



Assessments 



Total 

Assessments 



Rale 



i Corporation 



Tax 



1 Q7fl f Real $ 22,935,5*9 

J.O / U [ personal 8,195,928 

1R71 /'Real...... 8 18,6-52,5,% 

XCW L\ Personal | 8,895,575 

1 Q79 J Real 8 I8,923,3')5 

J.O / -6 | j personal 9,292,091 

1 Q7Q--J 'Real |8 18,9/4,720 

J.O / O j Personal i 9,001.271 

-t 07 J f Real ....]§ IS 122,810 

±0/ -±| Personal. .... . 8,538,824 



IX/o Real $ 18,216,064 

*-'->( 0\ Personal j 8,141,172 

LQ-ia \ 'Rea^ ! $ 18,805,480 

°^ u l Personal j 9,000,990 



-1 077 j I Real 

lo/ / j personal 

1 Q7Q f Real 

i-O/ O j ! Personal 



S 18,699.023 
7,922,155 



* 18.313,450 
8,008,403 

S 17,137,255 
6,272,457 



1879}: IS ^c; 

IRRfU Real I? 15,017,595 

iOOU l Personal I 6,555,S04 



15,182.845 
7,244,212 



1 QQ1 f Real 

lOO±j Personal 



IQQOf (Real $ 15,320,855 

• LOC, - , l Personal 7,925,082 

1 &£'-}) Real « l g S 575 

±OOD j personal 7,419,784 



1 QQ II (Real !5 16,246,865 

1004 1 i Personal 8,180,216 



1 OO.-c / Real $ 16,753,760 

±000 j personal j 8,138,153 



1 fiQft J Real 'S 16,933,565 

i000 | I Personal j 7,S09,212 

1887{§Sfc= 

1888 -! 



1889 { 



Real 

Personal. 



Real 

Personal 



IftOQi Real 

10JU I j Personal. 



$ 11.221290 
7,290,912 



14,527,350 
7,012,205 



8 14,726,565 
6,699,087 

S 14,800,000 
6,586,539 



1.QQ1 { Real 3 14,878,430 

-* ^' x - ( Personal j 6,551,001 

1 ( Q()0 f Real k 14,960,926 

l — v I Personal I 7,026,196 



lS<m H ™ ] 3 16,591.139 i 

Jt - ' J hPersonttl I 7,061,605 I 

1894UK;y o - VS ; :; 



o'o.'iii'vTO 



§ 32,131,477 

8 27,.54S,1G0 

$ 28,215,396 

$ 27,978,991 

8 26,661,634 

8 26,357,236 

8 27,806,470 

8 26,591,778 

8 26,321,853 

S 23,409,712 

8 21,573,-159 

$ 22,427,057 

5 23,245,967 

§ 23,274,359 

8 24,433,081 

8 24,891,913 

8 24,742,777 

8 21,512,202 

8 21,569,55-5 

8 21,425,052 

S 21,386,589 

8 21,433,031 

8 21,987,122 

8 23,652,741 
,322.002 



2 percent. 
2 percent. 
2 percent. 
I1V0 P er cent, 
2>£ per cent. 
2}^ per cent. 
2 per cent, 
234 per cent. 
-M P er cent. 
2 percent. 
2^2 per cent. 
234 per cent. 
2*4 per cent. 
2% per cent. 
2 percent. 
2 percent. 
1% per cent. 
2 percent. 
23% mills. 
23 mills. 
23 mills. 
22 mills. 

22 mills. 

23 mills. 
21 mills. 



Rate 
School Tax 



1% mills. 
\% mills. 
\% mills. 
\% mills, 
l^mills. 
1% mills. 
l mill. 
114 mills. 
)]4 mills. 
1 % mills. 
13^ mills. 
1% mills. 

1 mill. 
1% mills. 
1^2 mills. 
1J4 mills 
lj^ mills. 
IK mills. 
\% mills. 
iy z mills, 
114 mills. 

2 mills. 
2 mills. 



Charleston, s. C, December 31st. 1894. 

\VM. AIKEN KELLY, City Assessor 



62 Mayor Fiekerts Animal Review. 



REPORT OF CITY SHERIFF. 

Office of City Sheriff,- 
Charleston, $. C, January 1st, 1895. 

To the Honorable the Hay or and Aldermen 

of the Only of Charleston : 

Gentlemen : I respectfully submit the following report 
of the business of this office^ for- the year ending December 
31st, 1894. 

Very Respectfully, 

City Sheriff. 



Taxes Collected by the City Sheriff During the Fiscal 

Year Ending December 31st, 1894. 

collection in months. 

January— Tax 18908,.,.... % 2 13 

•• 1891 12G 38 

- 1892 546 25 

■• 1893 : 1,532 08 £2,207 44 

February " 1890 76 40 

•• 1891 : 50 10 

" 1892 , 79 80 

" 1893 , 1,142 49 1,354 79 

March - 1S90 5G 70 

" 1891 226 57 

•• 1892 151 20 

- 1893 1,012 51 1,440 OS 

April " 1890 25 19 

- 1891 ... 112 72 

- 1892 220 39 

•• 1893 1,014 07 1,378 07 



Report of City Sheriff. 



03 



May Tax 1890. 

- 1891. 

" 1802. 

- 1S93. 



80 


00 


88 


00 


159 


0G 


380 90 



June, July, Aug — Tax 1892.. 
- 1893. 



Se p tern'r-- Tax 1892. 
•• 1893. 



October 



1892. 

1S93. 



150 04 


.. 2 344 


51 






. 302 


23 


600 


18 


388 


60 


437 


88 



November- 1891. 

•• 1802. 

" 1893. 

" 1894. 



December •• 18.50. 

•• 1891. 

. ;•"' 1892. 

■• ' 1803. 

- 1894. 




707 96 



2,494 55 



962 41 



826 48 



3,206 18 



3,369 14 
§17,954 00 



School Tax Collected. 

January — For year 1891 $ 

* " 1892 

- 1893 



February 



Mareb 



April 



1890. 
1891. 

1S92. 
1893. 

1S90. 
1891. 

1892. 
1S93. 

1888. 
1889. 
1890. 
1891. 
1892. 
1S93. 



9 


21 


38 


66 


130 


19 


6 


48 


3 


83 


4 


22 


100 98 


3 


88 


6 


71 


11 


14 


88 82 


5 


22 


4 


52 


6 


32 


5 


43 


19 


70 


75 


92 



$178 06 



115 51 



110 55 



117 11 



64 



AFayor Fichu's Annual Review. 



May For year 3891. 
•• 1892. 
" 1S93. 



June, July, Aug. — For year 1892. 
.. * .. lg03i 



Septem'r— For year 1892. 

•• 1893. 



October 
November 

December 



1892. 
1893. 
1891. 
1892. 
1893. 
1894. 

1890. 
1891. 
1892. 
1893, 

1894. 



6 


00 


7 


54 


33 


12 


10 


23 


172 


33 


26 


46 


29 


61 


21 


32 


35 


93 


5 


58 


72 


56 


117 


27 


54 


97 


4 


37 




54 


21 


70 


87 


29 


157 


89 



Amount collected in this office during the year 1894 for 
Licenses..... 



46 60 



•182 56 



56 o: 



57 25 



250 38 



271 79 



TotaL 



$1,385 94 

$3,535 00 

•522,874 94 



KECAPITCLATIOX, 



Taxes of 188S collected in 1894. 

." " 1889 , 

.. .. 1S90 .. .. .. 

- - 1891 

•■ - 1892 ■ . 

- " 1893 

" - 1894 , 



5 22 

4 52 

318 97 

736 09 

3,759 14 

12,031 27 

2,434 73 

License Tax collected in 1894 3,535 00 



$22,874 9^ 



Respectfully submitted , 

GLENlS r E. DAYIS, 

City Sheriff. 



Report of the Corporation Counsel. 



REPORT OF THE GORPORATIOI COUNSEL 

Charleston, S. C, January 2nd, 1895. 

To the Tlvnoralle the Mayor and Aldermen 

of the City of Charleston^ S. (J.: 

Gentlemen : I respectful]}' submit my report as Corpora- 
tion Counsel for the year ending December 31st, 1891. • 

In the month of September, 1894, 207 tax executions for 
the year 1892, aggregating say $12,719, and 447 tax execu- 
tions for the year 1893, aggregating, say §25,500, were turned 
over to me by the City Sheriff for collection. 

As to Tax Delinquents fob the Year 1892. 

The Statutory paramount lien for the year 1892 having 
expired, there was nothing to be done save to institute ordi- 
nary actions at law for the delin cpaent taxes of that year. 
All cases within its jurisdiction were sued in the City Court, 
and judgments in 112 cases, aggregating $5,753.37, have been 
therein obtained and entered up. Executions in all of these 
cases have been placed in the hands of the Sheriff. 

Thirteen cases being above the jurisdiction of the City 
Court, were brought in the Court of Common Pleas for 
Charleston County, and six judgments, aggregating $1,312 
were obtained and entered up in that Court. Upon these 
judgments the sum of $2,381.37 has been collected. There 
has, therefore, up to the date of this report, been collected, 
of cases turned over to me for 1892, the sum of $8,134.74 ; 
and there are now pending and in process of collection, 33 
cases. Wherever the taxpayer was unable to pay all at one 
time, but made a payment on account, and agreed to pay 
by monthly instalments, they were allowed to do so, and thus 
save Court expenses ;— their cases, however, are pending, and 
can at any time be pressed to judgment. To recapitulate ; 
Alh the 272 cases for the year 1892 have been sued. The 
difference between that number and the number of judgments 



CO Mayor FicfarSs Anniial Review. 

obtained is accounted for, 1st, by settlements made with the 
Sheriff by defendants after suit brought; 2nd, by Sheriff's 
returns of no/b est inventus ; 3d, the cases still pending ; 4th, 
by cases in which judgments were rendered in favor of 
defendants, who satisfied the Court that they were not liable 
for the tax as assessed against them ; and 5th, cases in which 
the property had been sold under State tax executions. 

Tax Delinquents for the Year 1893. 

As stated above, 447 tax executions for 1893, aggregating, 
say $25,51*0 were placed in my hands in September, 1894. 

Of these, 214 cases were brought in the City Court, by 
reason of the fact that they either represent taxes on personal 
property, or if on real estate, were for amounts too small to 
justify examinations of title and voluminous proceedings in 
equity, as hereinafter explained. In these smaller cases, 40 
judgments, aggregating $592.80, have been obtained and 
entered up, and 63 cases are now pending. 

There is no authority in the Charter of the City, or in any 
of the Acts amending it, to sell real estate under tax execu- 
tions issued by the City Treasurer; to obtain authority 
to sell, it is necessary to obtain a judgment for the tax, and 
issue an execution from a Court. A judgment at law, how- 
ever, constitutes a lien on real estate, only from the date of 
its entry, and does not take precedence over other liens of 
record. In view of this, the Legislature, in 1878, vested the 
City Council with power and authority to make taxes on real 
estate, a lien for the space of two years, paramount to all 
other liens, except taxes imposed by the State. Pursuant to 
this authority, Section 101 of the General Ordinances, makes 
such taxes a paramount lien (except as to taxes imposed by 
the State) for the term of two years from the levy of the tax ; 
but neither the Statute nor the Ordinance provides the 
method by which the lien shall be established. In the 
absence of such special legislative direction, the only means 
for the enforcement, of the paramount lien thus given, is 
through the Court of Equity. 



Report of Hie Corporation Counsel. 67 

When the tax executions for 1893, were placed in my hands, 
the two years paramount lien had not expired, and, of course, 
it was of the utmost importance to preserve and enforce it. 
To accomplish this, it was necessary that a separate action, in 
each case, on the equity side of the Court of Common Pleas, 
should be at once instituted ; to which action, all persons 
interested in the property, including mortgagees, "judgment 
creditors, etc., should be made parties. To do this, the public 
records as to each piece of property, had to be examined, and 
in many cases the same taxpayer owned a number of pieces of 
property, encumbrances on each piece of which had to be 
separately searched for. 

There were 233 cases of this kind to be brought before the 
two years lien expired, ami at my request his Honor, the 
Mayo]', authorized the employment of Messrs. F. J. Devereux 
and Henry A. DeSaussure to assist in the work. By means 
of this efficient help, 87 cases have already been instituted, 
and all the cases will have been put in suit before the two 
years' lien expires. Up to tin's date §4,052.75 have been 
collected on account of these equity suits — as the cases 
progress, the collections will be much larger. 

Twenty-five decrees in Equity were obtained at the l\ovem- 
ber Term, 1894, of the Court of Common Pleas, and sales 
thereunder were advertised by the Master. In all except two 
of these cases the parties settled with the Master before the 
day of sale ; and in the two instances in which sales were 
made, so far as I am advised, there is no contention that the 
said sales do not confer good title on the purchasers. The 
sales were allowed to take place, because by reason of the 
liens on the property the parties felt that they had no further 
interest in it. 

At the ensuing February Term of the C. C. P. decrees will 
be taken in all the pending cases. 

At the date of the last report of the Corporation Counsel, 
there were two cases pending in the Supreme Court of the 
United States. The first was the case of Mrs. Doris Werner, 
which, having been decided, on the law points, in favor of 
She City by the Supreme Court of the State, had been 



08 Mayor Ficlceiis Annual Review. 

removed, by writ of error, to tlie Supreme Court of the 
United States. A motion was then pending to quash the 
writ of error. Tin's motion has since been decided in favor of 
the City, and the case is now in the Circuit Court (C. C. P.) 
for trial on the merits. 

The second, was the case of the Postal Cable Telegraph 
Company. This was a test case to decide whether this Com- 
pany was liable to the License Tax imposed by the City ; 
and by agreement, the tax for 1S92 and 1S03 of the Western 
Union Telegraph Company, as well as of the Postal Tele- 
graph Company, were to abide the decision. The case was 
argued in the Supreme Court of the United States, and 
decided in favor of the City. The taxes of both years, with 
the 50 per cent, penalty, were paid by both Companies. 

The Emma Brown case, referred to in my last report, has 
been decided by the Supreme Court of the State adversely to 
the City. This case decides that an appeal lies from the 
Police Court to the Court of General Sessions. Of course an 
appeal can also be taken to the State Supreme Court from the 
Court of General Sessions ; and hence it follows that am 
ordinary drunk and disorderly case, or any trivial case for 
breach of our Police Ordinances or Regulations, may involve 
three trials in three several tribunals, including the State 
Court of last resort. Encouraged by this decision, another 
case has been made and is now pending in the State Supreme 
Court, to decide whether a defendant in the Police Court is 
entitled to demand a trial by jury. Mr. Justice Gary has 
decided on Circuit, that defendants in our Police Court have 
such right. If this Circuit decision is sustained in the 
Supreme Court, its logic is that in the City of Charleston the 
administration of Police Court justice will be more dilatory, 
and consequently less efficacious than in any City in the 
United States. Elsewhere it is universally held that public 
policy and the peace and good order of society imperatively 
demand that the enforcement of police regulations should be 
summary, and so it obviously should be. Under the decisions 
above referred to, one arrested by the police for disorderly 
conduct, when brought before the Police Court, may demand 



Report of the Corporation Counsel. 09 

a trial by jury. As there is no provision for a jury in the 
'Police Court, this demand ends the case so far as the Police 
Court is concerned, His case, if the authorities desire to 
press it, must be sent to the City Court or to the Judicial 
Trial Justice Court. So far as juries are concerned, the ma- 
chinery of the City Court is by law precisely like the Court 
of General Sessions and Common Pleas. It would cost the 
City at least one hundred dollars to have a jury trial in the 
City Court. The case would, therefore, have to goto the 
Trial Justice Court. If the person so sent from the Police 
Court should be convicted by a jury in the Trial Justice 
Court, he could appeal from that Court to the Court of Ses- 
sions, and have his case there heard. Should he be there con- 
victed, he could go to the Supreme Court. It is possible that 
this construction of the law might, in some extraordinary 
ease, secure justice ; it is absolutely certain that in all ordi- 
nary cases, it will not only embarrass, but will defeat justice. 

At the time of my last report, the case of The State vs, Gus. 
Williams, had been argued in the Supreme Court, and was 
there awaiting decision. The question involved was as to 
the constitutionality of tire Act of the Legislature, authorizing 
Trial Justice and other inferior Courts, e. g\, the Police Court 
and the City Court, to sentence persons to work on the chain 
gang. The ca^e arose in the Trial Justice Court, and was 
taken thence to the Court of Sessions on appeal, where Mr. 
Justice Izlar sustained the appeal, and declared the Act to be 
- unconstitutional. Up' to this point, the Corporation Counsel 
had known nothing of the case. As, however, the mainte- 
nance of the chain gang law was of great interest to the City, 
I was instructed to tender my assistance to the Solicitor, and 
to take part in the argument in the Supreme Court. Through 
the courtesy of the Solicitor this was done, but the final 
decision sustained Judge Izlar, and declared the law to be 
unconstitutional, as I had advised the City authorities in the 
beginning would probably be the result. I trust that it is not 
improper for me to say that the brief argument of the Corpo- 
ration Counsel., before it was submitted to the Supreme 
Court was submitted to his Honor, the Mayor, — himself a 



70 Mayor Ficken's Annual Review. 

distinguished lawyer of extended experience, — and at his 
suggestion to another eminent lawyer of the Charleston Bar, 
who was retained for that purpose. After careful considera- 
tion, both approved it, and declined to change it in any 
particular. 

There is now pending in the Supreme Court of the State, a 
rule issued out of the original jurisdiction of that Court, on 
the petition of Miss Mary Jane "Ross against William Aiken 
Kelly, Assessor, and J. Orrin Lea, Ci+y Treasurer, to show cause 
why the assessments of Miss Ross' real estate should not he 
reduced to the assessment as made for State and County 
taxation. A return to this rule has been filed, and the relator 
has traversed the return. There is no charge or intimation 
that Miss Ross' property was assessed in any other way than 
is the property of all other tax payers in the City ; the whole 
matter seems to rest upon the simple legal question, is or is 
not the city bound to follow the State assessments ? 

When the matter was brought up in the Supreme Court, 
the Chief Justice pointed out, that the relators traverse, raised 
questions of fact, — and that the Supreme Court could not pass 
upon questions of fact. As relator's traverse was insisted on, 
by her attorneys, the Court referred the questions of fact to 
Gr. II. Sass, Esq., Master, to take testimony and report. 
Several References have been held by said Master, and it is to 
be hoped that the matter will be finally heard and decided at 
the April Term. The tax execution against Miss Ross is one 
of the -147 turned over to me for the year 1893. It amounts 
to $3,971.01, and accounts for that much of the $25,500 
delinquent tax of 1893. 

On the 20th September, 1894, his Honor, the Mayor, was 
served with a summons and complaint in an action instituted 
in the Court of Common Pleas against the City by Mr. J. 
Ilermie Ostendorff, claiming 85,000 damages for injuries 
alleged to have been received by him on June 9, 1893. Mr. 
Ostendorff had been knocked down by a police patrol wagon, 
in King street, on that day ; his arm had been broken, and he 
was otherwise painfully hurt. Several defences were inter- 
posed by the City, but the chief defence on the merits, was 



Report of the Corporation Counsel. 71 

that the plaintiff's own negligence caused his injury. The 
case was tried at the November, 1894-, Term of the Court of 
Common Pleas, and resulted in a verdict in favor of the City. 
Subsequently, and. before the rising of the Court, Messrs. 
Mordeeai & Gadsden moved for a new trial. This motion 
was argued and refused. 

At the request of his Honor, the Major, and of different 
Aldermen, 1 have prepared the following Ordinances, which 
have become laws : 

1. A Bill to amend Section 1 of an Ordinance entitled "An Ordi- 
nance to Regulate Street Railways in the City of Charleston," ratified 
September 12, 1893. 

2. A Kill to amend Section 66 of the General Ordinances of the City 
of Charleston, ratified. September 26, 1882. 

3. A Bill to amend Section 120 of the General Ordinances of the 
City of Charleston, ratified September 26, 1882. 

4. A .Bill to strike out Sections 547 and 548 of the General Ordi- 
nances, ratified September 20, 1882, and to insert new Sections in their 
stead. 

5. A Bill to amend an Ordinance entitled "A.n Ordinance to Regu-' 
late Licenses for the year 1894," ratified the 29th day of December, 
1893. 

I have also, by instruction, prepared the following Bills, 
which have not become laws : 

1. A Bill to amend an Ordinance entitled "An Ordinance to Regu- 
late Licenses for the Year 1894," ratified on the 29th December, 1894. 

2. A Bill to regulate the business and places of business of Liquor 
Dealers- 

3. A Preamble and Resolutions with reference to the Dispensary 
law, and its Enforcement by the Police Force of Charleston. 

4. A Bill to amend certain Sections of the General Ordinances, and 
to strike out other Sections (hereof, etc.. (Tins Bill is now pending. 
It was introduced by Aldermen J. B. Reeves, and relates to Sections 
313, 427, 431 and. 433 of the General Ordinances.) 

I have examined one title for the City,- -the land for the 
extension of Kutledge Avenue, northward from Grove Street, 
and drew the title deed for the same, which I handed to the 
City authorities for execution. 

1 have given seventy-nine written opinions upon questions 
submitted to me by the Major and Aldermen, by the various 



72 Mayor Ficlcmh Annual Review. 

departments of the City Government, and by Committees of 
City Council. 

The following contracts have been prepared in duplicate. 

1. With the Charleston Gas Light Company for lighting. 

2. With the Charleston Light and Power Company for lighting. 

3. With the City Board of Hospital Commissioners and the River- 
side Infirmary. 

4. With John F. Riley for erecting the disinfecting apparatus at 
City Hospital. 

5. With the Baiiey-Lehby Company for pipes and other material 
for the Sewerage System. 

• Wherever bonds were required to be given by contractors, 
I have prepared them. 

In concluding my report, I have the pleasure to announce 
that legislative authority has been obtained to adopt such of 
the State legislation with reference to the enforcement and 
collection of taxes as may be deemed most expedient. 
All of which is respectfully submitted. 

CHARLES mGLESBY, 

Corporation Co un set. 



The Sired Department. 73 



THE STREET DEPARTMENT, 



Office of Superintendent of Streets, 1 , 
Charleston, S. C, December 31st, 1894. j 

To His Honor the Mayor \ and Aldermen 

of the City of Charleston. 

Gentlemen': In conformity to the requirements of the 
Ordinances, I beg to submit my Annual Report of the 
Department of Streets, for the year 1891:. In consequence of 
the reduction in the appropriation in 189-1 for street purposes, 
as compared with 1893, some $4.5,000, the work of laying 
stone roadways and flag sidewalks has been necessarily re- 
stricted; however, much good, substantial work has been 
clone in this direction with the limited amount available for 
that purpose. 

granite block roadways. 

Square Yards. 

• Calhoun Street, from Elizabeth to East Bay .1,185 

Cumberland Street, from East Bay to State Street 740 

Pritchard Street, from East Bay to Concord Street....... 544 

Spring Street, from Chinquapin to Chesimt Street ..1,305 

Porter Military Academy, Gateway, Ashle}' Street 35 

Atlantic Street, east end 34 

Church Street, south end 21 

Water Street, east end,......., ■ 5 

St. Philip and Spring Streets...., 11 

St. Philip and Wentworth Streets , - 377 

St. Philip and Calhoun Streets 30 

St. Philip and George Streets '. 160 

St. Philip Street, in front of St, Patricks Church. Q6 

At an average cost of $1.88 per square yard for labor and material. 

COBBLE STONE ROADWAYS. 

Calhoun Street, from Elizabeth to East Bay ...1,574 

Cumberland Street, from East Bay to State Street 454 

Pritchard Street, from East Bay to Concord 405 

Spring Street, from Chinquapin to Chesnut Street 104 

St. Philip Street, along the Pyrites Roadway........... ..1,547 .. ., 

At an average cost of 31r,\ T c. per square yard for labor and filling, but 
not including the cobble stones, a sufficiency of which were on hand. 



Y4 Mayor Ficleerfs Annual Review. 

PLANK R0A1>. 

It lias been necessary, owing to the two Cyclones in 
August and September, to put repairs on the plank roadways 
in Columbus and Drake Streets ; the heavy traffic on these 
roads makes it necessary either to keep up the plankway v or to 
substitute stone in its place. 

PYKITES ROADWAYS. . 

I feel confident in saving' thai our expectations have been 
realized, and that the Pyrites Road in St. Philip Street, from 
Beaufain to Line Street, and in Line, from St. Philip to King, 
has been a success, and so much favorable comment from citi- 
zens generally, and the owners of animals and vehicles in par- 
ticular, proves that this style of roadway in other streets will 
meet with the approval of taxpayers. This class of road has 
the advantage also, that while it can be laid at a very reason- 
able cost, it is at the same time a substantial and almost noise- 
less roadway, especially suitable for those streets in the 
residential portions of the city. It has been put down in the 
following streets during the year : 

Square Yards. 

Rutiedge Avenue, from Spring Street to Radcliffe Street 

between City Railway Co.'s tracks...., 535 

St. Philip Street, from Beaufain to Line Street 14,G44 

Line Street, from St. Philip to King Street.... , 1,083 

At an average cost of 52-^ c. per square yard for labor and material. 

SHELL ROADS. 

The Shell Road at west end of Spring Street which was so 
badly damaged by the Cyclone of 1893, has been repaired, 
and is now in fairly good condition; the Meeting Street Eoad 
has also received much needed attention the past year — some 
8,000 bushels of shell, costing $258.12 having been put on it 
from time to time. 

CHAIN GANG ABOLISHED. 

Owing to the action of the Courts in' declaring the Chain 
Gang unconstitutional, we were deprived of this class of labor, 
and the work of grading and improving the extreme upper 



The Sired Department, 75 

portions of the city lias been curtailed, but not neglected 
however, as what work was necessary has been done. 

CONCRETE SIDEWALKS. 

A new departure has been made in sidewalks, and one that 
so far, has recommended itself as being substantial, neat, and* 
not as costly as flag stone. This Concrete is made of Crushed 
Stone from the Columbia, S. C. quarries, Phosphate Gravel, 
and Portland and Rosendale Cement. 

BATTERY IMPROVEMENTS. 

By far the most important work done during the year, and 
I may say in any year in this Department, has been the new 
Asphalt Boadway and its attendant surrounding's and belong-- 
ings. around the Battery. This popular promenade and 
driveway was selected for that purpose, as being the most dis- 
tinctive feature of our city— always visited by strangers 
coining here, and besides, being the favorite resort of our own 
people. Tills work was to have been done in 1893, but in 
consequence of the severe Cyclone, August 27th, of that year, 
which, so badly damaged the Battery, it had to be deferred. 

The Warren-Scharf Asphalt Paving Co., of Xew York, was 
awarded the contract, and the workmanlike finished manner 
in which they fulfilled their contract has fully justified the 
Committee on Streets in the selection of that Company for 
doing this important work. I must here state also, that I had 
the active and careful assistance of the efficient City Surveyor, 
Mr. J. K. Dingle, and his assistants, in the supervision of the 
work. Before the Aspha.lt Roadway was put down, this 
Department had all the old drains taken up, a new brick drain 
built across East Battery from the Water Street drain to the 
river, and 3.3S1 feet of 12 and IS inch pipe drains put down 
in East and South Battery Streets. The Gas and Water 
Companies also overhauled their pipes. These pipes and 
drains are not laid under the Asphalt (except from King 
to the west end,) but in that portion covered by the grass 
plots, thereby avoiding, as much as possible, the opening of the 
Asphalt work in cases of leaking and breaking of the pipes and 
drains. 



76 Mayor Ficken's Annual Review. 

The work embraced in the improvements consists of: — 

12,152 Square Yards Asphalt Roadway. 
4,474 Feet of Granite Curb. 
1,217 Feet of Blue Stone Curb. 
331 Feet of Granite Crossings. 

A Concrete sidewalk lias been laid on both sides of South 
Bay, from King Street to the west end. 

The Sea Wall at west end of South Bay has been- raised 
and extended on the north and south sides ; the Railing at foot 
of King Street has been recessed and sidewalk widened ; Pal- 
metto Trees and Grass have been planted on special plots for 
that purpose along the Asphalt Roadway, and 10,398 bushels 
of Shell have been used in restoring the Battery walks. 

RESTORATION OF EAST BATTERY WALL. 

This work which was begun as soon after the Cyclone of 
1S93 as was possible, the Contractor being Mr. Colin McK. 
Grant, was finished in April, 1894, and will, I hope, prove 
equal to the severe demands which in the future it may be 
called on to sustain. Four double and one single flight of 
Stone Steps leading up to this promenade have been conve- 
niently placed. 

DRAINAGE. 

Upon the recommendation of the Board of Health, made- 
early in Vne year, this Department made a considerable outlay, 
and put down many important Pipe Drains, as will be seen by 
the list below : 

Iuch. Feet. 

America Street 18 40 

Battery, (south) 12 1,839 

Battery, (south) 18 542 

Bee Street... , 8 40 

Bee Street 12 405 

Charlotte Street. 12 702 

Harney's Court 8 260 

Islington Court 12 ..... 150 

Jackson Street, 15 100 

Lynch Street 15 .1,500 

Ladsoi) Street... 12 263 



The Sired Department 77 

Inch. Feet 

Mary Street 12 818 

. Mary Street 15 225 

Mount Street.. 15 493 

Nassau Street 12 115 

President Street 12 50 

Payne Street 18 580 

Simons Street 8 50 

Simons Street 15 230 

At an average total cost of 23fc. f>>r 8 inch, 35^c. for 12 inch, 43 T %c 
for 15 inch, and 54|c. for 18 inch pipe. 

The Brick Drain in Water Street, which for years had been 
a source of annoyance and complaint from the residents of 
that locality, was thoroughly overhauled and rebuilt from 
Church Street to the Battery, under the direct ion of that 
most, careful and thorough mechanic, Mr. H. L. Cade, and it 
lias since proved highly satisfactory. 

WOODEN CURB AND CROSSINGS. 

It has been the policy of this Department for some time, to 
do away with Wood Curbing and Crossings, substituting; in 
its place the Blue Stone for that purpose ; but it lias been 
necessary in several of the Streets, mostly in the upper por- 
tion of the city, that immediate attention be given the side- 
walks; this has been done with 3 inch plaid:. The following 
Streets have had Wooden Curb and Crossings put in them 
during the year : 

Hanover, South, Nassau, Bull, Bresident, Islington Court, 
Weseoat's Court, Sires Alley, Line Street, Coming, Franklin, 
Elizabeth, Tradd, Duncan, Cgier, Calhoun, Lucas, Norman, 
Ashton, Shepherd, Laurel, Percy, Charlotte, Smith, Bull and 
Lynch, Lucas and Calhoun, Ashley and Bee, Queen and 
Franklin, Montague and Lynch, George and Coming, Vander- 
horst and Coining, Mary and Elizabeth, Calhoun and Pitt, 

FLAG STONE SIDEWALKS. 

A much needed improvement has been instituted in the 
cutting and rounding off of some of the sharp corners to the 
Flag Sidewalks in various portions of the City, especially 
those on the lines of Street Railways, thus enabling vehicles 



78 



Mayor Flchcrts Annual Review. 



to turn the more easily and giving more space between the 
tracks and sidewalks. Among the important points at which 
this has been done are the N". E. & S. W. corners of Broad and 
Meeting Streets, X. E. corner Wentworth and Meeting, and 
the corners of Calhoun Street where it bounds Marion Square. 



The following new Flair Stone Sidewalks have been laid in 
the past year : 



STREETS. 



© 


&Z 




cz ~ 


S" 3 




- o* . 


* c* 


C'f2*- 


rtCO*J 


M . *i 




^z? 




tt~~ 








3 B 




fas 




£ 


** 






Atlantic, n.s., from Church to Battery 

Burns Lane, n.s., along Connelley's 

Beaufain, n.s.. from Lynch to Gadsden 

Cumber land, n.s., from State Street eastwardly 

Calhoun, n.s.. from Smith to Rutledge Ave 

Calhoun, n.s., from Rut. Ave. to Ashley St 

Calhoun, n.s., from Ashley to Lucas..... 

Calhoun, n.s., from Lucas to Riverside Infirmary... 

Calhoun, s s., along Marks' Store 

East Battery, w.s., from Water St. northwardly 

East Bay, w.s.. from Tradd St. to Longtitude Lane 

Gendron, n.s., from East Bay to Prioleau 

King, e-s., from Broad to Tradd 

King, e.s., from Shepherd to Line 

King, e.s., from Line to Columbus 

Lynch, e.s.. from Beaufain to Bull 

Mary, s.s., from King to S. 0. R. R. Tracks 

Mary, s.s., from America to Aiken's Sidewalk 

Meeting, w.s., from Line St. south 'ward 

Meeting, e s., Line to Shepherd .. 

Pinckney, n.s., Meeting to Maiden Lane 

Queen, s.s., along Huguenot Church 

Queen, n.s., from Church Street to State 

Queen, n.s., from Mazyck to Archdale 

Queen, n.s., from Archdale to King. 

Tradd, n.s., between Friend and Logan 

Wentworth, s.s., from Meeting to Anson 

Wentworth, n.s., Lynch to Gadsden 



Totals 40,105 



"428; 

648 

872! I. 

4012 . 

40 | 1084. 

us; 2265;. 

1365 . 

1036 : '. 

13321 j. 

1715' . 

1139! i. 

2759 
1873 
370-1 
1070 



[ 882 






.2804 

2030 

1720 

622 

144G 1 

1892; 
1731 

477! 
2728, 



.349; 



2344 
728 
630 



112? 



'07 



At an average cost of 18] cents per square foot, for entire walk, 1C4 
cents for four foot walk, and 13| cents for three foot walk for labor and 
material. 



The Street Department 



79 



BLUE STONE CURB, 

This Curb was put in the following Streets in 1804, and some old Curb 

relaid : 



STREETS, 





^2 


u o 


Sj^ 


O^ 


*3 


« fl 


fc^ 





Atlantic, n.s., from Church to Battery 

Ashley, w.s., from Doughty to Bee 

Burns Lane, n.s., along Connelley's... 

Calhoun, n.s., Smith to Rutledge Ave 

Calhoun, n.s., Rutledge Ave. to Ashley 

Calhoun, n.s., Ashley to Lucas 

Calhoun, n.s., Lucas to Riverside Infirmary..... 

Calhoun, s.S-, along Marks' Store 

Coming, e.s., from RadclifFe to Cannon 

Cumberland, n.s., from State to East Bay 

East Battery, w s , from Water St. northwardly 
East Bay, w.s., from Tradd to Longitude Lane... 

Gendron, n.s., from East Bay to Prioleau 

Xing, e.s , from Broad to Tradd 

King, e s., from Shepherd to Line 

King, e.s., from Line to Columbus 

Lynch, e.s., from Beaufain to Bull 

Mary, s.s., from King to S. C. R. R. Tracks 

Mary, s.s., fioni America to Aiken's Sidewalk... 

Meeting, e.s., from Line to Shepherd 

Montague, s.s., from Rutledge to Lynch ..... 

Pritchard, n.s., from East Bay to Concord , 

Pinckney, n.s,, from Meeting to Maiden Lane- 
Queen, s.s., along Huguenot Church 

Queen n s., Arehdale to King 

Queen, n s., Mazyck to Arehdale 

Spring, n s., west of Chinquapin 

Spring, s.s., west of Chinquapin 

Tradd, n.s., west of Rutledge... , 

Wentworth, s.s., Meeting to Anson 

Wilson, e.s., Beaufain to Magazine 



470 . 

687 . 

99, 



408 
311 
626 
196 



037 
S3 
S3 
162 
117 
621 



100 
957 
246 
225 
235 



950 
167 



421 



175 
45 

322 
370 



104 



84 
102 
117 



420 



432 



166 
05 



223 
175 

100 



100 



Total New Curb, 93-JS feet, at a cost of 30-} cents per foot for labor 
and material. 
Total Curb Reset, 2464 feet, at a cost of 4} cents per foot for labor 



STREETS OPENED AND EXTENDED. 

Poinsette Street lias been opened from King Street to 
S. C. <fe Ga. li. R. tracks. Stewart Street has been continued 
to N. E. It. R. tracks. President Street litis been extended 



80 Maym 

from Doughty to Mill Street. The work of extending Cal- 
houn Street westwardly through West Point Mill Pond, is 
being rapidly pushed. 

STREETS FILLED. 

The. following Streets Lave received more or less filling 
during the year : 

Atlantic, Bennett, Bogard, Ohisolm, Chinquapin, south of 
Cannon, Causeway to Chisolm's Mill, Drake, Jackson, Kracke, 
Lee, Lynch, Line, between Payne and President, Ogier, 
President, South of Spring, Butledge, between Broad and 
Tradd, South, Stewart, Wentworth, Society, from East Bay 
to Concord, Percy, Coming, Fishburne and Carolina Streets 
in the Marion Lands have been re-graded ; Cleveland, 
Frances, Maverick and Tracy Streets in the .Moses Lands 
have been re-graded and the low places tilled up. 

BRICK SIDEWALKS. 

Very little new work in this direction has been done: 77 
square yards new Sidewalk put in i\ew Street, 400 square 
yards ]STew Gateways have been laid in Ashley, Amherst, 
Blake, Beaufain, Calhoun, East Bay, Xing, Line, Legare, 
Meeting, Montague, ISTew, PLnckney, Queen, Spring, State, 
Tradd, Yanderhorst, Wentworth, and repairs have been done 
to Sidewalks in Archdale, Church, Coming, East Bay, George, 
King, Laurens, Lamboll, Maiden Lane, Market, Montague, 
New, Spring, State, Tradd, Wentworth and others. 

SCAVENGER DEPARTMENT. 

This work, under the efficient superintendence of Mr. Win. 
M. Ogilvie, lias been conducted in a highly satisfactory man- 
ner. The demands on this branch of the service increase each 
year with the growth and extension of the City, and necessi- 
tate a large outlay to thoroughly perform the work required 
of it. To show the amount of work done in this department 
during the year, I give a detailed statement : 



The Street Department. 81 

Loads Hauled- 

Garbage 33,065 

Sand Filling 3,356 

Pyrites 6,325 

- Street Sweepings 5,514 

Debris 4,149 

Sand for Park 3,500 - 

Paving Blocks 2,105 

Debris from Battery 1,365 

Shell for Battery 1,127 

Shell......... 1,031 

Gravel 1,019 

Bricks 884 

Pipe 848 

Miscellaneous hauling 742 

Cobbles 732 

Jute .... 937 

Cinders 529 

Flag 375 

Concrete. Stone ... 271 

Sawdust 257 

Curbing 239 

Marl 186 

Dead Animals 25 

73,290 
Number of loads hauled by " Pavers' Cart " not included 

in above. 2,151 

Total , 75,441 

At an average cost of 32} cents per load. 

In conclusion, I beg to submit an itemized statement of the 
receipts and expenditures of the Street and Sewerage Depart- 
ments for the year 189F : 

KECEIFTS. 

Balance brought forward from 1893 $20,981 10 

General Appropriation ■ 76,500 00 

1 Mill Betterment Tax 21,945 86. 

Kepairs to Streets 330 S9 

Manure Sold 152 52 

Drains laid for private parties 73 48 

Garbage Sold 473 90 

Sand and Gravel Sold • 30 66 

Repairs to Private Drains 20 69 

Old Bags Sold 47 SO 

6 



82 Mayor Fickcn's Annual Review. 

Removing Dead Animals 4 80 

Flagstones Sold 30 27 

From Treasurer, unpaid amounts on Pay Rolls 1890-91-92-94 28 80 

Shell Sold 30 00 

Sale of 8 Mules, 3 Carts and 1 Corn Mill 264 15 

Broken Pipe Sold 20 50 

Thos. H. Reynolds, Amt. overpaid him in 1893 5053 

Amount Refunded from Battery Repairs in 1893 86 60 

Received from 1 Granite Gateway laid 19 00 

Sawd ust Sold 25 

Curbing Sold 8 13 

Bricks Sold .'. 2 25 

Flag Sidewalks laid for private parties.., 134 78 

Unexpended Balance from Easi Battery Repairs, 1894. 24 51 

Extra Appropriation 4,500 00 



Total Amount received in 1894 $125,761 -4.7 



EXPENDITURES, 

Scavenger Department-— General $ 5,433 77 

Forage 5,631 22 

Repairs 886 41 

Labor 12,128 59 

$ 24,079 99 

General Police— Labor 11,046 49 

Material 240 75 



11,293 24 

Cannon Park, labor 202 06 

General Repairs, labor 2,609 19 

Expense Account 2,6S0 38 

Lumber : 1,073 47 

Hardware, Brooms, Etc.:! 324 91 

Shell and Gravel... 1,429 09 

Bricks 871 37 

Brick Sidewalks, labor 853 33 

Brick Drains, labor 198 11 

Stone Granite Blocks 1,109 35 

Crushed Stone 62 23 

Roadways, Granite Block, repairs, labor 1,969 98 

Roadways, Cobble, repairs, labor '. 1.439 14 

Stone Flag, (Special)— Labor % 832 87 

Material 7,5S3 97 

8,116 84 



Flag Pavement, labor 547 99 

(Special)— labor 1,640 50 

Stone Curb, Special, ...,...,.., 1,053 22 



The Sired Department. 8 



Curb and Crossing, Stone, labor 265 47 

Plank, labor.. 63147 

Roadway, Plank, labor 212 98 

Lime and Cement 616 65 

Pipe Drains— Labor $ 739 76 

Material 153 M 

: 893 70 

Concrete Sidewalks, labor 67 32 

Marion Lands, labor , 459 54 

Moses Lands, labor • 131 25 

Battery Repairs— Labor $42,202 13 

Material 2,939 42 

45,141 65 

Rebuilding Water Street Drain— Labor $ 489 40 

Material 278 15 

767 55 

Hand 216 18 

Tidal Drain Repairs—Labor $ 181 89 

Material 64 97 

■ 216 86 

Wooden Drains, labor , 95 21 

Cumberland St. Granite Roadway— Labor % 401 38 

Material 1,088 56 

■ 1,489 94 

Pritchard St. Granite Roadway— Labor.... $ 293 80 

Material 838 77 

1,132 57 

Pipe Drains, Special— Labor , % 938 65 

Material 935 50 

1,874 15 

Pyrites Roadway Rutledge Avenue, between City Railway 

Company's Track — Labor 59 05 

Calhoun Street Granite Roadway— Labor. $ 777 08 

Material 2,121 14 

o j8 98 22 

Pyrites Roadway St. Philip St.— Labor % 2,355 19 

Material 1,709 64 

4,124 83 

Spring Street Granite Roadway — Labor % 587 34 

Material 1,793 87 

. 2,381 21 

Line Street Pyrites Roadway, labor 155 43 

Extending Calhoun Street westwardly. labor 45 95 

Marion Square Pyrites Roadway 5*00 00 

1125,761 47 

Yery respectfully yours, 

J. C. W. BISCIIGFF, 
E. <fc O. E. Superintendent of Streets. 



84 Mayor Inchon's Annual JRevieiv. 



REPORT OF HEALTH OFFICER FOR THE YEAR 1894. 

CITY OF CHARLESTON S. C, 
Department of Health, January 1st, 1895. 

To the Honorable the Mayor and Aldermen : 

Gentlemen : I Lave the honor to submit my Annual He- 
port, conveying the Tables of vital statistics and Meteorolo- 
gical Observations, with such proceedings of this Department 
as have been undertaken for the benefit of the Department, 
and the general health of the City, for the year 1894. 

The general health of the City has been most excellent, and 
a very gratifying record is presented. There have been 470 
white deaths during the year, — the smallest number of deaths 
among the >vhites since 1869, — a period of twenty-five years. 

There have been fewer colored deaths than in any year since 
1885. 

This report is most satisfactory. 

The record for Typhoid Fever shows the same number of 
deaths as in 1S93, and this is the smallest record that presents 
itself for twenty -nine years. 

About the same number of deaths from Consumption. 

During the year a very mild form of Scarlet l ? ever has 
been prevalent. About 175 cases and three deaths. 

Two persons have died from Diphtheria, one white and one 
colored. 

There have been 13 deaths, white, and 7 deaths, colored, 
from La Grippe, reported as Influenza. 

The death roll from Diarrhceal diseases looms up again, 
second only to Tuberculosis. There were 247 deaths in all. 
Much of this is due to improper food, and is almost entirely 
preventable. Every year it is suggested that an Inspector of 
Food should be appointed to protect the City against all 
forms of unwholesome food. As it is, Charleston receives 
and sells tons of meat entirely unfit for proper nourishment. 

Wherever the officers of the Board of Health find such 
articles they are at present destroyed \ but there should be a 



department of Health. 85 

specially appointed official who should devote himself to this 
task. 

In this connection we would nrge that there should he an 
Inspector of Plumbing. Each year the plumbing of the City 
multiplies, and there is no responsibility beyond the gqod 
faith of the contractors. 

The constant death havoc of Consumption is a most serious 
matter. 3/719 deaths have occurred in the last 10 years in 
Charleston. January, 1884, to December, 1893, 611 white 
and 2,508 colored. There is no cessation in this death roll, 
it is so every year, and goes on and on. So we have con- 
stantly over 300 people sick in Charleston with Tuberculosis ; 
a- burden to themselves and their friends. 

Consumption is communicable and dependent for its spread 
on the Tubercle Bacillus. There should be a most determined 
effort -made to check and curtail the spread of this disease. 
The sputa of every case ' should be carefully collected and 
destroyed, and \\\q effects, clothing, bedding, etc., etc., of 
every case sterilized at the death of the patient, Over 
100,000 people die annually in the United States of Tubercu- 
losis, and one out of every seven deaths is from Tuberculosis. 

In ten years in Charleston there were 1158 deaths from 
Malarial Fever, Typhoid Fever, "Whooping Cough, Diphth- 
eria, Measles, C. Sp. Meningitis, Scarlet Fever, Typhus Fever, 
Small Pox and Yellow Fever combined, against 3119 from 
Tuberculosis, nearly three times as many as from all the above 
zymotic diseases. It is the most fatal of all diseases among 
civilized peoples, and as it is communicable by the Bacillus, 
Tuberculosis is preventable and controllable. With the de- 
struction of the Bacillus in the moist state in the sputa the 
disease must end with that person voiding the sputa. The 
Board of Health invites frequent reports as to cases of Tuber- 
culosis, and will furnish circulars as to means of banishing the 
disease, and they are ready to sterilize with steam heat all 
articles likely to be infected. 

There were no cases of Yellow Fever in the United States 
during 1891. Ko Cholera and no epidemics of a serious 
character, although a number of States have had Small Fox 
to a limited extent. 



86 Mayor Fichevh Annual Review. 

QUARANTINE. 

The year 1894 has been marked by a great departure or 
radical change in quarantine methods. 

On August 1 free quarantine was declared, that is to say, 
the City of Charleston assumed to meet all deficiencies in 
expenditure, and all charges for fumigation and disinfection 
were withdrawn. The efficiency of the methods and proced- 
ures have in no way been lessened, but it was deemed advisa- 
ble for commercial reasons that the charges should be 
abandoned. During the year 23 feet of water was obtained 
on the bar at high water. Every encouragement lias been 
devised necessary for the prosperity of the commerce of the 
City, The post and plant are in very first-class condition, 
and the standand for efficiency is maintained, as it has been, 
for the past 10 years. Constant work has been done by the 
Maritime Sanitation Committee, under the chairmanship of 
Mr. Hall T. McGee, to keep the quarantine of the City of 
Charleston in the front rank for protecting the City and State 
against the introduction of Yellow Fever and other dangerous 
diseases. 

There were no contagious diseases at the post during the 
year. 

There were 148 arrivals at the station during the year. 

Steamships 70 I Brigs 7 

Barks 43 Schooners 27 

Ships 1 j 



Belgium.. 2 

Canary Islands 1 

Cape de Verde 1 

Chili 1 

Coastwise 23 



Holland 2 

Portugal 10 

Sicily 20 

South America 2 

Spain • 6 



Germany 10 .' West Indies 46 

Great Britain 24 | 

Total 148 

SANITARY INSPECTORS, 

There are four Sanitary Inspectors annually elected in 
January every year try the Board of Health. They are 
severally assigned to the four Health Districts into which the 
city is divided. Kino- street dividing; north and south, and 
Calhoun street dividing east and west. It is the duty of the 



Department of Health. 8? 

Sanitary Inspectors to report all nuisances, public or private, 
inspect 50 premises every clay, and overlook the method of 
taking up the garbage. 
Messrs. J. P. O'Neill, E. S. Mikel, C. P. Trenholm and 

Mike Hogan are the incumbents. The duty is faithfully 
and efficiently done. 

These officers report at this office every day, at 12 o'clock, 
and make a written report of all their work for the previous 
24 hours, and receive orders from the Health Officer as to 
what they are to do to relieve the various nuisances. 

DISINFECTION. 

A very material addition to the efficiency and facility of 
sterilization of dangerous infection has been made in 1891. 

A very complete cylinder of steel has been erected in a 
most eligible and suitable house at the City Hospital grounds, 
at the rear, and extreme west of the premises. The steam is 
obtained from the boiler of the laundry, and the services of 
the engineer of the City Hospital secured. In this manner 
the greatest efficiency is obtained at the least possible cost. 
A temperature of 230° Fahrenheit is readily and quickly 
obtained. All articles of clothing, bedding, etc., after the 
termination of a case of contagious disease, are carried in a 
hospital wagon, under the direct supervision of Mr. F. 
l\ T ipson 5 the efficient health detective, to the cylinder and 
steamed. This cylinder has been in use since September, and 
has given the greatest satisfaction. It has been badly wanted 
and is being constantly -used. Large cpian titles of copperas 
solution and Chloride of Lime and Carbolic Acid are given 
away and distributed every year. 

Every case of contagions disease is ordered reported by 
ordinance, and at its termination the apartments are thoroughly 
fumigated with Dioxide of Sulphur. 

There were 201 houses disinfected and fumigated. 

White, 280. Colored, 11. 

21,360 persons were supplied with Chloride of Lime and 
slacked lime. 

6S,S00 gallons of Copperas Solution were distributed. 

Glanders, none. 



.88 



Mayor Fichen's Annual Review. 



INTEfiMENTS. 



Interments were made within the city limits during the 
year 1894, at the following burial grounds : 



WHITES. 


Cv 

s 


o 




I 




o 
^ 


>■. 


.J 


£ 
o 


O 


o 
o 

% 




o 
EH 


St. Philip's Church yard 

St. Paul's - - 


1 






1 


2 
3 


1 






1 


1 


2 
1 
1 
1 


2 


9 

4 


St. Mary's " " 










1 










o 


St. John's Lutheran ** " 

St. John's Chapel " " ...... 

St. Peter's " " 


2 


1 


i 


1 






1 

1 


... 

... 


2 


4 
R 






1 




1 


1st Baptist " " 


1 






' 




1 


... 


] 






... 




1st Presbyterian ** " 




i 


... 


i 


1 


1 
1 


I 

9 


... 
2 


4 


2d " " - 


2 




8 


Bethel " " 










1 






1 


Circular " •• 




1 




' " 




1 




... 

2 

... 
2 


1 


... 


1 


4 


Unitarian " "'" ...... 




9 


K. K. Beth Elohim - " 


] 
1 








1 


] 
1 




] 


1 


"i 




4 


Seaman's " " 

St. Michael's ■■ " 




2 


1 


9 

1 


Hanover street, Jewish, Cemetery 










1 

8 








" 






1 


Total...., 


8 


~ 2 


4 


| 
11 


7 


2 


o 
O 


6 


• 

7 


q 


5 


fi5 











COLORED. 



Ephrat 1 

Colored Lutheran 2 

Colored Catholic ! 

Bathsheba 

Calvary, Episcopal.... 

Colored Scotch 

McPhelia .. 

Brown Fellowship..... 

Field of Pest 



Total. 



11 



15 



8 22 



1 ... 

M 

7 7 
1 8 

h 



1116 



1 

4! 4 



13 5 
. ' 3- 1 

'.'.! 3] 

1 ...J 



2 1 10 

1 4 33 

2! 1 7 

9 6 73 

J 3 2.3 



21 16 15 



19174 



PDBLIC. 



White.. 
Colored 



Total. 



2o|30!31 

25!30i31 



50 



32 20 27 

32J26I27 



2 3 2 ... 10 

39 37:30 28 385 

! , 

281395 



411.40132 



Department of 'Health. 89 

SCAVENGERING-. 

The garbage of the City is removed quickly, and thoroughly 
every day, often by 12 o'clock. This is effected by the good 
system in use. The carts are owned and governed and 
directed by the City, and are completely under the direction 
of the Superintendent of Carts. Mr. W. G. Ogilvie occupies 
this position, and he is very earnest and efficient in his work. 

There are 30 carts. These carts are out at a very early 
hour in the morning, and. continue working at the removal 
until the entire output of garbage is carried out to the dump. 
The City is thus daily kept entirely clean of offensive and 
decomposing waste. My experience is that there is no City 
in the United States where this work is better done than in 
Charleston, and few where it is done as well. The matter of 
the disposal of the garbage is a large one. At present there 
is so much waste salt water laud conveniently located, and not 
too proximate to human habitation, that Charleston is not 
subjected to much annoyance. It is unsightly, but good 
roadways are built through this uninhabited territory, and the 
commencement of reclaiming these mud flats and marsh lands 
begun. It is anticipated that with the new Sewerage system 
this garbage may be used as fuel for furnishing electric 
power, etc., etc. 

The number of loads of garbage removed during the year 
was as follows : 



January 2,432 

February 2,090 

March 2,758 

April 2,432 

May 2,571 

June .....2,736 



July 3,041 

August 3,468 

September 2,996 

October 3,136 

November 2,627 

December 2,778 



Total 33,065 

NIGHT SOIL. 

There were 2,200 privy vaults cleaned out during "1894. 

These pestiferous, offensive, malodorous receptacles for 
fsecal matter, are still the greatest nuisance in the City. It is 
with great satisfaction that we are at liberty to chronicle the 
commencement of the work for a new Sewerage system. 



90 •' Mayor Fichenh Annual Meview. 

After exhausting the subject, Di\ T. G. Simons, Chairman, 
and his Committee, have adopted the Shone Pneumatic 
System, tested in England for a number of years, and also at 
the Chicago Columbian Exhibition. The work has been 
commenced under the Superintendence of Major H. F. Hart- 
ford, and within the year it is expected to have all the terri- 
tory south of Broad street thoroughly sewered. When this 
work is finished for the whole City we will have cause for 
congratulation. 

Charleston will then be cleaned on the surface and below it, 
and our death-rate should be materially diminished. 

CITY DISPENSARY SERVICE, 

This great charity has been, well and efficiently adminis- 
tered during the year 189-1. There were 19,621 cases treated. 
. 2,971 white. 
16,650 colored. 
The City is divided into six dispensary districts. To each 
one is assigned a physician, who attends all charity calls night 
and day, all the poor white, and black. It is a most beneficent 
work, and is well served. 

CITY DISPENSARY DPUCIGISTS. 

To each dispensary district is elected annually by the Board 
of Health a druggist. It is their duty to fill all prescriptions 
for all charity patients, white and .black, issued by the City 
Dispensary physicians. 

The following number of prescriptions were issued : 



Health District No. 1 3,800 

2 1,982 

3 3,150 



Health District No. 4 1,8S7 

5 4,185 

6., 5,93G 



Total ........20,940 

FINANCIAL. 

Amount appropriated, including $1,500 for free quarantine... $18,4 00 00 
Amount expended 18,399 86 

Balance $ 14 

Respectfully submitted, 

II. B. HOELBECK, M. I)., 

Health Officer. 



Department of Health. 



91 



MORTUAKY STATISTICS. 



Report of the Number of Deaths in the City of Charles- 
ton, in Each Month, for the Year ISM. 



whites. 



Causes of Death. 


1-5 


g 

i — 

0} 


1 


< 




6 

c 


i 

£ 


■4-a 

m 
1 


1 

o 


Olfc 


o 


o 
H 


Alcoholism 








1 


"i 






1 


... 


1 


.. !... 3 








1 


1 


9 


Alien rism 
















, 




iL 

8 3 
1 1 


1 


Apoplexy 3 

Asphyxia 


1 


2 


3 


i 


3 


2 


1 


1 


1 


29 

? 


Ataxia 


















1 




I 


1 


A th c ro ma 














3 




. .... 


1 


Bowels, Inflammation of 










l 
i 










1 


Brain, Concussion of 






] 
















9, 


Brain. Congestion of 


1 






1 

... 


2 


"i 


3 
1 


1 


8 


Brain Effusion on 




i 

i 




l 




1|... 


5 


Brain, Inflammation of 






1 


Brain Sclerosis 




1 












... 




! 


1 


Brain , Softening of. 


1 

4 


1 

1 
1 
1 


1 




Bronchitis 


i 


2 






1 




i 


1 




10 


Bronchitis, Capilary 


9, 


Bladder, Inflammation of. 




















1 


Cachexia 


1 
1 




















7 


Cancer 


















1 

1 
1 

i 

4 


i 

5 


i 


? r 


Cancer, Liver 
















1 
1 


9, 


Cancer, Mammary 


















1 


Cancer, Uterus 




l 


2 




l 








5 


Catarrh, Intestinal 










1 

1 


1 


Chili, Congest! ve 












] 
4 




2 


3 


Cholera Infantum 








1 


2 


10 


Chyluri-a 








...! • 


Consumption 


5 

1 


■4 


9 


4 


3 


2 


4 


4 


3 


4 


44 


Constipation 


1 


Convulsions 






1 


1 




2 


l 

2 




2 






7 


Convulsions. Puerperal 






1 




Croup, Membranous 










I 












I 


























1 


Debilitv 


















1 


1 


















1 


1 


Dengue 
















1 














1 


i 


1 










4 


Diarrheea 








1 


1 


3 




i 
l 




8 










1 


Dropsy .. .. 






















...i 


























1 
1 


Dysentery , 




... 












1 






... 



92 Mayor Ficherits Annual Review. 

Deaths in the City of Charleston — Continued. 



whites. 



Causes of Death. 


Jh 1 


>> 

CO 




< 


! 

1 

l 


I 




o 
S 


o 

\s 


j 5 



I 

[J 

g 



1 

! H 


Dysenterv, T\'phoid ' 










1 






1 


i 


! 


9 


Em holism 


1 










i 


1 | 


1 


Emphvsema, pulm 
















...i... 


1... 


1 


Endocarditis --- 


I 














.. I... 


1 


Enteritis 

Entero Colitis 


1 


1 


1 

2 
1 




**3 


4 


1 


..J... 


' 2\"l 


4 
1 1° 


Er vsi pel as ... . . 






1 


1 




T 


Fever Bilious Rem ............ 














1 


1 


Fever, Gastric 










1 
1 
1 
1 








i 




1 


Fever, Intermittent 
















...... 


i 


i 


Fever, Malarial 

Fever, Puerperal 

Fever Scarlet 


i 


1 




"l 


1 




1 
1 


2 3 


1 .. 

i 


8 

Q 


Fever, Typhoid . 




...1... 


i 2 


I 




2 


2 


1 


1 


17 


Fever, Typho-Malarial 1 1 

Filaria Sanguinis Hominis --- 






i 


4 


1 






1 


Gall Stones 


l 
l 


1 




j 














1 


Gastritis 


i 




i 


1 
1 








1 

J 


1 


4 


Gastro Enteritis 


1 




1 


2 
... 




1 


O 


P 


Haemorrhage, Umbil 




1 


Heart, Disease of. 

Hydrocephalus 


l 




1 




...| 4 


2 
1 


1 




1 


9 


12 
1 


tnanition 












1 






1 


- 


2 
1 

1 

2 


4 


I nfi uenza 


7 


4 


1 






18 




















1 


Jaundice 






1 












1 
1 
1 
I 


::: 

... 

•- 


2 


>) 


Kidnevs, Brighi's Disease of.......... 


2 
1 


4 
1 


1 


2 


... 


2 
1 




16 


Kidneys, Inflammation of. 


8 


Laryngismus Stridulus 


1 


















1 


1 
























1 

... 
... 


1 


Fiver Congestion of 






] 
1 
















1 


2 


Liver Cirrhosis of 


I 










2 


J 




3 


Liver, Inflammation of. 


1 


1 
2 


.. 




1 


3 




2 I 




T> 


Lungs, CEdema 




1 

] 


9 
1 


4 

"i 

2 


1 

i 

::: 

1: 


1 



ii 

...j 
"2 


1 
4 


9 

- 

1 

ij 


5 










2 
3 

1 


11 


Meningitis 


1 --. 


2 

1 

1 
1 


1 
1 

2 


14 


Meningitis, Cerebro-Spinal 









Neurasthenia 

Neuritis 

Old Age _ 


2 


2 


3 
1 

IB 
1 


Ovariotomy... 

Paralysis 

Parturition 


1 






I 














I 


1 






Q 




9 


1 
1 


1 


1 


1 


i 


1 


..1 


1G 



Department of Health, 93 

Deaths in the City of Charleston — Continued. 



WHITES. 



Causes of Death. 


03 
3 

0v 


■A 

% 


.-£ 


1 M "I Ife 

< ; S \£l \-i < X 


*H J? 3 

ill 




Is 


Pericarditis . . 




1 




I 


! 


1 
... 


f 










1 




1 
1 
1 


o 


5 1 


1 






Pleurisy 














2 


2 


1 


1 


... 


...... 












i 






Poliomyelitis... . 














1 ... 


















] 


! 






... 






Prostatitis. 










1 


j 






1 






Ptomaine Poisoning 














1 






Ptomainsem ia 
















i 












1 


















Pyelitis ..... 


















1 














] 


'.'.'. 


... 


lj 1 








Sclerosis, Cer Sp 

Septiesemia 


"i 


1 

1 














9 


1 


... 


... 


2 ... 

.3*1 


2 


i 


1 

... 


... 


11 


Stricture Urethra 




Syphilis 

Tabes Me^enterica... 






.. 


... 


■ 


i 


! 










1 

. 

... 






Tetanus , 














I 




i 




T o x se m i a, Malarial 










1 
o 

3 










Trismus Nascent i u m 


i 

2 




*4 


i 


1 

2 


11 1 
1 ... 


.! 


... 


1 

1 

1 

... 


■3 

1 

3 
... 


7 


Tuberculosis '. 


18 


Tumor Uteri 




Ursemia 






] 




1 






1 




q 








l 











i 

33 


1 




... 
1 


Wou n cl , G u nsb ot 










l 

45 


38 


51 


1 
38 




Totals 


4fi 


28 


38 


41 


42 


i 

38141 


479 



04 Mayor Mcken's Annual Review. 

Deaths in the City of Charleston — Continued. 



BLACKS AND COLORED. 



Causes of Death. 


January. 
February. 

March. 


< 


• 


SB 
►~3 




1 

< 


1 

C/j 



O 




55 






"3 



Albuminuria [■... 


11. ..I... 


... 

1 


... 




..., |...| 


... 




1 


An<emia ... 


I 


1 


2 
1 


Aneurism , .. 








...... 


I 1 
5 
1 


2 

... 


"3 


Apoplexv 


o 


ft 




3 




5 


3 ! 6 
! 


37 
1 
1 
4 
9 



Appendicitis 


. T" 


Ataxia .[... 1 

Atheroma }...'... 












1 




1 

1 


"l 


"i 

6 

1 
1 


1 

2 


tI > 




i 




1 






... 
1 


Brain Effusion on 


Brain, HfemOrrbage of L.J... 











Brain, Inflammation of j 1 --- 


2 


1 
1 







Brain, Softening of ... 

Bronchitis 2 


2 
1 


... 
2 

1 


... 




... 




] 

1 


2 
1 


1 

i 

... 
1 


1 3 2 

12 


Bronchitis, Capiliarv 


5 


1 








Cachexia, Mai an al 


1 


Cancer i ... 




1 


i 














3 
1 
4 
4 










1 


']' 


3 

"i 

1 

9 
3 

"4 
"i 


2 

i 
3 

14 

8 

3 

2 

"i 














1 






Cancer, Uteri I 1 














Cellulitis 
















1 




1 


Chill. Con gestive 1 . . . 


















9 


Cholera Infantum ... 






2 


s 


5 


I 


5 3! 1 


31 


Cholera Morbus ■•• 






-h 




2 














1 


Consumption,... 


16 
I 


14 
3 
1 
1 
1 


17 
6 

1 

i 


12 
3 
1 
2 

2 


1? 


17 
4 


12 

8 


17 
1 


19 

4 
9 


17 

7 

3 

1 


180 

53 

7 


Convulsions, Puerperal 






4 

o 
o 


1 
2 


1 

6 


3 




15 


Diarrhoea 


2 


3 fi 


35 


Diphtheria 






1 


Biopsy 




3 






1 


1 


1 
1 


1 




8 







Dropsy Hepatic ... 






] 


] 

1 












9 






















1 


Dysentery i... 










3 


2 




1 


1 




7 


Dysentery, Typhoid 


1 






3 


1 
1 


5 


.Embolism ... 














1 


Emphysemia pulni . . 












1 
I 

2 

5 










1 


Endocarditis 
















"3 







2 
2 
2 

1 
i 


R 


Enteritis 


1 

2 


1 
1 


3 
3 
1 


6 
5 


5 

7 




8 


6 

8 


5' : : 


41 


Entero Colitis 


3 


\ 

"2 
1 


40 


Epilepsy 


9 


Fever, Gastric ... 






1 

1 


4 


*4 




...I... 


2 


Fever, .Malarial . ... 




2 

1 






5 


•?3 


Fever, Puerperal j 1 

Fever Remittent > 1 




4 










1 

2 






9, 


Fever, Typhoid 1 1 


2 


2 


1 


1 


2 




9 


4 


1 


... 


18 



Department of Health. 95 

Deaths in the City of Charleston — Continued. 



BLACKS AND COLORED. 



Causes of Death. 


1 


| 
1 




-*3 


r3 


6 

S3 




S 
III 


October. 

November. 

December. 


is 


EH 




1 




1 








i 










1 






1 
1 
.1 


"s 


i 

2 


2 


1 

5 
1 


2 
2 


I 

o 
o 

... 


i 
l 




"i 


9 








13 


Gastro Enteritis 


1 


" 


20 
1 


Haemorrhage Umbilical 




2 


"a; 


... 
G 


1 

8 
1 


3 




11 


9 


8 


7 


2 


7 


7 


4 


4 


09 
1 








9 


















... 


1 




1 




1 


3 


] 

1 
1 


1 


"i 


3 


1 


') 


3 


16 




5 




1 






i 

1 

!!! 

1 


9 




4 


9, 








7 








1 




... 


*2 

4 


l 
"i 

2 


"l 

3 


... 

"i 


"i 

1 


3 










s 


Kidney Bri^ht's Disease of .... 


5 

2 

1 


6 

1 

1 


3 


i 

2 


3 
2 


2 

... 


"4 




17 







Liver Congestion of 


















1 


Liver Inflammation of 




1 

1 

2 
















i 

] 
2 


5 

"1 
1 


9 




5 
1 
2 

i 


6 

3 

1 


3 
2 

5 

2 


2 


3 


1 


1 


2 


4 


38 


Tvi in &s Oedema 


5 




4 
2 
1 


6 
J 


8 
3 


6 
3 


7 
1 


6 
2 


59 




17 


Meningitis, Cerebral 


1 


INleniii'j'itis, Cerebro Spinal 


?, 






















9 


Necrosis... 












J 

3 
1 


*3 

1 


1 
5 

o 


6 

2 

"i 

2 
6 

1 


5 

1 


"4 
4 

2 
5 

1 


9 


Old A^e 


4 


3 
4 


2 
1 


1 

1 
1 


J 


4 
3 


•15 


Paralysis 

Parturition 


26 
1 

9 




2 
10 


] 
6 


2 
7 


... 

1 


1 


1 
2 


1 

2 


3 

i 

l 


17 


Pneumonia 


46 


Pneumonia. Typho 


1 




















9 


Pyosal pi ncit is 


















1 








1 




"i 






1 








9 


Sarcoma Uterine 






1 




1 


1 




1 


1 
] 


o 




i 


1 


1 


2 


11 


Septicaemia Puerperal 


1 


Shook 










i 














1 




1 
1 






















1 


Spine Fract u re 












1 












1 


S v pi li 1 i s 


1 






i 


1 


i i 


i 


"l 
5 


1 

... 


9 

1 
7 


7 


Tabes Mesenterica 






1 








1 




i 

12 


i 4 IK 


7 





1 rismus Nascentium 


i 


1 4 


i fi 


7 


79 



9G Mayor Fickerts Annual Review. 

Deaths in the City of Charleston — Continued. 



BLACKS AND COLORED. 



Causes of Death. 


G 


1 
o 
Ex, 


1 




>> 




>> 


0Q 


5 
£ 



CO 


o 
o 
O 


o 

s 

> 

o 


© 

S 
© 

© 

P 


^3 

O 


Tuberculosis 

Tumor Uterine Fib 


6 
J 


| 1 

10 9 6 


12 


11 


7 


7 


4 


! 

5 7 
... 




91 
1 


Tumor 


i j 


1 




1 






I 




o 


Thrush ! 


1 , 




i 1 


1 


1 


Ulcer Gastric 




1 














I 


1 


Uraemia 

Whooping Co agh ..... 


1 
" "l 


1 

... 


1 
1 
2 

1 


1 
1 


4 

2 


2 


1 

1 


2 

2 


1 
..... 


i 4 

li 2 


.... 

""i 


26 








1 






ft 


■Wound Pistol 










1 


1 




....... 

I 




2 


Total 


113 


96 99 


90 


ii 


10S 


121 


103 


— 
116 


122191 


108 


1S00 










"■ 









Department of Health. 
Accidents, Etc. 



97 



WHITES. 



c p 





































73 




























*-i 






»-> 


M 


cS 


A 


ci 


£j 


T r* 


J3 


^ 


<J 




r^ 


*T) 


<l 



n * 



E s 

Z> j ? 



© 

© tSlolg 

ccIO ^;G 



Accident 




1 


















• 




1 


Burn 


1 
















1 
1 
] 


1 
.. 
1 
1 

3 


i 


1 9 


Cvanosis 














1 




9 


Suicide 














o 


Undeveloped.... 


3 

— 
3 


















o 


Total 


1 


~ 










1 


... 


3 


ui 




1 








I 




Black and Colored. 
Acci dent 






2 




1 




2 


1 




1 


. 


... 

4 



5 


7 


Burn 






1 


Drowned ......... 


2 1 
1 3 

3 4 












1 
3 

5 


1 

7 


io 

11 


... 
5 

_ 

5 


4 


Undeveloped 

Total 


5 

7 


Z 


3 

4 


— 


4 



6 


45 
57 













l 

1 


Still Born. 


Premature. 




White. 


Colored. 

lllila 


White. | 


Colored. 


i 




© 

£ 
5 


i 


a) 


111 ! 


6 


© 

© 


H 



January — 
February... 

March 

April 

May 

June. 

July 

August 

September 

October 

November. 
December.. 



Total. 



1]...! 
... 1 
21 II 
2i 4| 
2 ll 

li 

2 I 

2 ! ...| 
1! li 
1|2J 
2 2 

21 14 35 



2 ! 

2 I 
2 i 
2 

3 

-1 



13 
9 

9! 6 

2j 5 
13 2 

8! 1 

8 

7 

4 
11 

7 

9 



93 



22 
15 
15 

7 
15 

9 
6; 14 
5 12 

41 8 
3 1 14 



13 
18 

162 



2! 4 



1! 1 

9 1 O 



1 - 1 

-1 

9 17 



98 



Mayor McJcen's Annual Review. 



Comparative Statement as to Sex in Each Month, 

1894 



Months. 



White. 



January 

February.... 

March..: 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September.. 

October , 

November.. 
December.. 

Total. 



19 

M 
35 
19 

22 
21 
17 
22 
25 
18 
26 
18 



27 
14 
23 
14 
19 
21 
21 
19 
20 
20 
25 
20 



236 |243 



46 
28 
38 
33 
41 
42 
38 
41 
45 
38 
51 
38 



479 



Colored. 



4 


■II 


61 


52 


41 


55 


41 


58 


43 


47 


66 


67 


53 


55 


G7 


54 


48 


55 


53 


58 


.63 


59 


36 


55 


46 


62 


623 


677 | 



113j| 

96j 

99! 



90 i 
133 
108! 
121: 

103: 

116 
122 

91 1 

108: 






159 
124 
137 
123 
174 
150 
159 
144 
16 L 
160 
142 
146 



1300 1 1779 



Months. 



January 

February... 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September. 

October 

November. 
December. 



Total. 



Marriages. 



^ o 



11 

9 

7 

6 

7 

9 

6 

7 

11 

6 

13 

12 



104 



14 
15 
19 
23 
7 
24 
11 
11 
17 
14 
17 
10 

182 



zo 
24 
26 
29 
14 
33 
17 
18 
28 
20 
30 
22 





Births 




f~> 




CT2 




« o 






•*-> 


J4 Q 






.3 


So 


t> 


^^ 


^ 


^ 1 



43 
33 
35 
25 
27 
31 
38 
61 
47 
40 
36 
48 



2S6 |j 464 



76 
55 
64 
50 
51 
34 
74 
56 
80 
82 
70 
74 



119 

88 

99 

75 

78 

65 

112 

117 

127 

122 

106 

122 



766 ; 1230 



Twins — 1 white, 7 colored. 



Department of Health. 



99 



ISTuMBEii of Deaths, with Ages, in Each Month, for 
the Year 1894. 



WHITES. 



Aces. 













>1 


;- 








J- 


a 


-5 






a 


5m 


5 


u 


>» 




fl> 








^ 




M 


<■< 


r3 



Under one year of age.. 

From 1 to 5 years 

From 5 to 10 years 

From 10 to 20 years 

From 20 to 30 years 

From 30 to 40 years.... 

From 40 to 50 years 

From 50 to 60 years 

From GO to 70 years 

From 70 to SO years 

From 80 to 90 years 

From 90 to 100* years... 



I" J 



Total 



2 

i 

i . 

5! 

4! 

i 

5i 



46|2S 38 



li! 

til 
... 

21 
4! 



S3 1 41 42j 38 







£ 








i-. 


"~ 


S-3 


ffi 






.£> 


ZJ 


S 














o 




a> 


o 


?5 


a 



41 



I J- i 



! 2I 



45 



10; 



i ... i 


o 

1 


1 38| 51 


38 



. 42 
9 
24 
47 
58 
40 
45 
72 
43 
24 
1 

479 



Black and Colored. 

Ages. 

Under 1 year of age 23 

From 1 to 5 years 15 

From 5 'to 10 years..-.. 1 

From 10 to 20 years.... 11 

From 20 to 30 years 20 

From 30 to 40 years...- 10 

From 40 to 50 years 11 

From 50 to 60 years I 7 

From 00 to 70 years j 8 

From 70 to 80 years 1 3| 

From SO to 90 years I 1 

From 90 to 100 years...! 31 

Over 100 years j ...j 



19 
13 

4 
8 

11 

1] 
9 

5 i 
10 

2 

I 



27 
9 
3 
11 
14 
9 




29 46 23! 22 



11396 



99 



121 17 

7 

3 
12 

8 

6 

2 

o 

6 
2 



90; i: 



16! 32 

10! 6 

8 4 

11 15 

16! 12 

7 7 
5 6 
1 10 
61 3j 
4 
1 



108 



121103 

I 



21 

241 

4: 

9 1 
20 i 

6 
16' 
11 

6 

1 

4 



17 36 318 

15| 12s 209 
l! 50 
9| 93 
12! 167 
10 ; 104 
5 
7 



116 1: 



91 



109 

79 

7| 72 

41 51 

. 4 S3 

Al 

1 OS 1300 



100 



Mayor FiclccrJs Annual Beview. 



Number of Deaths in Each Ward, in Each Month, 

1891. 



WHITES. 



Wards. 



>% 


t-S 














© 


?J 


5 


© 


►~5 


Si- 

J5 
O 


© 


' S-i 

< 


>> 

ci 


►"8 


"3 
k -5 


© 

©" 


o 

O 


© 

> 

o 
2J 


P. 

Pi 



No. 1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9........ 

10 

11 

12 

Total. 





2 


5 


1 




1 


4 


3 




3 




2 


2! 


1 


1 


2 


1 


1 


2 


9 


1 




2 


4 


9 ! 


4 


3 


3 


4 


5 


1 


2 





6 


3 




2; 


1 


1 


1 


4 


1 


4 


4 


2 


3 


2 


is 


2 


3 


4 




4 


6 


5 


3 




5 


2 







6 






o 


2 


4 


5 


1 


1 


9 


o 


1 


3 


2 


5 


1 


3 


... 


2 


1 


3 


2 


6 


2! 


7 


5 


7 


6 


4 


8 


3 


12 


9 


10 


15 


8! 


4 


1 


5 


2 


G 


8 


5 


o 


6 


7 


4 





9 


4 


7 


4 


3 


5 


4 


5 


8 


4 


4 


5 ! 


4 


4 


1 


2 


7 


2 


o 


5 


2 


2 


3 


G 1 


4 


1 


2 


2 




o 


1 


2 


5 


2 


2 


1 


46 


28 


38 


33 


41 


42 


38 


41 


45 


38 


51 


3s; 



£0 

Id 
39 
3J 

34 

29 
30 
88 
56 
02 
41 
27 



Colored. 
Wards. 

No. 1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8..... 

9 

10 

11 

12 

Total ..', 



7 


8 


5 


3 


7 


4 
4 




2 


4 




1 
3 


2 


3 


5 


1 


6 


1 


4 


7 


2 




4 


2 


7 


4 


2 


2 


3 


4 


2 


5 


2 


17 


15 


7 


6 


13 


7 


10 





7 


10 


5' 


8 


7 


8 





8 


10 


14 


2 


10 


7 


10! 


10 


2 


3 


2 


5 


2 


3 


6 


4 


6 


6 i 


7 


6 


8 


9 


10 


11 


10 


12 


9 


17 


2' 


18 


10 


19 


19 


23 


21 


21 


17 


21 


13 


19: 


G 


5 


6 


7 


4 


S 


7 


6 


7 


3 


7 


8 


7 


10 


7 


11 


6 


13 


9 


14 


12 


13 


16 


19 


10 


18 


27 


20 


21 


23 


13 


28 


13 


10 


12 


It 


9 


17 


13 


11 


12 


18 


12 


U| 


113 


96 


99 


90 


TOO 

loo 


103 


121 


103 


136 


122 


91 1 



62 
43 

38 



109 



100 

54 

112 

220 
70 



12, 122 

20 228 
6 142 



Department cf Health. 



101 



Table Showing the Total N" umber of Oases Treated and 
of Deaths in the City Hospital and Health Dis- 
tricts During Each Quarter, 1894. 





WHITES. 




BLACK & COLORED. 


IK 

o 




Quarter Ending. 


Quarter Ending. 


o 
























rt 


cases treated. 






8 


CO 


© a 
Si'® 






o 

CO 


eo 


2 3 
St* 


71 

s 




09 


s 


rO.. 


o 


09 


?2 


g 




<% 


r-i 

B3 


a 
EH 




03 


s 




o 


1 


C 


2 


a 


o 


o 


£ 




M 


»-s 


02 


U 


cr-i 


rt 


>-s 


72 


(A 


E-( 


C 


City Hospital 


105 


09 


97 


136 


407 


184 


157 


196 


196 


733 


1140 


Health District, No. 1 


69 


93 


104 


182 


508 


m 


4;?:? 


734 


025 


2133 


2641 


Health District, No, 2 


29 


27 


46 


41 


143 


790 


8S0 


805 


7.^ v 


3313 


3460 


Health District, No. 3 


4 


7 






11 


r>si 


000 


0-!8 


713 


2611 


2*'- ->> 


Health District. No. 4 


7 


28 


33 


30 


98 


720 


751 


893 


608 


2972 


3070 


Health District, No. 5 


304 


393 


453 


535 


1685 


430 


489 


571 


494 


1984 


3669 


Health District, No. 6.. 


143 


113 


138 


134 


520 


727 


927 


980 


1003 


3637 


4163 


Totals 


661 


730 


929 


1058 


3378 


3783 


42;>v 


4SS7 


4427 


17383 


20761 


DEATHS. 
























City Hospital 


10 

1 


6 

2 


9 

4 


14 


39 


31 
10 


34 


37 

15 


33 
12 


135 
44 


174 


Health District, No. 1 


51 


Health District, No. 2 


1 


1 


1 


i 


4 


20 


23 


19 


15 


83 


87 


Health District, No. 3 












1 
1 

9 


9 
12 

D 


6 

18 
25 


1 
if 


17 
40 
63 


17 


Health District, No. 4 












40 


Health District, No. 5 


3 


4 


9 


5 


21 


84 


Health District, No. 6 


g 


1 




1 


5 


33 
111 


41 

140 


40 


29 


143 


143 






Totals 


18 


14 


23 


21 


76 


160 120 


„i*L 


607 



102 



Mayor Fickerts Animal Review. 



Number of Deaths in each Month, with Peace of 



Nativity, 1894. 



whites. 



Natives of 



















jj 




,- 












































































>t 














^j 




i- 


"^ 


,0 


q 


3 


u, 


'S 


>■ 


<u 


j>\ 


3 
tit 




1 


o 


| 


-^ 




>-=i 


<J 


<s 


^ 


•-i 


< 


X 


Q 


2: 


Ca 



City of Charleston 

South Carolina 


18 
9 


8 
5 


21 
5 


21 
1 
1 


24 
6 


25 
4 


25 


22 
5 


27 
6 


2 * 


25 


20 
6 


200 


Alabama 


i 


1 


California 










i 


1 
1 








1 


Connecticut 
























] 


Florida 
















1 

1 


1 




1 








2 




... 


3 


i 


1 


1 
1 


10 


Kentucky ; 




Maryland 








1 


1 




! 








9 


Massachusetts 




1 


] 




I 










9 


Mississippi 




1 






| 










1 


New Hampshire .... 












i 






1 

9 


1 


1 


New Jersey 












1 
1 

1 


! 








New York 






1 


1 




1! 1 

i 




... 

... 





Noitli Carolina 






1 


Pen ns v 1 van ia 




2 










1 










s 
















1 
1 






1 


9 


United States 


















1 


Den pi ark 




1 
2 


"i 


1 


1 








9 


England 




2 




2 
1 

I 

1 


1 

'l 

2 
1 


i 

i 

3 


9 

5 
6 


1 

2 

4 


I 9 


Fran ce , 




9 


Germany 


5 
10 


1 
5 
1 


2 
6 


4 
1 


o 

1 
1 


2 
3 


2 

5 

"i 


?9 


Ireland 


48 


Italy 




Norway . 










1 


Russia 


) 












: 










9 


Scotland.... 


1 


1 






2 


'l 






1 











1 


Sweden 




1 






1 












1 
3-8 










38 


1 
5 


45 


1 

3S 


51 


7 


Totals 








479 



Department of TleattJi 



103 



Kcmbee of Deaths in Each Month, with Place of 
Nativity, 1894. 



BLACK AND COLORED. 



Natives of 























il 


l4 




>> 

f-, 














^ 




o 


Q 


§ 


p 


o 


--; 




6 




co 




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<3 


£*; 


^ 


l~3 


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5S 


o 



City of Charleston 

South Carolina 

Alabama 

Florida 

Georgia 

Kentucky 

Louisiana 

Massachusetts 

New York..... 

North Carolina.... . 

Virginia 

West Indies 

Unknown 

Total 



65 


5/ 


61 


68 


98 


71 


79 


8( 


) 75 


78 


62 


82 


35 


30 


31 


20 


31 


32 


34 


2 


I 34 
. 1 




25 


25 


t 


1 


2 
















i 




2 












2 






1 


l 


1 


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1 












'. 1 


o 

2 






3 


2 






2 


2 


3 




2 


2 






1 


1 


1 








1 






1 






7 


5 


3 


2 


2 


3 


2 




1 3 




2 




113 


96 


99 


90 


133 


108 


121 


10 


3116 


122 


91 


10S 



8/b 

355 

1 



104 



Mayor Fkken's Annual Review. 



Total Mortality, 1894, Whites, Black and Colored. 



Sex and Status. 



1 

a 


2 


U 

SI 










-5 


5> 
g 

CO 


o 
O 


a> 

> 

o 


1 

0> 



Male, white.... 
Female, white. 



Totals, white. 



Male, black &, colored. 
Female, black <fc col'd. 

Totals, black & col'd. 

Grand Totals 



19 Mi 151 19 22 21 
27 14 23] 14 19 21 



38 33; 41 

I 



6l| 41 1 41 

52, 55 1 58 

113) 96: 99 

159;124|137 

I 



43 66 
47 67 

90 : 133 



17 
21 

38 

67 
54 

108 121 



•11 



251 181 26! 18 
20 20 25 20 



— I — 
45 38 i 51 



I 48! 58 
55' 58 



123174150159 

I I I 



63 36 

59 i 55 



236 
243 



479 
623 



144461 160142 146 

i ! I l 



10811300 

1779 



Estimated population — 

White 28,870 

Black and Colored. ..36,295 



Proportion of deaths — 

White 1 in 60 

Black and Colored...! in 27 



Total 65,165 



Total proportion...! in 36 



Ratio per 1000 in the year— Whites 16.68 

Black and Colored .35.81 



Total. 



27.29 



8— FROM ISO 



1S8I | 1 



g I 2 S 3 






PC » » W 

ai ,*} . 4I :> i 

Cc 47 4;>| S7 

Yc 3 <*| 2 



7 


15 


101 


17 




3 


I| 


4 


27 






2! 


31 
... 


22 




.,.), 


15 



Co 



1331 181] 1851 100 
lUii\ OU 102 72 



- 1 - 1 - I - 1 - i » j ~ 1 - 



DEATH FROM CERTAIN' ZYMOTIC DISEASES IN TWENTY-XINfi YF.AIW-rKOM If-?. TO IS'M INCIX'SIVi- 



i - 1 H'H-MHHHHH 






.:;:. 






s | jUjUj 



ui - 






i'ittii^iiii 






'Department of Health, 
COMPARATIVE MORTALITY. 



lOi 



Years. 



Whites. 



K 



1894 i; 28,870 I 

1893 = [I 28.870 | 

1892 jl 23,870 j 

1891 I 28,870 i 

1890 (I 28.870 | 

1889 P 27.605 \ 

1888 j| 27,605 ! 

1887 || 27,605 | 

18S6 II 27,605 ! 

1885 ;! 27,605 ; 



479 
535 
586 
553 
511 
51 6 
492 
549 
571 
487 



o %-< 

»H O 



Blacks and Colored. 



o 



1 in 60 I 
1 in 52 j 
1 in 49 j 
1 in 52 | 
1 in 56 
1 in 52 
1 in 56 
1 in 50 
1 in 48 
1 in 56 



'? L I 



36,295 
36,295 
38,295 
36,295 
36,295 
32,540 
32.540 
32,540 
82,540 
32,5-i0 



13,00 
1,284 
1,317 
1,371 
1,3 JO 
1,431 
1,375 
1,316 
1,596 
1,250 



d 2 

2c 



1 in 27 
1 in 28 
1 in 27 
1 in 26 
1 in 28 
1 in 23 
1 in 23 
1 in 24 
1 in 20 
J in 26 



Eatio per 1000 in the yea) 



White. L? ] f ck f 
Colored. 



Total. 



1S94 


16.6S 
18.53 
20.29 
19.15 
17.70 
19.05 
18.78 
19.52 
20.65 
17.64 
23.68 
21.60 
22.32 
28.66 
22.01 
20.68 
• 20.95 
22.66 


35.81 
35.37 
36.28 
37.77 
36.93 
43.66 
42 25 
40.40 
49.01 
38.49 
44.63 
47.13 
42.91 
47.13 
40.43 
33.59 
35.14 
39.29 


27 29 


1893 


27.91 


1892 


29.20 


1891 


29.06 


1890 


27.94 


18S9 , 


30,79 


1888 


30.87 


1837 


31.00 


1886 


36.02 


1885 

1884 : 


28.88 
34.55 


1883 


34.92 


1882 


33.11 


1881 


3S.08 


18S0 


32.44 


1879 


27.92 


1878 


28.95 


1877 , 


32.06 



106 



Mayor Ficfcca's Annual Review. 



LONGEVITY, 1894. 



WHITES. 



DATE OF DEATH. , AGE. 

January 2. Stephen Thomas 8! 

5. William McBurney 87 

22. Adele LaCoste '. 87 

27. Eliza J. Crouch 84 

30. Mary V.Macbeth 81 

February 10. Susan L. Jones 85 

16. Robert X. Gourdin 81 

March 29. Sarah P, Allen 80 

April 5. Louisa H. Hasel ...87 

19. Adelheidt Casten 80 

May 8. Harriet N. Johnston 83 

August 5. John F. Steinmeyer 87 

September 12. Mary Rachel Ingraham SO 

October 16. Eliza Clifford Legare 87 

20. Mary Burrows , 80 

21. Win. Izard Bull 81 

November 3. Jeannette Lehman 95 

11. Sarah A. Memminger 80 

13, Martha P. Taylor 88 

20. Barbara Riddock 82 

21. Lewis Pv. Gibbes 84 

22. Eleanor McCormick.... S3 

25. Edward Lafitte 80 

27. Joseph H.Wheeler .....: 84 

December 25. Ann McBride...... SO 

Black and Colored. 

January 5. Catherine Bennett ... 91 

8. Moses Drayton ■ 90 

16. Feby Edwards ...86 

28. Benjamin Faber 95 

February 7. Martha Bethune 84 

21. Robert Salters -98 

26. Win. Parker 95 

28. Jane Faber 97 

March 3. Elizabeth Mustapha 80 

9. Aaron Coxune ....86 

24. Mary Jane Ancruin 80 



Department of Health. 107 

DATE OF DEATH. AGE. 

April 5. Jane Jackson 115 

8. Ann Adams • 83 

27. Daniel Bryan 80 

May 4. Sam Perry, , 80 

6. Peggy Gillens..,. ....80 

24. Lavinia Salters '...80 

25. Dolly Ferguson 80 

June 8. Eliza Plummer 80 

8. Mary Williams ...92 

18. James 15. Grant 80 

25. Wilionghby Gathers 80 

27. Elsie Chisolm 81 

July 4. Wm. P. Ford 85 

17. Sarah Miller 83 

28. Prince Alston 96 

31. P.G.Gregory ....80 

August 1. Priscilla Holmes 84 

8. Titus Young , 96 

25 John Lewis 90 

September 12. John Richardson 90 

15. Ann Jones 84 

21. Albert Hunt 84 

28. Eve Hamilton SO 

29. {Sarah Mitchell 90 

30. Catherine Catrell 80 

October 11. Sarah Brown 80 

15. Mary Williamson 81 

23. Wm. Walker ...85 

28. Lucretia Johnson 86 

November 6. Hannah Deas 90 

14. John Smalls 80 

18. Judy Johnson 85 

December 4. Mary Dufratt 89 

15. Phcebe McKuyler ..80 

28. Rhina Lucas 80 

28. Tyra Brown, 99 

30. Rebecca Hunter 87 



108 Mayor Ficken*s Annual Review. 



ANNUAL SUMMARY OF METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS 
MADE BY THE IT. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 
WEATHER BUREAU, AT CHARLESTON, S. C, 1894. 



AIR PRESSURE. 

Mean, reduced to 32° Fahrenheit, 8 a.m., 30.09 inches. 

Mean, reduced to 32° Fahrenheit, 8 p. in., 30.06 inches. 

Mean annual, reduced to 32° Fahrenheit, 30.0S inches. 

Mean, reduced to 32° Fahrenheit and sea-level, 8 a. m., 30.14 inches. 

Mean, reduced to 32° Fahrenheit and sea level, 8 p. m., 30.11 inches. 

Mean annual, reduced to 32° Fahrenheit and sea-level, 30.13 inches. 

Highest, reduced to 32° Fahrenheit and sea-level, 30.06, November 29. 

Lowest, reduced to 32° Fahrenheit and sea-level, 29.21, October 9. 

Annual range in pressure, 1.45 inches. 

The average annual pressure, reduced to 32° Fahrenheit and ser- 
level, of Charleston, 3. C, for twenty years, is 30.03 inches. For the 
months:-— January, 30.18 inches ; February, 30.13 ; March, 30.06; April, 
30.0-1; May, 30.02; June, 30.03; July, 30.03; August, 30.03 ; September, 
30.05; October, 30.08; November, 30.12 ; December, 30.16. . 

AIR TEMPERATURE. 

Mean, 8 a. m., 62.7 degrees. 

Mean, 8 p. m. s 65.4 degrees. 

Mean annual, 66.3 degrees. 

Tbeaverage hourly values for the year 1894, are: 1 a. m., 63.1 ; 2 a. m. s 
62. 7; 3 a. m., 62.3 ; 4 a. m., 61.9 ; 5 a. m., 61.3; 6 a.m., 00.9 ; 7 a.m., 61.3 
8 a- m., 62.7; 9 a. m., 64.6 : 10 a. m., 67.0; 11 a. m., 6S.9; 12 noon, 70.1 

I p. m., 70.9 ; 2p.m, 71.2; 3 p m., 71.0; 4 p. m., 70.4; 5 p. m., 69.3 
6 p. in., 67.9 ; 7 p. m., 66.5 ; 8 p. m., 65.4 ; 9 p. in., 64.9 ; 10 p. m., 64.5 

II p.m., 64.1 ; 12 midnight, 63.6. 

The average annual temperature of Charleston for twenty years is 
66.1°. For the months '.—January, 50-0 ; February, 53.2 ; March, 57.1 ; 
April, 64.8; May, 73.0; June, 79.6; July, 82.1 ; August, S0.7; Septem- 
ber, 76.0; October, 67.1 ; November, 58.0 ; December, 51.3. 

Highest, 96, August 10. 

Lowest, 14, December 29. 

Annual range, 82. 

Greatest daily range, 33, January 25. 

Least daily range, 3, January 9. 

Greatest, monthly range, 59, in December. 



U. S. DEPART! 

Wi 

CHARLESTON 



[Compiled 



Y (121 MILES) AT 





I 


























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4|10 8 9 7 

8 U/J ll'.S 

4 11.3 11.2 

Siil.3 13.4 

8112.5 14.7 

9|li.9 11.6 

8112.1 11,7 

10. 01 9.9 

12.0! 12.3 

11.1 10.1 

.3 8.6| 7.6 

8i 8.2 7.8 



8.7 7.S 


8.3 


10.81 S.( ! 


9.0 


I0.i| 8.3 


7 7 


11. 811.0. 3 


8.8 


!2.li)0.7 


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11.4 10.8 


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10.6 9.2j 8.2 


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10.810.01 

8.2! 7. 



6.1 

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5.6 



6.0 
5.9 



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6.8 
8.4 
8.6 
8.2 



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7.6 
8.9 

6.3] 

6.9 
7.0| 
8.0! 
6.7 
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L. 411L 2:i0.8| 9.7| 8.51 



U. S. DEPARTMENT OF- AGRICULTURE, 

Weatiieh Bokkau, 

Ouaklestox, S. C, January 15, 1805. 



ANNUAL METEOROLOGICAL- SUMMARY FOR THE YEAR E>:!'IXfi DECEMBER 31, l<'i. 01' CHARLESTON', S. C. 



Latitude N., 32° 17' 


Longitude \V., 7 


■■ 


'• °'' 5<TO| 








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UI.OUDINBaS. 


WIND. 


NUMBEIl OF DAYS- 




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•TOTAL. 






















































































I.. 


N 


JESUNOFSKV, 


Local Fon 




".'■"• 


■,?. 









Department of Health. 109 

Least monthly range, 27, in July. 

Mean monthly range, 41. 

Mean daily range. 14. 

Number of days on which temperatures were above 00: — 15 days; in 
June, 1 ; July, 3 ; August, 8; September, 3. 

The average number of days on which temperatures were above 90, 
at Charleston, for twenty years, is 6. For the months:— June, 6; 
July, 13: August, 5; September, 1. 

Number of days on which temperatures were below 32: — 7 ; in Jan- 
uary, 1 day; February, 2; March, 1; December, 3. 

The average number of days on which temperatures were below 32, 
at Charleston, for twenty years, is 2. For the months :— January, 3 
days; February, 1; November, 1; December, 2. 

Last Tee formed : March 27. 

First lee formed : November 12. 



MOISTURE. 

Mean dew-point, 8 a. m., 56 degrees. 

Mean dew-point, 8 p. m., 58 degrees. 

Mean annual dew-point, 57 degrees. 

The average annual dew-point, of Charleston, for ten years, is 58 
degrees. For the months: — January, -13; February, 47; March, 47; 
April, 55 » May, 63; June, 70 ; July, 74; August, 73 ; September, 69; 
October, 60; November, 50; December, 45. 

Mean relative humidity, 8 a. in., 80 per cent. 

Mean relative humidity, 8 p. m., 78 per cent- 
Mean annual relative humidity, 79- per cent. 

The average annual humidity, of Charleston, for twenty years, is 75 
per cent. For the months :— January, 77 per cent. ; February, 75; 
March, 72; April, 72; May, 72; June, 73; July, 75; August, 78 ; Sep- 
tember, 78; October, 76; November. 76 ; December, 76. 

Mean vapor pressure, 8 a. m., 0.504 inch. 

Mean vapor pressure, 8 p m., 0.529 inch. 

Mean annual vapor pressure, 0.516 inch. 

WEATHER. 

Mean cloudiness, (scale to 10 tenths,) 8 a. nn, 4.5 tenths. 

Mean cloudiness, S p. m., 4.4 tenths. 

Mean annual cloudiness, 4.7 tenths. 

The average annual cloudiness, of Charleston, for twenty years, is 4.6 
tenths. For the. months:— January, 4 A tenths ; February , 5.6 ; March? 
5.0; April, 4.3; May, 4.6; June, 5.8; July, 5.3; August, 6.8 ; Septem- 
ber, 5.0 ; October, 3.8; November, 4.6; December, 4.1. 

Greatest monthly cloudiness, 6.2, in February. 

Least monthly cloudiness, 3.1, in October. 



110 Mayor FicJcen's Annual Review. 

There were 101 clear days, distributed as follows*:— January, 8 days 
February, 4; March, 8; April, 11 ; May, 6; June, 7 ; July, 3; August 
1; September, 4; October, 18; November, 15 ; December, 18. 

The annual average of clear days, of Charleston, for twenty years, is 
133. For the months :— January, 9 days; February, 11; "March, 13; 
April, 13 ; May, 12; June, 8; July, 9; August, 9; September, 10; Octo- 
ber, 14 ; November, 12 ; December, 13. 

There were 216 partly cloudy days, distributed as follows:— January, 
15 days; February, 16; March, 21; April, 18; May, 25; June, 20; July, 
23; August, 26; September, 21; October, 10; November, 10; Decem- 
ber, 11. 

The annual average of partly cloudy clays, of Charleston, for twenty 
years, is 136. For the months: — January, 11 days; February, 9; 
"March, 10; April, 11; May, 13; June, 14; July, 15; August, 15; Sep- 
tember, 10; October, 10; November, 10; December, 10. 
" There, were 48 cloudy days, distributed as follows: — Januan% 8 days; 
February, 8; March, 2; April, 1; May, 0; June, 3; July, 5; August, 4; 
September, 5; October, 3; November. 5; December, 4. 

The annual average of cloudy days, of Charleston, for twenty years, is 
96. For the months :— January, 11 days; February, S; March, 8; 
April, 6; May, 6; June, 8; July, 7 ; August, 9; September, 10 ; Octo- 
ber, 7; November, 8; December, 8. 

WIND. 

Prevailing direction, southwest. 

Total annual movement, 71,641 miles. 

The average annual movement of wind, of Charleston, for twenty 
years, is 68,535 miles. For the months: — January, 5,664 miles; Feb- 
ruary, 5,451; March, 6,231; April, 0,132; May, 6,412; June, 5,873; July, 
5,686; August, 5,363; September, 5,622; October, 5,604; November, 
5,201 ; December, 5,290. 

Greatest monthly movement, 6,758, in April. 

Least monthly movement, 5,147, in August. 

Greatest daily movement, 735, September 26. 

Least daily movement, 74, November 22. 

Highest velocity, -19 miles per hour, from the N. E., September 26, 

Number of times the wind was observed blowing (at 8 a.m. and 8 p.m.) 
from the N., 76 times, or 10 per cent.; N. E„ 116, or 16 per cent.; E., 
76, or 10 per cent,; S. E. ; 54, or 7 per cent.; S., 96, or 13 per cent.; S. \V., 
194, or 27 per cent,; W., 61, or 9 per cent.; N. W., 57, or 8 per cent.; 
calms, none, (0) or per cent. ' . 

The average annual percentages of the wind direction, of Charleston, 
for 20 years, are: N., 11 per cent.; N. E., 15; E., 13; S. E., 7; S., 10; 
S. \Y., 22; W., 11; N. \V„ 7 ; calms, 4. 

The average hourly wind velocity, for the year 1894, is 8.2 miles, 
The mean hourly values, for the same period, are; 1 a. m., 6.6 miles; 
2 a. in., 6.5; 3 a. in., 6,4 ; 4 a. m., 6.3 ; 5 a. m., 6.3; 6 a. in., 6.2 ; 7 a. m.; 



Department of Health. J 11 

6,5 ; 8 a. m., 7.0 ; 9 a. m., 7.7 ; 10 a. m., 8.2 ; 11 a. m., 9.0; 12 noon, 9.7. 
1 }). m., 10.6; 2 p. m., 11.2; 3 p. in., 11 4; 4 p. in., M.'l) 5 p. m., 10.8 ; 
Gp.m.,9-7; 7 p. m., 8.5; 8p.m., 7.9; 9p.m. ,7.6; K)p.m.,7.2; 11 
p. m., 7.2 ; 12 midnight, G.9. 

The annua] average hourly wind velocity, of Charleston, for ten 
years, is 7.8 miles. The mean hourly values for the same period are* 
1 a. m , 6.5 miles ; 2 a. m., 6.4 ; 3 a. m., 6.4 ; 4 a. m., 6.3 ; 5 a. m., 6.3; 
6a.m., 6.4; 7 a.m., 6-6 ; 8 a.m., 7.0; 9 a. m., 7.8; 10a. m., 8.2; 11 a.m.. 
8.7; 12 noon, 9.2; 1 p. m., 9.9; 2 p. m., 10.3; 3 p. m., 10.6; 4 p. m., 10.5; 
5 p. m., 10.2; 6 p. m., 9.2 ; 7 p. m., 8.0 ; 8 p. m., 7.2; 9 p. m., 6.9; 10 
p. m., 6.7 ; 11 p. m., 6.7 ; 12 midnight, 6.6. 



PRECIPITATION'. 

Total rain (melted snow, sleet and hail included,) 56.81 inches. 

Total depth of snowfall, trace. 

Greatest monthly rainfall, 12.11 inches, in August. 

Least monthly rainfall, 0.44 inch, in December. 

Greatest rainfall in any 24 consecutive hours, 7.00 inches, September 
26 and 27. 

The average annual precipitation, of Charleston, for twenty years, is 
56.81 inches. For the months: — January, 4.07 inches; February, 3.46 ; 
March, 4.01; April, 4.06; May, 4.06; June, 5.29; July, 7.40; August, 
7.31; September, 6.09; October, 4.36 ; November, 3.21 ; December, 3.49. 

There were 120 " rainy " days (or days on which 0.01 inch of pre- 
cipitation from rain, melted snow, sleet, or hail occurred,) distributed 
as follows : January, 10 days; February, 12; March, 8; April, 5; May, 
11 ; June, S; July, 18 ; August, 21 ; September, 9; October, 6; Novem- 
ber, 7 ; December, 2. 

The annual average of " rainy " days, of Charleston, for twenty 
years, is 120. For the months: — January, 11 days; February, 10; 
March, 10; April, S; May, 9; June, 11 ; July, 12; August, 13; Septem- 
ber, 11 ; October, 8; November, 8; December, 9. 

There were 93 thunder-storms, distributed as follows: January, 0; 
February, 0; March, 4; April, 2; May, 16; June, 14; July, 25; August, 
20; September, 7; October, 2; November, 2; December, 1. 

The annual average of thunder-storms, of Charleston, for twenty 
years, is 39. For the months:— January, 1 ; February, 1 ; March,!; 
April, 2; May, 4; June, 8; July, 9 ; August, 7; September, 3; October, 
1; November, 1; December, 1. 

The last frost occurred March 31. 

The first frost occurred November 6. 

L. N. JESUNOFSKY, 

Local Forecast Official. 
Charleston, S. C, January 17, 1895. 



112 Mayor FkkcrCs Annual Review. 



DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. 

Charleston, So. Ca., November 7th f 1894 
2^o the Chairman and Members of the .Board of Health. 

Gentlemen : — I have tbe honor to make the following 
report of my attendance upon the 22nd Annual Session of the 
American Public Health Association, held in the City of 
Montreal, in the Dominion of Canada, September 25th — 23th, 
and of my visit to the Quarantine Station at Crosse Isle, on the 
St. Lawrence River, erected and maintained for the protection 
of the Province of Canada against the importation of con- 
tagious and infectious diseases. 

There were about 230 members present, representing the 
various States of the United States, the Army and Navy, and 
Marine Service of the United States ; also, members from 
Mexico and Canada, making the session an international one 
in the fullest sense. 

Men gathered together to confer upon the great problems 
of Hygiene and preventive medicine, to protect the people 
of their various countries against the income and continuance 
of dangerous diseases ; and to take measures for the limitation 
of endemic diseases and the prolongation of human life. 
These are grave and serious problems and are entitled to the 
most thoughtful consideration. 

The Session was marked by an earnest attention to the 
principles on which the American Public Health Association 
was founded. 

Nineteen volumes, containing full and copious papers and 
discussions on the problems of human life and its preservation 
are the results of the devoted labor of the members of the 
Association. I question if there exists in any country such a 
valuable contribution on these subjects. Dr. E. P. La Chapelle, 
of Montreal, President of the American Public Health Asso- 
ciation, occupied the chair, and presided with dignity and 
ability. 

The first paper read before the Association on Tuesday, A. 



Department of Health. 113 

M., September 25, was by Dr. Gr. II. F. Nuttal, of the Johns 
Hopkins University, referring principally to the very great 
movement made recently in some Italian Cities, in improv- 
ing their sanitary condition — Naples, Florence and Home. 
Abundant Water Supply ; Disinfecting Plants ; Crematories 
for the Dead, and Slaughter Houses have been secured. In 
Naples over one hundred millions (100,000,000) of francs 
have been given to this work. A large part of the city has 
been entirely re-modeled — the old pestiferous dwellings have 
been torn down and modern houses built. The lower por- 
tions of the city have been filled up on a gigantic scale, good 
water secured, and habits of cleanliness fostered, so as to 
greatly reduce the death rate. In some places the surface 
has been raised 4 metres, about 13 feet. 

21 towns have crematories for the dead, costing about 40 
francs for each cremation — the poor gratis. 

The people generally, do not take kindly to this method of 
disposing of the dead. 

Dr. Lee, Secretary Pennsylvania Board of Health read 
a paper entitled the " Cart before the Horse," aptly illus- 
trating how frequently fine dwelling houses had splendid 
plumbing fixtures, and appliances put in, before proper 
measures were taken to secure a thorough and . com- 
plete disposal of the polluted water coming from the soil 
pipes — the water often polluting the earth. He recommended 
that proper sewers should always precede the water supply. 
A series of most interesting papers were here read on the 
purification of water. 

Dr. Johnston, of the McGill University, read a paper upon 
Sedimentation in Water, showing that sand filters diminishes 
Bacteria about 99 per cent. There should always be places 
for sedimentation before the water goes into the reservoir. 
He spoke of the powerful influence of sun light in destroy- 
ing Bacteria. 

Dr. Bell gave an interesting statement as to the Long 

Island water basin, describing an impenetrable clay strata 

at the depth of fifty feet. Many large wells fifty feet in 

diameter, bored or dug to the depth of fifty feet, gave a 

8 



114 Mayor Fickcn's Annual Review. 

very abundant and inexhaustible supply of pure water ; 
the rainfall permeating the upper sand strata, becomes 
thoroughly purified. This is sedimentation by a natural 
process. 43 inches of water falls here annually, three-quarters 
of which filters through the soil. This is Brooklyn's- water 
supply and reservoir. 

Dr. Shutt, Chemist of the Experimental Farm, at Ottawa, 
speaks of water on farms as a fruitful source of disease. He 
had examined hundreds of samples of water taken from 
Canadian farms, and found them polluted. Owing to apathy 
and negligence, the country which should afford the purest 
water, often from contamination with the drainage of the 
barnyard, suffered from this cause of filth. The farm wells 
often showed an appalling number of disease germs, and the 
greatest care should be taken in the site of these wells, and 
the surroundings should be kept free from filth. 

Mr. Fuller, Bacteriologist of the Lawrence, Mass. Experi- 
mental Farm, then read a most interesting paper on the 
various results of their work for the past seven years on the 
Filteration of Water Through Sand Beds. lie said that there 
were three methods of purifying water. 1st, chemicals, 2nd, 
by heat, and 3rd, by filtration. Chemicals he said were im- 
practicable and possibly harmful. Heat was a good method, 
but Filtration was infinitely the better method. 

In 102 experiments, 58 indicate sterilization, and the few 
Bacteria left in the others were harmless Bacteria. Spring 
water is the result of natural filteration. There are, perhaps, 
a score or more harmful Bacteria, the others are a benefit to 
humanity. Infinitely small Bacteria destroy the worm and 
the whale ; they protect the living from the dead ; the best 
method is to follow nature. For seven years the Experi- 
mental Station at Lawrence had been studying the problem of 
nature's method. Five feet in thickness are the best filters, 
and the finer grains of sand are better than the coarser for 
Bacteria. Two methods were in use, the continuous and the 
intermittent supply of water. So far no appreciable differ- 
ence was noticed. 12,000 examinations of 20 forms of filters 
showed J)S per cent of Bacteria removed and the ones left 



Department of Health. 115 

were harmless. The experiment was made of placing Typhoid 
Fever Bacillus in those filters and only a few came out. 
99 T 8 ^ - were removed by filtration. Such a test as would 
never occur naturally. The tests were very severe ones. 
Germs were applied for weeks, and 100 fold greater than 
would ever happen naturally, in a natural water supply. 

The results are no longer experimental ; and a new filter on 
a large scale has been invented and applied at Lawrence, Qu- 
aeres in extent, 5 feet thick of sand — water flows in 16 hours 
a day. 

In some cases 99 per cent, of Bacteria were removed, and 
Typhoid Fever had been diminished GO per cent. In a great 
factory, at Lawrence, where Typhoid Fever formerly pre- 
vailed, since the use of this filtered water, not a single case of 
Typhoid Fever had occurred. It is entirely possible to pro- 
tect the people from Typhoid Fever by sand filtration. I 
regard the above as a most interesting and important contri- 
bution. 

The Afternoon Session was opened by the reading of the 
report of the Special Committee on the Pollution of Water 
Supplies, by the Chairman, Dr. Charles Smart, of the U. S. 
Army. This report reviews very fully the influence of sand 
filtration, and noted the unbroken record of Typhoid Fever 
in communities that used raw river water, and an equally un- 
broken record of lessened Typhoid rates following the filtra- 
tion of such river supplies. It was recommended that 
different Universities take up different forms of Bacteria 
found in water, and stud}' their nature and habits, and 
publish the same. It was also resolved to memorialize the 
different Federal Governments, the State and Provincial 
Governments to pass laws to prohibit the contamination of 
water supplies by sewerage from cities, towns and villages, 
and compel them to provide some means for the treatment 
and oxidation of this sewerage before emptying it into these 
places. 

Br. Smart noted that when Cholera prevailed in 1892, in 
Hamburg, Altoona, a near neighbor of Hamburg, was free 
from the disease, due to the use of filtered water. In Ham- 



116 Mayor Fickois Annual Review. 

burg, one side of a square used filtered water, and was free 
from Cholera ; the other side of the square used non-filtered 
water, and suffered from the disease. In May,, 1893, filtered 
water was introduced into Hamburg, and there has been no 
Cholera since. There are 137,000 square miles of filter beds in 
Hamburg. In .New Orleans, Alum and Lime are used as 
coagulents, and are said to be more rapid in their effect than fil- 
tration, and are cheaper. He recommended the closing of all 
surface wells liable to be contaminated from sub soil filtra- 
tion. There should be co-operative efforts made to study this 
subject by all Biological Laboratories equipped for the pur- 
pose. Dr. Smart noted report of the Royal Commission of 
London, England. The filtration by the London Water 
Company removes 9S or 99 per cent, of the microbes contained 
in the river water of the Thames and Lea. The vital action 
of- filter beds removes or destroys any pathogenic organisms. 
Dr. Hodgetts, of Toronto, then read a paper on the manage- 
ment in Diphtheria Epidemics in rural districts. He said as 
far as cities were considered, an outbreak was under the con- 
trol of the Health Officers, but in rural districts it was very 
different. He said some inexpensive system should be 
adopted in these cases. From an insidious beginning the 
disease extended over a .wide area, several weeks occurring 
between the first outbreak aiid the true state of affairs becom- 
ing known. The duties of an inspector was to protect the 
living and to succor the diseased. All directions should be 
plain and simple. Above all things all schools should be 
closed. Isolation should be practiced, and thorough disinfec- 
tion practiced. 

Dr. J. D. Griffith read a paper on " Innocuous Transporta- 
tion of the Dead.' 5 He said that this age demanded a far 
greater precaution in the transportation of the dead. Until 
we were educated to the thorough sanitation of cremation, 
the transportation of the dead body by rail would always be a 
source of very great clanger. He suggested that a portion of 
each baggage car should be metal lined, and be securely 
locked and set apart for this purpose. Particular emphasis 
was laid on the fact that the transportation of persons who 



Department of Health. 117 

had died from contagious diseases should be prohibited. Some 
ol the members were of the opinion that no dead body should 
be removed by rail, or transported from one- place to another. 
And it was suggested that only after cremation should, the 
ashes be allowed to be removed. In Montreal no person 
dying from an infectious disease is allowed to be removed; 
and the railroads will not carry them. 

The Evening Meeting of the first day was a meeting of wel- 
come from the authorities of Canada, It was held in the 
Windsor Hotel Hall, a spacious auditorium. 

Dr. Craik, the Chairman of the Local Committee, said that 
the Association was one which appealed to every body, no 
matter what their age, creed or nationality might be. Dr. 
Craik extended a welcome, and concluded as follows: "Let 
us, regardless of all artificial lines of separation, join together 
as one great family, striving earnestly to prevent, as far 
as may be, human misery, disease and premature death, and 
to increase by every means in our power, the sum of human 
health, happiness and prosperity." 

tt. Governor Chapleau then extended a welcome on. behalf 
of the Dominion of Canada. He said there could be no 
nobler or greater object than that of the American Public 
Health Association — the object of conserving the public 
health of this continent and of the world. One great effect 
had been produced by these Associations. The great plagues 
of the earth had been stopped, that had been once the dread 
of humanity. The first duties of a Government was to assist 
the Association in its endeavors to keep public health as good 
as possible. He welcomed the Association most heartily. 

The Mayor of Montreal gave a most hearty and cordial 
welcome to the Association. He said that the American Pub- 
lic Health Association, considering its objects and the results 
of its labors, is one of the most important on the American 
Continent. The sanitary and commercial interests of the 
world are dependent upon one another, because when an 
epidemic breaks out commercial transactions are stopped at 
once. Misery and hardships are the consequences, and who 
will deny that misery gives birth to sickness. He said that 



118 Mayor ffickm's Annual Review- 

your Association possesses an especial character of philan- 
thropy and universality, because all of its efforts tend towards 
the preservation .of humanity from sickness and contagion. 
The evening ended with the address of President LaChapelle. 
He said the Association had never ceased since its foundation 
to labor for the advancement of sanitary science — for the pro- 
motion of measures and organizations that should effect the 
practical accomplishment of the laws and principles of public 
Hygiene. It had thus realized the brightest hopes and the 
most enthusiastic provisions of its most worthy founders, and 
had extended its benefits and influence over the whole of North 
America, the Republic of Mexico and the Dominion of 
Canada — all three working together in brotherly emulation, 
recognizing no political boundaries, and valiantly striving to 
attain one unique and humane object, the dissemination to all, 
of the knowledge of public Hygiene, and the development of 
respect for its decrees. He said that Hygiene is no longer 
the patrimony of Physicians exclusively; it is a science open 
to alMaymen and clergymen, men and women. It needs sup- 
porters and workers in all classes — -engineers, teachers, chem- 
ists, (fcc. Governments now recognize to-day that the money 
and labor spent in upholding sanitary principles are repaid 
manifold by the security afforded to public health. May we 
not hope that Governments fully recognizing the import- 
ance of these questions, and wishing to afford greater facilities 
for protection, will soon sec the necessity of creating a new 
department in their Cabinet — that of " Public Health," and 
that in the near future all Governments will be advised 
and supported by a competent Specialist—-''' a minister of Pub- 
lic Health.-' He said the perspective of the future is very 
encouraging. The work done during the past fifteen years 
has been enormous. What may we then not expect in the 
next 15 years? All over the continent, State, Provincial and 
Local Boards of Health have been organized, and are working 
effectively. Every where a prominent position is given to the 
subject of sanitary knowledge. The protection and preserva- 
tion of one's health and that of one's fellow beings is not only 
a right but a solemn duty. 



Department of Health. 119 

The work of Wednesday's Session commenced with two 
papers on Vaccine and Vaccination,; the first by Dr. Gauvreau, 
Director of the Vaccine Institute of St Foye, Province of Que- 
bec. The next paper was by Dr. Ralph Walsh, of Washing- 
ton D. C. lie said the selection of Lymph and the operation 
of Vaccination had not received from the profession at large 
the thought it deserved. During scares, Vaccinations are 
hastily performed, and often there is no after inspection. The 
Lymph used may be feeble or the operation badly done. He 
said the Cow Fox was only modified Varioloid ; the admixture 
of Glycerine with Vaccine Lymph not only destroys the ex- 
traneous Bacteria, but prolongs the activity of the Lymph. 
Outbreaks of Small Fox are caused by the general physician's 
failure to perform his duty at the proper time. What are the 
remedies ? An honest observation of responsibility upon the 
part of the propagator of Vaccine and the physician who 
should use it. The physician should see that each infant 
brought under his care is successfully Vaccinated during the 
first year of its life, and at least again at sixteen. The ideal 
protection can be secured by Vaccinating to the point of 
Saturation. I mean to Vaccinate at six months of age or 
earlier, and then each succeeding six-months, until no result is 
obtained — making test re-vaccinations at intervals of a few 
years thereafter. The Lymph should be used direct from the 
propagator, holding him responsible, not after it has passed 
through the hands of second and third parties, and all respon- 
sibility lost. Great necessity exists for antiseptic methods in 
the collection of the virus. Heifers from 3 to 12 months old 
are preferred ; light cows preferred to dark ones. Young 
cows are not tuberculous. On the fifth or sixth day the 
Fustules are ready. The next subject was Tuberculosis. 

Dr. ]S T . E. Wordin, of Bridgeport Conn, read the next 
article on the Restriction and Prevention of Tuberculosis. He 
showed that Consumption was an infectious or communicable 
disease, and the principal source of danger of its spreading 
lay in the sputum ejected by a phthisical patient when it had 
become dry. The breath of a Consumptive contained no 
Bacilli, and was not infectious. If the spread of this disease 



120 Mayor Fidxn's Annual Review, 

was to be attacked it must be by the destruction of the 
sputum. Phthisis might be communicated by osculation, and 
among the Hygienic commandments should be one for the 
Syphilitic and the Consumptive, " Thou Shalt Not Kiss," 
He considered that the most practicable and quickest way of 
restricting the spread of Tuberculosis would be to put it on 
the list of infections or communicable diseases, to be reported 
to the Health Officers. There should be a thorough disinfec- 
cion of all houses in which the disease had occurred, and this 
should be put on a public record. There should also be a 
disinfection of hotel rooms, sleeping car berths, rooms and 
prison cells which had been occupied by Consumptives, before 
they were occupied by any other person. There should be 
special hospitals for the treatment of Tuberculosis. No 
Tuberculous female should nurse a child. Milk from Tuber- 
culous animals should never be used. i\ r o one should sleep in 
the same room as a Consumptive, or in a room which has been 
occupied by a Consumptive, until it has been thoroughly dis- 
infected. Milk should be sterilized before it is given to 
children. There should be public inspection of Dairies and 
Slaughter Houses. Milk should be tested for Tuberculosis, so 
that the disease might be stamped out in cattle. General 
hospitals should be provided with special wards for Consump- 
tives, and in them should be enforced the proper measures for 
the elimination of infection. Since the wonderful strides 
made by the science of Bacteriology, the germs of disease are 
no longer unknown. These dreaded organisms are things we 
can see, handle and kill. The sputum of a Consumptive must 
be destroyed as soon as it is voided. Michigan has taken the 
advance in the requirements of notification and restriction of 
this disease. She has already reaped an abundant reward. In 
1878, the cases of Consumption were .71 ; and this propor- 
tion has steadily decreased every year, until in 1SS9 it was .49. 
Consumption kills one-seventh of all persons dying. 11 per 
cent, of all deaths. 91.270 deaths in the United States from 
Consumption in one year? 

Dr. F. 0. Donaldson, President of the New York State 
Board of Health, then read a paper on the Examination of the 



Department of Health. 121 

Milk Supply, for Tuberculosis, in the State of New York. 
One-eighth of all deaths was due to Tuberculosis, and it was 
not questioned thdPfinany of these cases of Consumption 
originated from Tuberculous Milk. Since 1892 there has been 
a law in Xew York State providing for the slaughter of 
cattle found, to be suffering from Tuberculosis. Out of 22,000 
cattle examined, 700 were ordered killed. The discovery of 
such a large number of cattle affected, has led to the appoint- 
ment of a Special Commissioner for the purpose of prosecuting 
the enquiries further. It was estimated that there was 
$40,000,000 invested in the Milk industries in New York 
State, and 2,000,000 cows were at work. A Tuberculous cow 
will give Tuberculous Milk, There was great antagonism at 
first to the law affecting the Examination of Cows; now all 
opposition has been withdrawn. $60 is paid for registered 
cattle and §25 for grade cows, if killed. In examination for 
Tuberculosis, the breed is taken, the history of the herd, tem- 
perature taken, and Tuberculin imported from Dr. Koch, 
Germany, is injected. The temperature is then continuously 
taken ; in 9 to 15 hours it reaches a maximum. Next day if 
the temperature rises two degrees it is a sign of Tuberculosis. 
All cattle are liable to the disease. Tuberculin is a very 
valuable diagnosticean. The care of the public health is the 
chief duty of the State, and such work must go on. 

" Should the Marriage of Consumptives be Discouraged ? " 
was the next theme, by Dr. P. Paquiu. lie. held that the 
marriage of a Consumptive with a healthy person must lead to 
the infection of the latter, and that the children born of Con- 
sumptives are always naturally predisposed to Tuberculosis. 
Thus the centres of infection are increased, and the danger to 
society is made much greater. The conclusion is obvious. 
No Coi sumptives should marry. 

At the Evening Session Dr. Montizambert gave an interest- 
ing description of the "Grosse Isle" Quarantine Station on the 
St. Lawrence River, illustrating the same by means of lime 
lights thrown on a suspended sheet of large dimensions. 

Description of the Station below. * * * 

Dr. Cameron, of the McGill University then gave a lecture 



122 Mayor Mcken's Annual Review. 

on the Hygiene of the Young in Schools. He showed the 
great neglect of schools in not providing Hygienic appliances. 
He quoted Herbert Spencer as having^said that the first 
requisite of success in life is to be a good animal, and that to 
be a nation of good animals is the first condition to national 
prosperity. 

From the age of 4 to 5, up to 15 or 16, the period of active 
growth and development, most children are at school, being 
educated and trained for their life work. If the schools fulfil 
their important functions well, and turn out their scholars 
good animals, well equipped for the battle of life, the first 
condition of national prosperity will have been attained ; but 
in whatever degree they fail to secure the best results, in the 
same degree will they hinder national progress. At the end. 
of the year scholars are examined to determine their scholastic 
proficiency. Is there a question as to how the body has fared ? 
School desks are responsible for a good deal of deformity. 
The desks are of uniform height, while the pupils are of 
various sizes. If too tall, the children must stoop ; if too 
short, they must reach up. These desks should raise and 
lower like a piano stool. Physical exercise in schools should 
aim to cultivate the habit of sitting, standing, walking and 
breathing properly. If proper precautions are not taken, 
spinal curvature is apt to follow. 

There should be a regularly appointed Inspector of Physi- 
cal Culture; he should examine and report; youth is the 
time, and school is the place.- 

A man with a good body and poor education is often in a 
better position for securing a good livelihood, than the man 
with a good mind in an unsound body. Therefore, the neces- 
sity exists to give physical as well as literary instruction. 

Mr. Mitchell, President of the National Association of Mas- 
ter Plumbers, suggested that a semi-annual inspection of all 
houses, for sanitary purposes should be had. He said that in 
1SSS, Baltimore, 1892, New York, and 1893, Massachusetts 
had passed laws for Plumbing Inspection, and no Plumber 
was allowed to work without a license. Pure air and pure 
water should abound in every house. He offered the Eesolu- 



Department of Health. 123 

Hon, that the American Public Health Association recommend 
that all the States should have Jaws passed for proper plumb- 
ing. 

Dr. Crothiers, Hartfort, Conn, read an interesting paper on 
The Influence of Inebriety on Public Health. 

1. The influence of inebriety on public health is of far 
greater magnitude, and more closely associated with the 
various sanitary problems of the day than is realized at 
present. 

2. Our present conception of the extent, nature and charac- 
ter of inebriety is erroneous, and based on theories that are 
wrong. Our methods of dealing with inebriates are most 
disastrous and fatal, in not only destroying the victim, but in 
perpetuating an evil we seek to lessen. 

3 These patients must be recognized as diseased, and 
should be housed in farm colonies, under military care and 
methods, and medical treatment. They must be organized, 
employed, placed in Hygenic surroundings, and made self- 
supporting. 

There are in the United States 500,000 people who are- 
inebriates, and 100.000 who are constantly arrested for petty 
crimes. Capitalists are now requiring temperate men and 
non-drinkers in their employ ; and in ISTew York, even liquor 
dealers require abstainers. 

A society has been formed in England and in this Country, 
for information as to those unfortunates, and they are being 
studied. Instead of short sentences for crime, they should be 
made self-supporting. Those belonging to more well to do 
classes should be confined in less public places and made to 
pay for their support. In all cases it should be taken as 
granted that inebriates have forfeited their rights to personal 
liberty ; that they are dangerous. 

The Thursday Morning Session was opened with a report 
from Dr. Conn, on Car Sanitation. He said the employees of 
the cars should be instructed in the simpler problems of 
Hygiene and the use of Hygenic appliances, Some discussion 
followed. Dr. Horlbeck indicating that in Charleston the 
ventilation of cars was severely tested by the American Pub- 



19A Mayor Fichcns Annual Review. 

lie Health Association, on an excursion to trail to, in 1S90. 
The Railroad Companies had ignored it entirely ; and until 
these corporations were forced to supply fresh air, by Govern- 
ment law, nothing would be done. To change the present 
immense service of cars would be costly ; and as there was 
no obligation required, the Railroad Companies allowed tilings 
to remain in statu quo. 

Dr. Formento read a report from the International Com- 
mittee on Yellow Fever. He said that modern appliances 
afforded a means of keeping Yellow Fever out of the Country. 
Dr. Formento said that Yera Cruz had never been free from 
Yellow Fever since 186S. 

Dr Horlbeck offered a Resolution, That the United States 
be asked to send a proper Bacteriologist to a Yellow Fever 
City in the Tropics, who shall reside there permanently, for 
the purpose of studying up the character of the disease. lie 
suggested better sanitation in the Cities where Yellow 
Fever constantly prevails — Rip Janeiro, Yera Cruz and 
Havana. 

The report was full of interesting information and was 
voluminous. 

Mr. Rudolph Herring read a report on the Disposal of 
Garbage. All tilings considered, incineration seemed the 
best of all methods for the disposal of garbage. 

Dr. Durgin, of Boston, showed an ingenious device for the 
disposal of the refuse garbage waste of every household on 
the premises, by a sheet iron box fitted with grates, and con- 
nected with the stove pipe. This scheme is being perfected 
in Boston, and should it be developed to a success, it will 
greatly solve the garbage matter. Dr. Durgin said that he 
had had one in use at his home for three months, and it had 
worked very satisfactorily. The heat passing from the stoves 
to the chimney dries the garbage. The cost would not be 
more than three or four dollars. 

Dr. Kingston spoke of the influence of the climate of 
Canada on health. He said it was very cold but it was 
exhilarating and dry cold. Soldiers marching' for days 

CD xi O 

together, clad lightly, when the thermometer was iO to 50° 



Department of Health. 125 

below zero, did not suffer if the wind did not blow. Except 
Malta, Canada shows tlie lowest mortality in the British 
Army. Canadians are a very healthy people. Mortality 
lower than that of Great Britain. Canada has no special 
malady. The increase in population was enormous. There 
was a lesser mortality in winter than in summer, which wis 
different to most countries. The Association here took the 
opportunity of visiting the Xew Garbage Incinerator which 
has just been erected at a cost of $4 7,000. It is a huge affair, 
with a chimney 1S5 feet high : and the builders claim that it 
works perfectly at a minimum cost. 

Dr. Wordin, of Bridgeport, Conn, then read a paper on The 
Disposal of Garbage. He advocates its disposal by fire. 

Dr. Gauthier, of Quebec, read a paper on The Importance 
of Teaching Hygiene in Elementary Schools, in which he 
held that it was through the schools and teaching Hygiene 
that we could eradicate the unfortunate prejudices which 
directly caused the loss of so many who might otherwise have 
been the strength, glory and pride of our country. 

Dr. Brennan gave a " Few Remarks on School Hygiene." 
He spoke of the need of arousing the general public to the 
necessity of propagating the study of Hygiene. The Hy- 
gienic education of children, whose teachers must be profi- 
cient in Hygiene. In each school he recommended there 
should be a School Commissioner, endowed with power to act. 
There should be some system of efficient general supervision, 
and the general co-operative support of local and general 
Boards of Health, and the Board of Public Instruction should 
be assured. 

There were several other papers read, rather of a profes- 
sional character. 

Dr. Nagle, of the Xew York Board of Health, presented 
the methods in use in New York for minimizing contagious 
diseases ; especially the methods in use for Diphtheria, There 
were 10 stations in Xew York for the collection of Diphthe- 
ria Sputa. 5, Oil cases so far had been examined, and 58 per 
cent, were true Diphtheria ; he also gave books indicating the 
methods used. 



126 Mayor Ficken's Annual Review. 

On the next day, Friday, at three o'clock, a visit was 
made by the Association, 200 miles below Montreal, to 
the Quarantine Station at Grosse Isle, St. Lawrence River. 
The Station is up to the most advanced scientific plane. 3 
jacketed chambers are in use, 25 feet long, S feet 6 inches in 
diameter — square. 2 cars go into each cylinder; each car 
has 24 very ingenious and convenient wire trunks, each trunk 
having a special key ; the clothing and effects of each pas- 
senger or immigrant is or are put into one of these trunks ; this 
is then locked and the key given to the passenger or immigrant, 
and after disinfection by steam the trunk is turned over to the 
owner. Special arrangements are very well contrived to give 
each person a thorough cleaning— hot and cold water. They 
are washed from head to feet by a rain bath. Each cylinder, 
therefore, contains -18 trunks at each operation. The opera- 
tion takes about two hours. Dr. Montizimbert, the Supervis- 
ing Quarantine Officer of Canada, informed us that they could 
handle about 1,000 immigrants in the 2-1 hours. The cylinders 
have a special Thermometer, made by the Peabody Ther- 
mometer Company. By means of an electric contrivance, 
information is afforded to the Engineer of the progress of the 
heat as applied. Also, there is a Clockwork dial, which notes 
automatically, and registers the heat. Every charge is there- 
fore recorded, and these dial plates are kept as a tell-tale in 
case damages are asked for on the claim of extraordinary heat. 
Cost about $108.00, The accommodations on shore are made 
for about 1,800 persons. The beds, 1,800 in number, are 
models of neatness. They are all in pieces : a great heap of 
these pieces can be thrown together and any piece will lit any 
other piece. I could not obtain the cost of this plant. Dr. 
Montizimbert informed me that they had spent $77,000 from 
July 1, 1892, to July 1, 1893. ISTo statements were as yet 
made by the Board of Public "Works for the past fiscal year. 
There are no charges whatever for boarding or for disinfec- 
tion. The Steamship Companies are, of course, charged with 
the maintenance of the detained. Extensive cooking appli- 
ances are there for the convenience of the detained. There is 
a subsidiary Station at Quebec, for disinfection, with one 



Department of Health. 127 

cylinder, for the detention of the effects of immigrants coming 
from a suspected country but where there is no disease. 

Two steamers assist in the work— one of them being sup- 
plied with a Sulphur Furnace for supplying Sulphur Dioxide. 
This is a very first-class Station, and probably the most com- 
plete, in some respects, as far as scientific appliance goes, in 
existence. 

On my return trip, with the concurrence of our Chairman, 
Mr. McGahan, I visited the Health Department of the City 
of Xew York. The Department has just been removed into 
a magnificent building at the corner of White and Elm Street, 
In every respect superior to the late accommodations, and all 
the sub-divisions will have their headquarters here. I met 
Mr. Wilson, the President, and also Dr. Cyrus Edson, the 
Sanitary Commissioner, who advised the Board as to the pre- 
cautions required. Through the great courtesy of the latter 
I had an opportunity of studying the effects of the recent 
remedy for Diphtheria — -Anti Toxine. 

At the Willard Parker Hospital, where they have accom- 
dation for eighty patients with Diphtheria, and accommoda- 
tion for eighty patients with Scarlet Fever, . I saw seven 
patients being treated for Diphtheria with Anti Toxin. Dr. 
Somerset, the Physician in charge, told me that he had taken 
the very worst cas'es of Diphtheria ; they were recovering. The 
patients are injected once in the twenty-four hours with the 
compound. So marked has been the success that the Health 
Department of Xew York expect to put up a Bacteriological 
plant for the manufacture of this compound, to cost £30,000. 

It is only now made in Germany ; is almost impossible to 
get ; and takes a long time to obtain ; for this reason the exten- 
sive plant is to be put up. I saw the Receiving Hospital 
adjoining the "Willard Parker Hospital, put up recently, at a 
cost of $80,000. This is for the reception of Small Pox and 
Typhus and aggravated Measles. 

The cases are, every day as they occur, carried to ]S r orth 
Brothers Island. I visited Korth Brothers Island. It is an 
Island devoted to this purpose of receiving Small Pox, etc., 
and is about eight or nine miles up the East River. The 



128 Mayor Fieken's Annual Review. 

most extensive accommodations are here afforded for patients. 
It is easily possible to take care of 1,000 cases. All the Dwel- 
lings and Administration Buildings, and one very large 
building, are of handsome brick, besides there are tents and 
wooden buildings. I saw about fifty cases of Small Pox 
being treated at the Island. The arrangements for the care 
and limitation of contagious diseases are 011 a most elaborate 
and extensive scale. 

Dr. Talmadge, acting Quarantine Officer of the Port of Xew 
York in the absence of Dr. Jenkins, in Europe, was kind enough 
to come to .New York for me, in the Steamer Gov. Flower. 
"We visited first Swinbourne Island and then Hoffman Island. 
These Islands are artificial Islands, made of Kip Rap Stone. 
I am glad to report that I saw a most complete Plant. At 
Swinbourne Island there are accommodations for the care and 
treatment of eight hundred sick persons — sick with contagious 
disease, physicians, nurses, &c. Hoffman Island, about one 
mile from Swinbourne Island, is for the detention, segrega- 
tion and disinfection of immigrants. There is accommodation 
for 4-,000 persons at one time. 

There is a very complete disinfecting plant — three cylinders 
jacketed, supplied with air pumps, porj valves, &c. The 
cylinders are similar to the ones at Grosse Isle. Have two 
doors, one at each end, and a partition wall. The articles go 
in at one and come out, after disinfection, at the other. 
These Islands contain about two and-a-half acres each. The 
authorities are now at work, adding on to Hoffman Island, to 
be increased in the near future, nine acres, and in three years, 
nine more acres. This is for the purpose of giving greater 
accommodation to the saloon passengers that may be detained. 
The whole Island is covered with cement, and can be disin- 
fected and kept disinfected. Any group can be segregated, 
males and females kept apart ; they can be washed, males and 
females separately, a large number of bathing rooms being 
provided. Recently a building, frame, has been erected, 280 
feet long and 50 wide, 8 stories in height, supplied with hun- 
dreds of beds, lavatories, water closets, &c. 1,500 persons can 
be taken care of in this one building. Great changes have 



Department of Health. 129 

gone on under the management of Dr. Jenkins, and more is 
contemplated. My trip to New York was most instructive, 
and I Lave a very clear idea of the possibilities of this city to 
handle contagions disease and. to keep it out of the country. 

From what I could gather, the authorities of IS^ew York, 
Kew Orleans and Baltimore have no idea of turning their 
Quarantine Stations to the general government. 
Respectfully submitted, 

H. B. HOELBECK, M. D., 

Health Officer. 



130 • Mayor Ficken's Annual Review. 

REPORT OF TIDAL DRAIN KEEPER. 

Charleston, January 1st, 1895; 

To Bis Honor the Mayor and City Council: 

Gentlemen : I have the honor to submit the following 
report of the proceedings of this Department for the past 

year : 

Appropriation APowed $4,500 00 

To C. Roessler & Sod, hardware, oils, etc., for 

cleaning drains .% 59 11 

" Jno. F. Riley, general overhauling of tools for 

cleaning drains 130 27 

•• Anderson Lumber Company, 4 pieces planking 

boards 1 20 

" J. N. Schlepergrell, 19 pieces 3 inch planks....... 5 JO 

"* J. C. Beard, \\ doz. drain lamps, @$3 per doz. 4 50 

- Pay Rolls for cleaning drains 2,664 25 

" Two Drain Hands for year 73 00 

Tidal Drain Keeper's salary...". 900 00 $4,494 43 

Balance on hand $5 57 

Respectfully, JNO. E. KOSTEE, 

Tidal Drain Kee-per. 



.. n 



Department of Charities. 131 

DEPARTMENT OF CHARITIES. 

CHARLESTON ORPHAN HOUSE. 

To the Mayor amd Aldermen, of the City of Charleston: 

Gentlemen : I have the honor to present herewith a state- 
ment of the receipts and expenditures of the Charleston Or- 
phan House for 1894. ' Also the reports of the various 
Standing- Committees for the fiscal year ending Decemher 31, 
189-1, with the annexed statement of the Commissioners' 
Trust Fund. 

GEO. W. WILLIAMS, 
Chair mart Board Commissioners of Charleston Orphan 
House. 



Statement of the Receipts and Expenditures of the Charleston 
Orphan House, for the year ending December 31st, 1891}.. 



KECEIPTS. 

To amount received from interest on PuMic Fund % 8,608 51 

To amount received from Commissioners' Trust Fund 2,573 36 

Balance from City Council : 12,348 80 

$23,530 67 

EXPENDITURES. 

By amount expended as per Monthly Returns to City 

Council $20,257 31 

By Physician's Salary ' 700 00 

By amount expended from Commissioners' Trust Fund, as 

per Return to City Council 2,573 36 

§23.530 67 

E. E. E. MONTAGUE GRIMKE, 

Secretary C. C. O. II. 



132 Mayor Ficken's Annual Beoiew. 

REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON SCHOOLS, 

1894 

Your Committee respectfully report as follows for the 
year 1894:. 

Highest number on register ; — 

Boys, 120— Girls, 131— Total , 251 

Average attendance : 

Boys, 114— Girls, 119— Total 233. 

Admitted during the year: 

Boys, 14— Girls,15— Total 29 

Discharged : 

Boys, 22— Girls, 28— Total 50 

The studies embrace Reading, Writing, Orthography, 
Arithmetic, Common School and Physical Geography, An- 
cient and Modern History, Familiar Science, Physiology, 
Grammar, Stenography, Yocal and Instrumental Music. The 
Kindergarten now numbers 59 ; 25 having been promoted to 
the Primary Department last October. 

Your Committee are impressed with the continued profi- 
ciency, and completeness in instruction as developed during 
the past year, in \]\e rapid advance made by all the children 
in the various departments of the School Strict discipline 
has been enforced and a greater interest observed both among 
teachers and pupils, and it is gratifying to know that in con- 
stant tests made from time to time the fruits of the efforts 
made in behalf of perfecting the wards placed under our care 
are becoming more and more each year apparent, in not only 
the scholastic training, but the practical moulding, which will 
render those receiving it, more qualified to enter upon the 
duties of life. While giving due praise to each and all inter- 
ested in this department, your Committee still recognize the 
uncqualed ability of the Principal, Miss Irving, and her able 
lieutenant, Mrs. Iieiliy, who, during her absence assumed her 
duties with marked ability^, discretion and judgment. 

Your Committee embraces the opportunity of their report 
to place upon permanent record the valuable services ren- 
dered by Prof. E. F. Parker in his lectures on Physiology 



iJeparimeni of Charities. 138 

before the school, and to express the thanks of both teachers 
and scholars for the happy and instructive manner in which 
he demonstrated his subject. Your Committee cannot ex- 
press in too enthusiastic terms the success of the recent exhi- 
bition of the scholastic excellence of the higher classes of the 
school, before one of the most cultured audiences of our 
fellow citizens and friends of the Institution, and would com- 
mend these exercises to be annually repeated as the best way 
to demonstrate the usefulness of school training. Your Com- 
mittee, in conclusion, recommend to your fostering care the 
continued interest of this department. 
All of which is respectfully submitted, 

J. S. BUIST, 
VIKGIL 0. DIBBLE, 
FRANCIS J. FELZER, 
GEO. II. TUCKER, 
A. F. C. CRAMER, 



Committee on Schools. 



COMMITTEE OK LIBRARY. 



Charleston, S. C, January 24th, 1895. 

The Committee on Library respectfully report that there 
are now in the Library 3,51.8 volumes; 21 books and 116 pam- 
phlets have been added since last, repoit. 

The children have drawn out and read during the year 

2,754- volumes. 

GEO. H. TUCKER, Chairman. 

T. A. WILBUR, 

LOUIS 1). MAHLSTEDT. 



134 Mayor Fickerfs Annual .Review. 

COMMITTEE ON PURVEYANCE. 

Charleston, S. C, January 10th, 1S95. 

The Committee on Purveyance beg leave to submit their 
Annual Report of Expenditures for the Charleston Orphan 
House fortlie year ending December 31st, 1894. 

LBS. COST. 

Fresh Meat 25,264 $1,518 5S 

Bacon, Ham and other Salt Meats.. 4,966-J 488 41 

Coffee 270 58 OB 

Cocoa Shells 2,723 85 83 

Rice 4.313J 183 95 

Butter , 1,200 309 29 

Cottolene 790 59 40 

Tea 85 45 66 

Sugar 3,774 157 85 

Molasses G38 gals. 255 20 

Flour 16 bbls. 65 50 

Irish Potatoes 30 bbls. 78 20 

Sweet Potatoes.. 39f bbls. 41 60 

Bread 54,820 loaves 1,298 34 

Milk 3,825$ gals. 810 46 

Grist 51GJ bushels. Meal 152 bushels 434 30 $5,890 63 

Small Groceries...... ,.. 497 74 

Corn and Peas, 151 T V«j bushels 98 99 

Soap, Starch, &c.' Ill 20 

Fuel, Wood and Coal 954 70 

Clothing, House Linen, Hats and Shoes 2,335 9-0 

Books, Stationery, &c... 334 56 

Medicines, Carbolic Soap, Disinfectants, &g 224 60 

House Furnishing, Garden Seeds, <£c 597 73 

Salaries and Labor 5,320 75 

Incidental Expenses, such as Vegetables, Picnic, Officers' 
Table, extras for sick and other small items too numer- 
ous to mention 906 38 

Repairs 2,665 60 



$19,93S 78 



The Committee are pleased to report that the expenditures 
were £900 less than those of the previous year, as a smaller 
amount was necessary for repairs. 



Department of Charities. 135 

The most rigid economy was practiced in every depart- 
ment ; the expenditure for clothing was even less than that of 
the year before — it was expected that it would have to he 
larger. 

Owing to the drought and the storms, the garden has- not 
done as well as usual. 

It furnished the following : 

1,945 heads of Cabbage, 2o£ bushels of Beans, 

1.022 ears of Corn. 2| bushels of Okra, 

1.023 bunches of Carrots, ' 2J bushels of Tomatoes, 
276 bunches of Beeis. 9£ quarts of Green Peas, 
195 bunches of Radishes, 512 Squash, 

108 bunches of Leeks, 91 Mangoes. 

265 bunches of Turnips, 

Respectfully submitted, 

JAS. M. EASON, 
T. A. WILBUR, 
A. F. C. CRAMER. 



COMMITTEE ON IMPROVEMENTS AND 
DISCIPLINE. 

Charleston, S. C, January 3, 1895. 

The Committee on Improvements and Discipline respect- 
fully report, that they know of no necessary improvements to 
the House, and do not see where any improvement can be 
made in the Discipline. 

FRANCIS J. PELZER, 

II. II. DeLEON, 

JAS. M. EASON, 

J. S. BUIST. 

B. A. MUCKENFUSS, 

LOUIS D. MAHLSTEDT, 

T. G. MAIN, 

A. F. C. CRAMER. 



136 Mayor Ficleu's Annual Review. 



EEPOFvT OF COMMITTEE ON REPAIRS CHARLES- 
TON ORPHAN HOUSE. 

The Committee beg respectfully to report, that early in 
the past year, they found that there was an imperative neces- 
sity for very extensive repairs during- the year. 

Being unable to undertake the details of so complex and 
arduous a work themselves, such as selecting and purchasing 
materials, and hiring such skilled labor as would be needed 
at the lowest cash prices, in order that the work would be 
satisfactorily and economically performed. 

The valuable services of Mr. Barton were enlisted, and by 
his economical management, and personal supervision, the 
work has been completed, and done in a workmanlike manner, 
at the least possible cost, and the buildings of the Orphan 
House are in better condition now than for years. 

City Council appropriated $1,000 for repairs to the floors 
of the main building. Those have been all renewed, includ- 
ing the dining room, which in addition has been painted and 
otherwise repaired and improved. 

The sheds of the main building, school-room and outbuild- 
ings were badly damaged by the August cyclone, but have 
all been repaired and renewed. 

The front porch, has been painted, also the interior walls of 
the halls and stairways. 

The Board has appropriated the sum of §500, if so much 
be necessary, to purchase a new outfit for the Laundry Depart- 
ment, of the latest and most approved manufacture, to take 
the place of the old machinery which, by constant use and old 
age, is of little use. 

For a detailed statement of costs, I beg to refer you to the 
Superintendent's report, all of which is respectfully sub- 
mitted. 

T. G. MAIN, 
H. II. DeLEON, 
VIRGIL C DIBBLE, 

Committee on M&paws. 



Department of Charities. 137 



COMMITTEE ON RETRENCHMENT AND REFORM. 

ChaelestoKj S. 0., January 3rd, 1S95. 

The Committee on Retrenchment and Reform beg leave to 
report that the management of the Institution is, as usual, 
continued on as economical principles as possible, and have no 
suggestions to make. 

T. A. WILBUR, Chairman, 
JAS. M. EASOX, 
LOUIS D. MAHLSTEDT. 



BINDING OUT COMMITTEE. 

Charleston, S. C, January 3rd, 1895. 

The Binding Out Committee present the following as their 
annual report : 

The admissions to the House during the year have been: 

Bays, 16— Girls, 17— Total 33 

There have been dismissed: 

Boys, 22— Girls, 23— Total 45 

The dismissals have been as follows, viz: 

To Relatives 34 

To Farmers 2 

To Merchants 2 

To Domestic Service 2 

Adopted 3 

Of age .- 2 

Total 45 

Respectfully submitted, 

VIRGIL C. DIBBLE, 
T. G. MaIN, 
GEO. H. TUCKER, 

Binding Out Committee. 



133 Mayor Fichenh Annual Review. 

Charleston Orphan House, January 21st, 1S95. 

The Chairman in transmitting the reports of the different 
committees, avails himself of the occasion to add his special 
endorsement of the same. 

The affairs of the Home were never more carefully and 
economically administered. 

He also wishes to add his tribute to the faithfulness of the 
Principal, Miss A. E. Irving, and her corps of assistants. 

They are doing a noble work, which is duly appreciated by 
our home people, and highly commented on by visitors of 
intelligence from abroad. 

In the Board the utmost cordiality and harmony has pre- 
vailed in all matters appertaining to the Orphan House, They 
are read}' and willing to do their utmost for the interests of 
the Institution. 

The hard times materially increases the number of inmates 
of the House, and will consequently add to the expenses. 



EEPOET OF SEWING DEPARTMENT. 

The report of the Sewing Department which in addition to 
the general seamstress work, includes tailoring and dress- 
making, is as follows : 

Boy's Woolen Suits ; 109 

Woolen Pantaloons 45 

Worsted Dresses 115 

Cotton •* 526 

Boys' and Girls r Under-garments 640 

Calico Shirtees 95 

Aprons 152 

Sheets 55 

Bed Ticks , 58 

Table Cloths, hemmed 28 

Towels, " 204 

Overalls 5 

Blankets, Hemmed or Bound 64 

Frilling, Hemmed , 33 yds. 

Hats, trimmed 115 

Under-garments, repaired 316 

Clothing outgrown by larger children, refitted to smaller ones, 1,934 

Stockings and Socks, marked... 316 

Handkerchiefs " 156 



Department of Charities. 139 

The Laundry has handled 119,546 pieces during the year. 
For several months all of the work in this department was 
done by the girls ; the rest of the time, one or two hands were 
employed, as needed. 

For more than six months only one cook was employed, as 
the girls of the first class, in ■ rotation, each serving a week, 
prepared the food for officers and employees ; the girls, while 
thus employed, kept up their studies, and attended afternoon 
school. 

Only one house-servant is employed, as the children, both 
boys and girls, assist in every possible way. 

November 29th, was the one hundred and fourth anniver- 
rary of the Charleston Orphan House, The children thor- 
oughly enjoyed the Thanksgiving Dinner on that happy 
occasion. 

There is nothing new to report about the Sunday-School. 
Mr. Ivnox continues to act as Superintendent, and has been at 
his post regularly every Sunday morning, and Mr. Miscally 
lias charge of the Girls' First Bible Class. These gentlemen 
are the only ones outside of the Home, who are engaged in 
this important missionary work. The majority of our own 
teachers, though teaching all the week, have for years given 
their services cheerfully to the Sunday-School. 

Divine services were regularly conducted in the Chapel 
throughout the year by the resident Clergy, and seven visit- 
ing ministers, " Rev. E. O. Flagg, D. D., Rev. J. M. Wilbur, 
Rev. Mr. Gannon, Rev. A. R. Mitchell, Rev. G-. W. Walker, 
D. D'., Rev. J. L. McLees and Rev. Lathrop C. Grant." The 
Commissioners again return thanks for these services, which 
are always cheerfully rendered. The Easter service of recita- 
tions and singing by the children, was very beautiful and much 
appreciated by a large congregation. Air. Dibble closed this 
service with a few happy and appropriate remarks. 

The music the past year has been particularly good, fur- 
nished entirely by home material. 

The health of the Home has been good, though we have 
lost three by death; Kate Moran, aged 11J years, and Alice 
Thompson, nearly 10, both very delicate children at the time 



140 Mayor Ficken's Annual Review. 

of their admission, died of consumption, and were interred in 
our lot at Magnolia Cemetery. 

Wilson Lucas, who was permitted to spend the day on the 
Island with relatives, while bathing, was caught in the under- 
tow, and drowned ; his body was recovered, and at request of 
the family, buried in their lot at Magnolia. 

During the past year the House has been repaired and re- 
painted from cellar to garret. The Hospital has had special 
attention, and is now in complete order. At present there is 
not a child in the Hospital. 

The House is open to visitors on every Wednesday after- 
noon at -1 o'clock, and all citizens should avail themselves of 
the' opportunity to see and learn the condition of the orphans, 
and the advantages afforded them in this beneficent Home. 
Eespectfully submitted, 

GEO. "W. WILLIAMS, 

Chairman of the Board of Commissioners of the Charleston 
Orphan House. 



Department of Char Hies. • 141 

Abstract of the Receipts and Expenditures of the Private 

.Fund of the Commissioners of the Charleston Orphan 
flov.se, for the year ending December 3.1, ISO. 1 !. 



Dr. 

To Balance on hand January 1, 1894 $ 497 39 

To Cash received from interest on investments.., 2,609 50 

$3,106 89 



Cm 

By Cash paid for Officers' Salaries, &c .....?2,040 35 

Magnolia Cemetery Company 31 50 

Sunday School Books and Papers 13 28 

Picnic 158 44 

Funeral Expenses , 100 00 

Furniture..,...., 126 00 

Illumination of House 41 99 

Sundries 61 SO— $2,573 36 

Balance in hand 533 £3 

$3,106 89 
E. E. 

E. MONTAGUE GKIMKE, Treasurer. 

Examined and found correct. 

II. II. DfXEOInT, - ) 

B. A. MTJCKENFUSS, \ Com. on Acts. 



J. S. BUIST 



Approved, GEO. W. WILLIAMS, 

Chairman Orphan House Board. 



Jan. 22, 1895. 



142 * Mayor Ficken's Annual Review. 

LIST of Stocks, .Bonds and oilier Securities belonging to the 
Private Fund of the Commissioners of the Charleston 
Orphan House, exhibited to us this seventh day of Janu- 
ary, 1895. 

51 Bonds of the City of Charleston 4 per cent $1,000 $51,000 

7 . " •■ 500 3,500 

5 - - 100 500 

2 Bonds of the Northeastern Railroad Co., 1st Mort- 
gage, £500 each 1,000 

1 Certificate of Stock of the State of South Carolina 4£ 

per cent 4,500 

1 Certificate for 20 shares Magnolia Cemetery Co., at 

$100 each ,. ,. 2,000 

1 Certificate for 4 shares Bank of Charleston Stock, par 

value • 400 

1 Certificate for -h share Do . 50 

1 Title Deed to 6 lots in Magnolia Cemetery 

*1 Certificate of Deposit for 1 Bond of the Charleston 

and Savannah R. R. Co for $150 

*1 Bond of the Savannah and Charleston R, R. Co., 

$150 

["Worthless.] 

B. A. MUCKENFUSS, > 0om ' on AcU ' 



Department of Charities. 143 

SHIRRAS DISPENSARY. 

Charleston, S. C, February 4th, 1895. 

Hon. John F. FioJcen, Mayor : 

Sir : — I have the honor to transmit herewith the detailed 
reports of the physicians of Shirras Dispensary, a summary of 
the same, and the Financial Statement for the past year. 
Yery respectfully, your obedient servant, 
R. L. BRODIE, M. D., 
Secretary and Treasurer. 



Report of the Surgeons of the Eye., Ear and Throat 
Depj 
1894 



Department of Shirras Dispensary, for the Year 



To the Board of Trustees of Shirras Dispensary : 

Gentlemen : We beg leave to submit the report of this 
Department for the year 1894. 

The work in this Department has steadily increased, as is 
shown by comparing the report of 1894 with that of 1893. 
During the past year 232 patients were treated, while in 1893 
there were 178. In 1894 there were 84 males and 148 females, of 
whom 34 were whites and 198 colored ; and the total number 
of visits made by these to the Dispensary was 92S. In 1893 
there were 61 males, 117 females, 51 whites, 127 colored, and 
747 visits. The number of whites in 1894 was less than in 
1893, while the number of colored was considerably larger. 

We would respectfully call your attention to the fact that 
certain forms of eye disease (corneal) are very prevalent 
among the negroes, and that hundreds of these people are 
blind and have defective vision from lack of care. They are 
proverbially careless of their condition, and therefore it is 
difficult to deal with them, but we think that if the Dispen- 
sary was better known, many who now go without treat- 
ment would seek it there. It is a daily occurrence to find 



144 Mayor FicherCs Annual Review. _ 

that they have never heard of the Dispensary, and while 
charitable institutions are too often abused, still we think 
that an occasional advertisement in the daily press that the 
deserving poor are treated free of charge at the Shirras Dis- 
pensary, in Society Street, would be a benefit to the com- 
munity. The attention of the various benevolent societies in 
the city might also be called to these notices, for they often 
meet with worthy cases requiring assistance. A tabulated 
statement .of the diseases treated is appended. 

Respectfully submitted, 

CHARLES W. KOLLOCK, M. D., 
JOHN L. DAWSON, Jr., M. D., 

Op hi ha Imic Surgeo n s. 



Department of Charities. 



14 



Tabulated Statement of the Diseases of the Eye 
Treated During the Year 1894. 



Affections of the Conjunc- 
tiva. 

Burn of the Conjunctiva 1 

Conjunctivitis— Catarrhal 2$ 

Granular 2 

Trachomatous.. 1 

Purulent- 2 

Ophthalmitis — Syphilitic 1 

Hemorrhage — Subconjunctival.. 2 
Conjunctivitis— Phlyctenular ...25 

Total 63 

Affections of the Cornea. 

Anterior Staphyloma 1 

Keratitis, Interstitial 2 

Phlyctenular ....25 

Ulcerous 17 

Pannus — Scrofulosus... i 

Leucoma — Adherent 7 

Nebulous Cornea. 3 

Lacerated wounds of Cornea 2 

Total .58 

Affections of the Aclera. 

Episcleritis... .....:....,. 2 

Affections of the Iris. 

Anterior Synechias 3 

Irido— Cystitis 1 

Choroiditis 1 

Dialysis 1 

Iritis— Plastic, Acute 15 

Gumma of Iris , 1 

Total .....22 

Affections of the Ciliary 
Body and Choroid. 

Choroido— Retinitis 2 

Choroiditis — Disseminated 1 

Suppurative 

(Panophthalmitis) 2 

Total : 5 

Glaucoma. 
Chronic 2 

Amblyopia, Exanonia 1 

JO 



Affections of the Optic 
Nerve and Retina. 

Atrophy of the Optic Nerve 6 

Amblyopia — Tobacco and Alco- 
holic 1 

Detachment of the Retina 3 

Neuritis— Optic 6 

Retinitis — Albuminuric 1 

Total ., . 17 

Affections of the Lens. 

Cataract— Secondary 2 

Senile....." 7 

Traumatic 1 

Total 10 

Affections of the Eye Ball. 
Atrophy of Ball 2 

Refraction. 

Astigmatism— mixed 1 

Hyperopia 6 

Myopia 2 

Total 9 

Accommodation. 

Presbyopia. 3 

Affections of the Muscles 
and Nerves. 

Paresis of External Rectus 1 

Squint — Convergent 1 

Secondary 1 

Neuralgia 1 

Total 4 

Affections of the Lochry- 
mal Apparatus. 

Dacryo-Cystitis 1 

Affections of the Orbit. 

Cellulitis 1 



146 Mayor Fkken's 

Affections of the Lids. 

Burn '. 1 

Chalazion 4 

Hordeolum 2 

Blepharitis — Marginal 3 

Papilloma of Lower Lid 1 

Total ...11 

Hemeralopia 1 

Nyctalopia 1 

Unclassed 2 

Affections of the Ear 
Auricle. 

Keloids 1 

External Canal. 

Abscess 2 

Eczema...., ....- 1 

Impacted Cerumen 2 

Total 5 



Animal Review. 

Middle Ear. 

Catarrhal Inflammation, acute.. 2 
" . " chronic 7 

Total : 9 

Labyrinthine disease 1 

Tinnitus Aurium 1 

Affections of Nose and 
Throat. 

Catarrh of Nose 1 

Post-Nasal Catarrh 2 

Pharyngitis and Laryngitis 1 

Tonsilitis 1 

Total 5 



Summary of Medical and Surgical Attendance at 
Shirras Dispensary for the Year 1894. 



Dr. J. J. Edwards, Surgery :— 

Number of cases treated , 2S 

Whites 13 

Blacks and Colored 15 

Dr. P. Gourdin DeSaussure :— 

Number of cases treated 137 

Whites . 46 

Blacks and Colored .91 

Drs. Kollock and Dawson : 

Number of case3 treated 232 

Whites 34 

Blacks and Colored 198 

Dr. Charles M. Rees, Urino Genital Surgery :— 

Number of cases treated 23 

Whites : 8 

Blacks and Colored 15 

Grand Total " 420 

Visits paid.... , ,,..,....... ..,.,.,.., 204 



Department of Charities. 147 

Charleston, S. C. 3 January 5th, 1895. 

To Board of 'Trustees "Shirras Dispensary" City : 

Gentlemen: I beg leave to submit my Annual Report 
for the year ending December 31st, 1S94-, in the Dejmrtmen-t 
of Genito-Urinary Diseases : 



1894. 
Month, 



Sex. 



Color. 



Disease. 







;/ 


W 


H 


H 


co 


w 


>* 



>0 



Jan 

April. . 
May...'. 

July..'!! 
Aug.... 

Sept.'..! 

Oct...'.'] 
Nov.".'.'. 



Male. 



Fe 
!M 



male, 
ale 



Female. 
Male 



Black.. 
White- 
White. 
Black.. 



White, 
Black., 



White. 

Black..' 
White. 
Black.. 

White! 
Black., 



White. 

Black.. 



Syphilis, Secondary 
■ Ulcer of Penis....... 



'Gonorrhoea 

Stricture Ureth ra 

Ulcer of Penis 

Syphilis, Secondary 

Sperm att orrhcea 

Stricture, Urethra 

Syphilis, Primary 

Gonorrhoea and Phimosis 

Gonorrhoea 

Chronic Cystiti s 

Suppurating Inguinal Glands. 



Endocarditis 

Sy phil is Tertiary 

Inflammation Inguinal Glands. 

Acute Nephritis 

Hematuria 

Syphilis — Primary 

Tertiary 

Secondary 



23 



10 



x 

K) 

3 

3 
5 
1 



57 3 20 



Total visits 

Total white patients treated 8 

Total colored patients treated.... 15 



,120 



Total, 



.23 



Eespectfully, 

CIIAKLES M. IlEES, K D., 

Surgeon in Charge Genito- Urinary Diseases. 



148 



Mayor Ficken's Annual Review. 



DISEASES. 



Amenorrhea;... 

Abortion 

Anteflexions ,. 

Bronchitis 

Chorea 

Croup 

Constipation 

Convulsions 

Cystitis, acute 

Cystitis, chronic 

Cholera Infantum 

Dentition 

Dropsy from Den't 

Diarrhoea 

Dysinenorrhcea... 

Erythema 

Fever, Cat ., 

Fever, Scarlet , 

Fever, Puerperal 

Jaundice 

Lacer. Cervix 

Leucorrhcea... 

Mastitis 

Mumps 

Menopause 

Menorrhagia 

Parturition 

Pregnancy 

Peretonitis, Pel v. 

Puerperal, Albuminuria. 

Pomphligus 

Puberty 

Prolap. Uteri 

Retroflexion 

Rheumatism, A 

Syphilis, const 

Tonsilitis 

Tuberculosis. 

Tumors, Fibroid 

T. Tongue 

Vaginitis 

Yaricilla 

Worms 



Totals. 



a; © 
p~ 









a ! 


o 


A 




1 f-l 


a d 


o 






o2 


a 


C"3 


oO 


~tz '!h 


•t^ 


fa o 








r 


£ 




31 



I ,-s 



■SO 

o 



46 



11 



60 



13 






11 



1! 

l 
i 

*il 

4i 
l! 

91 



91 



1 
*] 





1 

3 
] 
4 

137 



*Female infant, died. fW. F. A., died. J2 female children died. 

fNephritis From. flW. F. A., died, Amenorrcea. 

2 Adult females, white, died. 4 female children, colored, died. 



Department of Charities- 149 

Total number of cases treated during the year 137 

Whites.. 40 

Colored 91 

Total deaths during the year 5 

Whites, 2 adults, females ..2 

1 Tuberculosis, came for treatment for Amenerrhcea, 

1 Chronic Cystitis. 

Colored 3. All female children. 

1 Cholera Infantum. 2 Acute Diarrhoea 3 

House visits 113 

Office visits 267 

Total visits,, house and office .390 

Respect ful 1 y sub m i t ted , 

P. GOURDIN DeSAUSSURE, M. D., 

. • In Charge. 



150 



Mayor Fickeu's Annual Review. 



Report Surgical Department, Sutrras Dispensary 
for Year 1894. 



DISEASE. 




03 


05 

3s 


if ■ 

3 < i 5 

H W O 


Scrofula - 




1 
1 
1 
1 






1 , 


Fatty Tumor 










Aneurism • 










Chronic Rheumatism 










Eczema 




i 


T 




Paralysis , 








Talipes Valgus 


1 








Lyin ph&ngitis , 




1 

i 






Ulcer 

Farcom a o f Testes 


1 
1 






Ranula 






1 




Cancer of Fauces 




1 






Spinal Curvature 






1 




Cellulitis 






i 




Hernia 


1 
1 






Incised Wound 










Poisoned Wound (spider bite) 






1 




Goitre 




1 






Varicose Veins 




i 
i 






Cerebral Tumor (Tubercular) 








Lymph Scrotum 


1 






Cyst of Neck 




i 
i 


"T1 




Gun Shot Wound 
















Contusion 




1 












i 
i 

7 




Acne Rosacea 










Totals 1 


6 


7 


8 


28 



Office Consultations 48 

House Visits 31 

Total.. 79 



Respectfully submitted, 

J. J. EDWARDS, 

Surgeon in Charge. 



Deportment of Charities. 151 

Dli. R. L. BrODIE, TREASURER, IN ACCOUNT WITH TRUSTEES 

Shirras Dispensary/ 



1894. 
Jan'y 


1. To balance in Bank.. 
2 Deposit 


Dr. 


$614 22 

.. 360 00 


Feb'y 
May 
July 
Angus 


13. " 




150 00 


19. " 

9 " 




150 00 

360 00 


1, 1. " 




150 00 


Sept. 
Nov. 


14 " 




. 69 00 


1. " 




... 27 45 


Dec- 


3. " 




45 00 $1 925 67 


Check 


182 J. C. Johnson 


Cr. 


| 8 50 




183 T. L. Bissell 

184 Dr. Charles M. Rees.. 

185 Dr. J. L. Dawson, Jr.. 

186 Dr. Charles W. Kollo< 

187 Dr. P. G. DeSaussure. 

188 Dr. J. J Edwards 


±.z"i 


2 50 

50 00 

25 00 

25 00 

50 00 






50 00 




189 Dr. R. L. Brodie. 

190 H. W, Hummel. 




14 08 




191 J. C. Johnson,.., 




8 50 




192 William Johnson & C 

193 J. C. Johnson 


)o 


6 50 






8 50 




194 James Preston 




2 00 




195* James McCants 

196 Zimmerman Dj?vis. ... 




2 85 




197 H. W. Hummel 

198 Henry Oliver 

199 James McCants 




30 36 

109 00 




200 T. L. Bissell 

201 James McCants 

202 James McCants......... 




1 25 

8 50 

8 50 




203 Zimmerman Davis.... 




3 00 




204 11. W. Hummel 




39 17 




205 R. M. Marshall & Bro 

206 James McCants 

207 James McCants 

20S News and Courier 




440 00 






8 50 

8 50 

4 00 




209 James McCants 




8 50 




21(1 Zimmerman Davis.,.. 




2 85 




211 H. W. Hummel 




, 33 44 




212 A. W. Marshall 

213 James McCants 




2 95 

8 50 




214 James McCants/. 




8 50 




215 T. L, Bissell 

Balance in Bank 




21 75 

$1,217 70 

, 707 97 






EL. 






1,925 67 

BRODIE, M. D., 

Treasurer 



152 Mayor Fickerts Annual Review. 

Assets of Shibeas Dispensary, December 31, 1891. 



Balance in Carolina Savings Bank $ 707 97 

City 4 per cent. Bonds ..18,500 00 

Dwelling and lot N. E. corner Society and Meeting Streets. 
Dispensary Building adjoining on Society Street. 

K L. BKODIE, M. D., 

Treasurer. 



Department of Charities. 153 



CITY HOSPITAL. 



Charleston j S. C, February — , 1895. 

To the Honorable, the Mayor and Aldermen of the City 
Council of Charleston : 

Gentlemen. — I have the honor of enclosing herewith the 
Report of the Finance Committee of the City Hospital, to- 
gether with the usual statistical tables prepared by the Super- 
intendent, which will inform you as to the work of this noble 
charity during the past year. 

As stated by my predecessor, Dr. John L. Ancrum, in his 
report made last year, through the liberality of your honor- 
able body, the (i Riverside Infirmary " has been fully fur- 
nished and equipped with the necessary appliances and con- 
veniences for the proper care and treatment of private pay 
patients, and offers every attraction and comfort which can be 
found in any home, or private or public Infirmary in the 
country, and of which many have availed themselves during 
the year. This department of the Hospital is now self-sus- 
taining. 

The several severe spells of cold weather, with the result- 
ant freezing and bursting of pipes, were causes of much 
anxiety to the Commissioners, as it was a very difficult matter 
to keep up the proper temperature in the several wards, which 
are heated by an elaborate system of hot water pipes, but it 
is with satisfaction that we report that with an abundant sup- 
ply of. blankets not a single-inmate in any war I suffered from 
the effects of the cold during the temporary disarrangement 
of the heating'apparatus. 

The grounds and buildings are now in pretty good order, 
and the Hospital is fairly well supplied in every department 
with what is necessary to the care of the inmates. 

The necessity for trained nurses, and the difficulty in pro- 
curing them, both for service in the Hospital and in private 



154 Mayor Ficken's Annual Review. 

families in the city, Lave been very seriously felt by -the Com- 
missioner? and in the community, and efforts have been made 
to remedy this state of affairs. A conference was held with 
a committee of the organization called " The South Carolina 
Training School for Nurses," who proposed, for a specified 
sum, to supply a Chief Nurse, an Assistant Nurse and a cer- 
tain number of pupils, but no satisfactory agreement could be 
arrived at, because the committee of the Training School in- 
sisted upon the insertion of the following Section in the pro- 
posed agreement : 

"That in case any Nurse furnished by the party of the first 
part be suspended by the Commissioners, then and in such 
case the cause of such suspension shall be investigated by the 
Commissioners of the Hospital and the party of the first part 
jointly, or by a committee of said bodies, and the permanency 
of such suspension, or the restoration of said Nurse to duty, 
shall be determined by them, each of said bodies having an 
equal vote in such determination." The Commissioners most 
emphatically objected to this Section, replying that they could 
not " entertain any proposition looking to a divided authority 
in the management of any department of the Hospital." In 
claiming the right to suspend the Nurses for neglect of duty, 
the Commissioners were only placing them under the same 
rule governing the Medical Staff and the Superintendent, and 
to permit outside interference with the enforcement of their 
rules would be subversive of all discipline. 

It is the hope of the Commissioners, however, that they will 
themselves be able at a later period to take under their charge 
a small number of pupils who may be trained, under proper 
instruction, to supply the needs, not only of the Hospital 
itself, but by degrees, of the community at large. This will 
involve an additional expense, however, and it will remain for 
your honorable body to say, should the demand be made upon 
you, whether you deem the extra appropriation expedient or 
practicable. 

Respectfully submitted, 

ZIMMERMAN DAVIS, 
Chairman Commissioners City Hospital. 



Department of Charities. 155 

Charleston, S. C, January 1st, 1895. 

To the Board of Commissioners, City Hospital : 

Gfntlemen : — The Committee on Finance beg leave to sub- 
mit, as their annual report required under City Ordi- 
nances, the following statement of account with City Treas- 
urer, and also the tables prepared by the Superintendent from 
the books of Records in the Hospital : 

Appropriation : -$19,000 00 

Deposits 3,432 31 

Balance due Treas'r, Jan. 1, 1894. . . $ 4 11 

Bills paid by Treasurer 22,426 71 

Balance 1 49 

§22,432 31— $22,432 31 

To balance due Hospital by City 
Treasurer, Jan. 1, 1895 $1 49 

In connection with this report your Committee would rec- 
ommend that an appropriation of $19,000 00 be asked for 
coming year, the same being deemed necessary to meet the 
current expenses and make necessary repairs for preservation 
of the property, and in addition the $500 00 asked for by 
Committee on Riverside Hospital for sanitary improvements. 

Respectfully submitted, 

A. W. TAFT, 
HALL T. McGEE, 
T. T. HYDE, 

Finance Committee. 



156 Mayor Ficken's Annual Review. 

CITY HOSPITAL. 
Statistical Tables foe the Year 1894. 

TABLE A. 

SHOWING PATIENTS AS FREE, PAY AND BY RACE. 

Free. Pay. Grand 

W C Total W'CEInf'yT'l Total. 

In Hospital Jan. 1st, 1891... 26 48 74 1 1 2 76 

Admitted during Year 327 642 969 66 46 65 177 1146 

Total Treated 353 690 1043 67 47 65 179 1222 



TABLE B. 

SHOWING PATIENTS DISCHARGED, AND DIED DURING YEAR 1894. 



W. C. RInf'y. Total. 

Treated Free and Pay, Table A 485 737 1222 

Discharged 348 546 61 955 

Died 42 140 2 184 1139 

Remaining in Hospital and Infirmary Dec. 31st, 1894 83 



TABLE C. 

SHOWING PATIENTS REMAINING JANUARY 1st, 1895. 



W. C. Total. 

Free Patients 26 47 73 

Pay Patients 4 4 8 

Riverside Infirmary 2 2 

Totals 32 51 S3 



Department of Charities. 157 

TABLE D. 

SHOWING NATIVITY OF PATIENTS REMAINING JANUARY 1st, 1895. 



City 26 

State Clinics •... 2 

Berkeley County 

Norwegian Consul 

Private Patients 

Totals 28 45 



EE. 


Pay 






c. 


W. 


C. 


Total 


45 






71 
2 






4 


4 




1 




1 




5 




5 



TABLE E. 

SHOWING PATIENTS ADMITTED DURING YEAR 1S94. 



Free. Pay. 

W. C. W. C. Total. 

City 327 642 969 

Berkeley County 7 24 31 

Charleston County 1 5 6 

British Consul 10 10 

Norwegian Consul 1 1 

German Consul 1 1 

Chas. & Saw R. R 14 5 

N. JS. K. E 2 2 

Private Patients 45 11 56 

Kiverside Infirmary 65 65 

Totals 327 642 131 46 1146 



158 Mayor Ficken's Annual Review. 

TABLE R 

SHOWING AUTHORITY FOR ADMISSIONS FOR YEAR 1894. 



No. of Patients— Table A 2:146 

W. C. W. C. W. C. Total. Total. 

1st Health Ward. ...64 64 128 

2nd " " ... 22 59 81 ■ 

3rd ■• " ... 34 93 127 

4th " " ... 11 60 71 

5th " " ... 67 88 155 

6th " " ... 29 109 138 



Total .227 473 • ... 700 700 

Police Department 80 126 ' 206 

Emergency 11 22 33 

Faculty 8.Q. Med. College. 7 14 21 

Faculty Med. School 7 7 

Mayor 2 2 



Totals Free 100 169 

Private Patients personal application 66 46 
Riverside Infirmary 65 

Totals Pay 131 46 



969 969 


112 




65 




1146 


1146 



Department of Charities. 159 

TABLE G. 



SHOWING NUMBER OF DAYS TREATMENT AND COSTS. 



No. of Free Patients— Table A 1043 

No. of Tay Patients— Table A 179 

Total. No. Treated in vear 1S94 1222 



No. of Days Treatment Free Patients 29114 

No. of Days Treatment Pay Patients 3890 

Total No. of Days Treatment 1894 33004 



Average No. of Days Treatment to each Free Patient 27 

Average No. of Da}-s Treatment to each Pay Patient 22 

Highest No. in one Day in 1S94 110 

Lowest No. in one Day in 1894 G3 

Average No. of Patients per day during 1894 90-ijLi 

Cost of 33004 Days Treatment $22,034 56 

Average Cost of one Day's Treatment 

On Nursing '. 26.58 

On Subsistence..,, 23.G8 

On Supplies 12.70 

On Medicines 03.80 

.66.76 

Average Cost of each Free Patient $18 64 

Average Cost of each Pay Patient $14 51 



Cost of 1043 Free Patients .'...§519,437 59 

Cost of 179 Pay Patients 2,596 97 



$22,034 56 



Cost of Hospital for year 1894 ' $25,212 67 

Average Cost of one Day's Treatment 

On Nursing 26.58 $8,773 96 

On Subsistence 23.68 7,814 63 

On Supplies. ,12.70 4,193 31 

On Medicines 03.80 1,252 66 

On Repairs 03.27 1,078 58 

On Bills Payable 02.99 9S6 00 

On Improvements 02.46 811 01 

On Lunatics 00.62 205 80 

On Insurance and Advertise- 
ment 00.29 96 72 

.76.39 $25,212 67 



160 Mayor Fichu's Annual Review. 

TABLE G.— No. 2. 

ITEMIZED COST OF HOSPITAL FOR YEAR 1804. 



For Nursing $S,773 90 $8,773 96 

For Subsistence : 

Groceries 4,228 25 

Fresh Meats J ,354 54 

Poultry and Eggs 641 53 

Milk 515 64 

Bread 459 18 

Fish 261 60 

Ice 233 59 

Horse Feed 120 30 7,814 63 

Supplies : 

Coal and Wood , $1,279 70 

Bedding, Bed Linen, Nets, Straw and Moss 686 69 

Coffin Boards and Lumber........ 280 28 

Household Utensils and Hardware 273 41 

Ambulance, (new) 239 55 

Bandage Material 228 78 

Furniture 192 70 

Laundry Supplies 182 50 

Livestock, (Milch Cows). 129 00 

Stationery and Printing. 123 25 

Telephone 73 39 

Paints and Oils... 71 95 

Surgical Instruments 64 69 

Lunatic Supplies 14 00 

Miscellaneous 353 42 4,193 31 



Repairs $1,078 58 1,078 58 



Medicines -$1,252 66 1,252 66 

Bills Payable 5 986 00 986 00 

Improvements : 

Miscellaneous $ 653 16 

Disinfecting Cylinder 157 85 811 01 

Lunatics : 

Expenses conveying Lunatics to Asylum... $153 80 
Probating admissions to Asylum 52 00 205 SO 



Insurance and Advertising $ 96 72 96 72 

$25,212 67 



Department of Charities. 1G1 

TABLE H. 

SHOWING EARNINGS FOR YEAR 1894. 



Berkeley County $1,237-00 

Charleston County 151 85 

British Consul 128 00 

German Consul , 30 00 

Swedish and Norwegian Consul.... 26 00 

Charleston and Savannah Railroad 120 00 

Northeastern Railroad 22 00 

Riverside Infirmary 2 ; 012 68 

Private Patients 1,165 80 

Live Stock 86 00 

Coffins 53 00 

Empty Barrels, Bags and Manure 15 80 

Total earnings for year $5,048 13 



TABLE I. 

SHOWING COLLECTIONS FOR YEAR 1894. 



Berkeley County $1,317 55 

Charleston County 62 00 

British Consul 154 00 

German Consul 30 00 

Charleston and Savannah Railroad..... 122 00 

Northeastern Railroad 22 00 

Berkeley Phosphate Company 50 00 

Merchants' Bank ■. 1,308 70 

Riverside Infirmary.. 1,945 33 

Private Patients U45 20 

Live Stock " 86 00 

Coffins 49 00 

Empty Barrels, Bags and Manure , 15 80 

$6,307 58 



11 



162 Mayor Fickm's Annual Review. 

TABLE J. 

SHOWING COFFINS MADE AND ISSUED DURING YEAR 1894. 



Coffins on hand January 1st, 1894 24 

Coffins made during 1894 359 

Coffins issued 1st Health District, Free 12 

Coffins issued 2d Health District, Free 25 

Coffins Issued 3rd Health District, Free 19 

Coffins issued 4th Health District, Free 12 

Coffins issued 5th Health District, Free 19 

Coffins issued 6th Health District, Free 47 

Total Health Districts 134 134 

Coffins City Hospital 103 

Coffins issued Health Officer -. 40 

Coffins issued Coroner Charleston Co 49 

192 

Total Free Coffins 326 

Coffins issued Berkeley County. Pay 2 

Coffins issued N. E. R. R., Pay 2 



333 



Coffins issued Cash..., 13 17 

Total Coffins issued during 1894 343 343 

Total Coffins on hand January 1st, 1895 40 



Department of Charities. 1G3 

TABLE J. No. 2. * 

SHOWING MATERIALS USED AND COST OF SAME DURING YEAR 1894. 

Lumber on hand January 1st. 1S94, feet 341 

Lumber received during 1S94 14,014 feet 14,355 

Lumber used during 1894- , feet 13,835 

Lumber on hand January 1st 1895 520 

Crutches on hand January 1st, 1894, pairs 5 

Crutches made dining 1894 36 Pair 41 

Crutches issued during 1894 :.... Pair 37 

Crutches on hand January 1st, 1895 Pair 4 

Screws on hand January 1st, 1894 Gross 1 

Screws received during 1894 12 Gross 13 

Screws used during 1894 Gross 11 

Screws on hand January 1st, 1895 Gross 2 

Nails on hand January 1st, 1894, lbs 90 • -■'•'." 

Nails received during 1894 100.. lbs 190 

Nails used during 1894 lbs 100 

Nails on hand January 1st, 1S95 lbs 90 

Cost of 13,835 feet Lumber @ $20.00. ........ ........................ ......|276 70 

Cost of 100 lbs. Nails 1 90 

Cost of 11 gross Screws @ 40c 4 40 

Cost of 37 pair Crutches @ $3.00 per doz 9 25 

Total cost of material used in 1894 $292 25 



164 Mayor Ficken's Annual Review 

TABLE K 

SHOWING FUEL USED AND COST OF SAME FOR YEAR 1894. 



Coal on band January 1st, 1894 Tons 7$ 

*'. received during " " 

Hard " 147 

Steam " 106] Tons 261 

" Used during year 1894 

Hard " 152 

Steam " 94 

Total used during 1894 246 24G 

Coal on hand January 1st, 1895 15 

Wood on hand January 1st, 1894 Cord 1 

" received during " 34 Cords 35 

" used " " " 34£ 

11 on hand January 1st, 1S95 § 

Costof 147 Tons Hard Coal ..£704 85 

" " 106^ " Steam " 436 35 $1,14120 



Cost of 34 Cords Pine and Oak Wood 138 50 

Total cost of Fuel for year 1894 $1,279 70 



11 



Department of Charities. 165 

TABLE L. 

SHOWING ASSETS JANUARY 1ST, 1895. 



Cash City Treasurer $ 1 49 

Cash Superintendent's Petty Cash 324 38 

Berkeley County , 1,596 55 

Charleston County 171 85 

British Consul 77 00 

S.&N. Consul .• 26 00 

Private Patients % 64 55 

Riverside Infirmary 25 35 . 

Coffins 4 00 $2,291 17 



IN T SUSPENSE. 

Private Patients § 57 00 

Previous Beports 732 50 $789 50 



TABLE M. 

FINANCIAL. 



Cash on hand January 1st, 1894 $ 230 96 

Appropriation for year 1894 . 19,000 00 

Cash collected during year 1894 .... 6,307 bS $25,538 54 

Cost of Hospital for year 1894 $25,212 67 

Cash in City Treasury to credit Hospital, 1895... 1 49 

Cash in hands Superintendent Jan. 1st 1895 324 38 $25,538 54 



I respectfully submit the foregoing as my report for 
year 1894. 

CHAS. L. DuBOS, 
Bupt. a IL 



18*6 Mayor FicJcen's Annual Review. 



THE ALMS HOUSE. 

Office of Board of Commissioners ) 

of City Alms House, > 

Charleston, S. C, Jan'y 1895. ) 

To the Honorable Mayor and Aldermen of the City of Char- 
leston^ S. C. : 

Gentlemen : — Enclosed find Master's Report of the Alms 
House for the fiscal year ending December 3 1st, 1894, as 
presented to the Board of Commissioners, and by them ordered 
to be sent to your honorable body. 

The amount expended for the maintenance of the Alms 
House for the past year has been $7,518.06, leaving a balance 
of §912.45 to the credit of the appropriation. 

The amount expended for public transportation has been 
$483.10, leaving a balance to the credit of this account, 
$60.90. All of which is respectfully submitted. 

Very respectfully, 

ED\Y. S. BURNHAM, 

Chairman B. C A. II. 



THE ALMS HOUSE. 

Charleston, S. C, Jan'y 7th, 1895. 

To the Honorable Board of Commissioners of the Alms 
House : 

Gentlemen : — 1 submit this, my report, as Master of the 
Institution, for the fiscal year ending December 31st, 1894. 

The following statement shows the number of persons 
admitted, discharged, sent to City Hospital, died, and remain- 
ing in the House ; also the outside pensioners drawing rations, 
and the receipts and disbursements during the said year : 



Department of Charities. - 107 

Admitted. 

Males 23. Females 23. Children 2. Total 48. 

Natives of South Carolina 27 

Natives of Ireland 12 

Natives of Germany 3 

Natives of Portugal 2 

Natives of Scotland 1 - 

Natives of Pennsylvania 1 

Natives of Virginia 2 

Total admitted 48 

Discharged. 

Males 9. Females 12. Children 3. Total ..24. 

Natives of South Carolina 13 

Natives of Ireland , 7 

Natives of Germany 2 

Natives of Portugal 1 

Natives of Virginia 1 

Total discharged 24 

Transferred, to City Hospital. 

Males 13. Females 9. Total 22. 

Natives of South Carolina 15 

Natives of Ireland 4 

Natives of Germany 2 

Natives of Virginia 1 

Total transfers 22 

Deaths. 



Males 2. Females 2. Total 

Natives of Ireland .....3 

Natives of Sweden 1 



Total deaths. 



Inmates of the House. 

Males 27. Females 39. Children 1. Total 67. 

Natives of South Carolina 22 

Natives of Ireland 34 

Natives of Germany 3 

Natives of Portugal 1 

Natives of Scotland 1 

Natives of Russia 1 

Natives of Switzerland 1 

Natives of Canada 1 

Natives of New Jersey 1 

Natives of North Carolina 1 

Natives of Pennsylvania 1 

Total number of inmates 67 

Average number of inmates, 60. 



168 Mayor Fickm's Annual Review. 

Outdoor Pensioners. 

White Males 6. White Females.... .45. White Children 35. 

Colored Males 22. Colored Females 54. Colored Children 51. 

Total 28 99 86 

The Average rations issued weekly to these Pensioners were 162. 

Of the appropriation by City Council, namely, §8,100.00, 
the Board has disbursed §7,51S.06, leaving a balance of 
§581.9-1 unexpended. 

Received from sales of old barrels, boxes, bags, and for the 
support of County paupers, &c, §330.51, which, by resolu- 
tion of your honorable body, was paid over to the City 
Treasurer. This amount, when added to the unexpended 
balance of the annual appropriation as above noted, shows a 
balance in favor of the Board of §912.-15. 

The inmates of the House have received the same care and 
attention as heretofore, and it affords me much pleasure to be 
able to report that Dr. J. Creighton Mitchell, the physician in 
charge of the sick and infirm, has been prompt and faithful 
in the discharge of his duties. 

I have endeavored to carry out the orders of the Board on 
every occasion, and now r return you my thanks for the kind- 
ness and support which I have received at your hands. 
Respectfully submitted, 

II. G. FRAZEE, 

Master. 



Department of Charities. 169 



M, ENSTON ANNUITANTS' FUND. 

Cash Transactions of TI r . A. Courtenay, J. F. Ficken and W. 
F. Butler, Trustees, from Jany. 1, ^9J h to Dec. 31, '&£. 
{Statement ]\ r o. 12.) 



RECEIPTS. 

Jany. 1, 1894. Balance Cash on hand $ 304 07 

Jany. -July interest. Charleston 4 

per cent. Bonds $3,400 00 

Jany.-July interest State Stock 

U per cent 5,094 00 

Jany. interest Sumter Bonds 6 per 

cent, (net) 718 20 

March interest Camden Bonds 6 

per cent, (net) 449 50—$ 0,661 70 

Sale of portion of State Stock @ par 13,200 00 

$22,965 77 
DISBURSEMENTS. 

Annuities for 1894 $7,500 00 

Expenses of Administration 85 25— $7,585 25 

Trustees' commissions on receipts $ 9,661 70 

Trustees' commissions on disbursements 7,585 25 

1,605 15 



$18,852 10 @ 2} p. c 471 30 

Paid Trustees Wm, Enston Home surplus for 1894 1,605 15 

Investment in Aiken 6 per cent. Bonds and accrued interest 

for April 1894 13,277 33 

Balance cash on hand : 26 74 



$22,965 77 
ASSETS. 

100,000 State Stock, 4| percent,, costing... .$102,208 42 

85,000 City of Charleston Bonds, 4 per cent., cost- 
ing 63.487 51 

13,000 Aiken Bonds, 6 per cent., costing 13,277 33 

12,000 Sumter Bonds 6 per cent., costing 12,000 00 

7,500 Camden Bonds, 6 per cent, costing 7,500 00 

Cash „. 26 74 



$198,500 00 
WM. A. COURTENAY, 
JOHN F. FICKEN, 
W. E. BUTLER, 
E. E. Charleston, Dec. 31st, 1894. IVmlees. 



170 Mayor Ficken's Annual Review. 

WM. ENSTON HOME. 

Receipts and Disbursements January, 1, 1894, to December 31, 1894. 

Receipts. 

Cash on band January 1, 1894 $1,072 68 

Rent, Interest, &c, General Fund 3,677 87 

Interest, New Cottage Fund 1,291 89 

Sales Old Material 52 30 

Bond H. P. Jackson, paid in full 15,000 00 

Annuitants Fund Surplus for 1894 1.605 15 

§22,099 89 
Expenditures. 

Expenses of Administration, repairing roofs, &c...$2,913 34 

Cost of Fuel and Lights -..' 943 44 

Investment— Colleton Bonds 1,800 00 

Columbia Bonds... 7,035 00 

State So. Ca. Bonds 5,143 75 

Georgetown Bonds 3,000 00— §20,835 53 

Balance cash on hand 1,864 36 

E. E. Charleston, Dec. 31st, 1894. $22,699 89 

WM. E. HUGER, President. 

ASSETS.--GENERAL FUND. 

5,000 Colleton Bonds, 7 per cent,, costing $5,000 00' 

500 Spartanburg Town Bonds, 7 pr. ct,, costing.. 500 00 
5,500 v County •■ 7 " " 5,500 00 

2,500 Greenville - " 7 " " 2,500 00 

7,000 Winnsboro " " 7 " " 7,035 00 

3,000 Georgetown "•■ " 7 " " 3,000 00 

10,000 Marion Town - •• 6 " , - 9,750 00 

5,000 State " . 4h " " . 5,143 75 

3,500 Charleston " 4 " " 2,027 77 

10,000 Columbia " 7,035 00-$47,491 52 

52,000 

NEW COTTAGES FUND. 

11 000 Charleston 4 per cent. Bonds, costing $9,058 75 

6,700 Union 7 " " " 6,700 00 

3,000 Kershaw 7 ■■ " " 3,000 00 

500 Greenville 7 " " '" 500 00 

1,800 Colleton 7 •« •• " 1,800 00- $21, 05S 75 

23,000 

Cash 1,864 36 

75,000 $70,414 63 

E. E. Charleston, Dec. 31st, 1894. 

WM. E. HUGER, President. 



Department of Charities. 171 



ANNUAL KEPOKT COMMISSIONERS PUBLIC 
LANDS. 

To the Hon. the Mayor and City Council : 

Gentlemen : — I have the honor to submit this, my annual 
report, as Chairman of Commissioners of Public Lands, for 
the year 1894. 

The commissioners have all been very attentive to the in- 
mates of the Ashley River Asylum, providing them with 
wholesome food and comfortable clothing. 

The buildings are all in good condition and well furnished. 
The Institution is always kept neat and clean, and the inmates 
properly cared for by our efhcient Steward and Matron. The 
sick are looked after daily by Health Physician, Dr. McMur- 
phy. We have tried to admit only those who are really in 
need and worthy ; each applicant is referred to the two com- 
missioners in charge for the month, whose duty it is to 
examine them thoroughly. 



Number of Inmates 79 

Admitted during the year 55 

Left of their own accord 7 

Died during the year 19 

Sent to City Hospital 2 

Interments during the year, in Public Cemetery: 

Whites 12 

Colored 483 

In Seaman's ground 8 

Total 503 

You will please find the receipts from all sources and dis- 
bursements of same, in the report of our Secretary and 
Treasurer, Mr. 11. B. Grice. 

Respectfully submitted, 

li E. WILLIAMS, 

Chairman C. P. L. 



172 Mayor Kcken's Annual Review. 

Charleston, S. 0., December 31, 1894. 
Report of Secretary and Treasurer Commissioner of Public Lands : 

RECEIPTS. 

By appropriation ....$4,605 Go 

By interment fees 32 00 

By 9 months rent of farm 285 00 

By sale of barrels....'. 7 80 

$4,930 72 

EXPENDITURES. 

Paid Salaries...... $1,105 92 

Paid bills for supplies 3,277 39 

Paid bills for repairs 380 38 

Paid bills for insurance 96 00 

To balance turned in to City Treasurer 71 03 



$4,930 7 

R. B. GEICE, 

Secretary and Treasurer. 



Fire Department, 173 

FIRE DEPARTMENT. 

Office Board of Firemasters, 
Charleston, January 1, 1S95. 

To the Hon. the Mayor and City Council of Charleston, : 

The Board of Firemasters respectfully submit the opera- 
tions of this Department for the year 1894, and its condition 
at this date, as contained in the annexed statements, which 
will show : 

The force of the department. 

Condensed expenses from 1st January to 31st December, 
1894 

Summary of expenses by companies from 1st January to 
31st December, 1894. 

Record of fires for the year 1891. 

Inventory of property 31st December, 189-1. 

Comparative statement of property at risk, insurance and 
loss. 

FRANCIS S. PvODGEKS, 
Chairman Board of Firemasters. 



Force of the Department, December 31st, 1891-. 

303 Officers and men. 

7 Steam Fire Engines. 

4. Steam Fire Engines in reserve. 
,124 Feet of [lose. 

2 Fuel Wagons. 

1 Cart. 

3 Alarm Bells, and a complete system of Fire Alarm Telegraph. 

2 Hook and Ladder Trucks. 
7 Hose Carriages. 

20 Horses. 



174 Mayor Ficken's Annual Review. 

Condensed Expenses of the Fire Department from 
January 1st to December 31st 5 1894. 



Pay Eoll $36,087 19 

Forage— grain, hay, and grass, 27 horses 2, 60S 50 

Coal and Wood 710 15 

Oil, Waste, and other supplies 310 38 

Repairs to Apparatus 5-19 00 

Repairs to Houses 371 52 

New Horses (Traded five old ones for four new ones and 

cash) ,- 700 00 

Cost of Sawdust .60 00 

Harness and repairs to Harness 155 04 

Horseshoeing 301 04 

2 000 feet New Mose 1,030 00 

Printing and Stationery 62 71 

Veterinary 28 37 

New. Bell Tower, Cannon street 1,090 40 

New Boiler, Engine No. 6 1,075 00 

Fire Alarm and Telegraph Supplies 1,084 17 

Telephone and Telegraph Companies 72 00 

Chiefs Expenses to Montreal and other cities 67 15 

New Shirts for the Department 196 00 

Desks for Engine Houses 36 00 

New Apparatus 72 49 

Insurance on John Street Station 25 50 

Hauling dead horse George 4 00 

$46,746 61 

By sale of manure and bags ,.., $95 25 

By sale of old metal and oil barrels 71 23 

Navigation Co. and Police Dep't Telegraph Supplies 40 44 
Pumping Cellars Mr. Pickett and Medical College.... 14 15 

By sale of old hose 25 54 

$246 61 

$46,500 00 



Fire Department. 175 

Comparative Statement of Property at Risk, 
Insurance and Loss. 







Property 






Loss on 


Loss on 


Total ' 




< 


at 




Insurance. 


Real 


Personal 




CO 

03 

o 


o 
6 


Risk. 






Estate. 


Property. 


Loss. 


>* 


& 






• 








1 . 

1882,34 


$ 293,500 


00 


$ 106,205 00 


$12,539 09 


$20,087 52 


$32,626 01 


1883 72 


1,229,885 


41 


1,112,350 00 


50,261 19 


43,699 11 


93,960 30 


188443 


412,163 


00 


305,238 54 


31,605 00 


70,494 98 


102,159 98 


1885 50 


394,802 


14 


251,100 00 


5,103 80 


22.359 79 


2/,463 59 


1886 57 


431,774 


43 


356,024 43 


46,325 55 


62.216 09 


108,541 64 


1887 43 


1,191,577 


00 


1,125,025 00 


5,081 00 


42,455 17 


47,536 17 


1888 35 


3,256,991 


88 


1,241,685 00 


17,127 00 


86,042 88 


103,169 88 


188952 


941,975 


00 


898,555 00 


17,413 00 


50,475 00 


67,888 00 


1800 


38 


521.275 


00 


341,850 00 


16,431 00 


31,125 00 


47,556 00 


1S91 


54 


1.549,725 


00 


1,420.350 00 


12,086 50 


27,928 17 


40,014 67 


1892 


£6 


380,887 


00 


243,262 00 


42,102 40 


20,989 25 


63,091 65 


1893 


50 


1,300,406 


79 


1,148,958 49 


21,336 41 


119,084 73 


140,421 14 


1894 


81 


499,942 00 


207,540 00 
$8,818,143 46 


35,264 20 


31,184 50 


66,448 70 




$ 10,4 10,904 


65 


$312,736 14 


$628,142 19 


$940,878 33 


AVER 


AOK for 


Vc 


» YEARS. 1 


Loss on Ret 
Loss on Pers 


,1 Estate 

onal Proper 


...$24,056 63 
by 4S,318 63 


Proper 


ty at Risk.. 




.$S00 838 82 1 








Insu 


nu 


ice 




.'.678,318 73 


Average Los 


s per annua 


i... 72,374 26 



176 



Mayor Ficheris Annual Review. 



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'Cliimney iTcua Mc'Bride. 

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20 0O| Unknown U.S. Perrv, 

20 OOlDefective Fire Place Mrs. Koach. 

1,052 SojSnarks from Locomotive. Kail Road Co. 

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25 00 Carelessness Ellen Ca iter. 

4 00 Caught from Chimney Marv Gordon. 

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I Chimney..... 

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jSparks from Lauudrv -A. Bequest. 

3,979 10 ! Unknown F. Ayres, 

X)\ OOj Sparks Calhoun & Wash. st. fire. W. A. Desportes. 

[Unknown J. A. Miles. 

Cliimney |Mr. Hale. 

15 OOJStove pipe too near wood Mrs. Ansel. 

55'* 00j Accident Crew. 

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IKerosene explosion IB. Jurgenson. 



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Flue-.... 



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178 Mayor ..Fickerfs Annual Review. 



REPORT OF CHIEF OF POLICE. 

To the HonoralUe the Mayor and City Council: 

Gentlemen : — I have the honor to submit to you herewith 
my Annual Report for the fiscal year ending December 31st, 
1894. 

Accompanying the report are detailed statements pertaining 
to this Department, together with such recommendations em- 
braced in Exhibits, which I regard as absolutely necessary to 
enable us to correct certain evils that at present confront us 
as the condition of affairs now exists, and ask your careful 
consideration of the same. 

EXHIBIT A. 

Tn my two last Annual Reports I mentioned that in nearly 
every city of any size, there is a Police Surgeon, whose duty 
it is to attend the members performing police service ; in the 
event of sickness of any of the officers, the Surgeon makes a 
report to the Police Department, giving the cause and nature 
of the sickness, and thus as soon as an officer is reported sick, 
he visits him, and the Department by this means is in a posi- 
tion to know whether the sickness is real or assumed. 

The experience of another year convinces me more than 
ever with the necessity of having such a Surgeon. 

I am informed, through letters received from many places, 
that the Health Officers usually serve in that capacity. 

Under the present rules in force, it is impossible to get the 
service that would be secured in the event of the appointment 
of an efficient Police Surgeon. 

EXHIBIT B. 

I desire again to call your attention to the miserable accom- 
modations afforded by the cells now in use, and would suggest 
that other cells be fitted up as soon as possible as prisoners 
who are confined in these 'cells, according to the present 



Police Department 179 

arrangement, are subjected to intense heat in the summer and 
severe cold in the winter. 

We have received estimates from various places in refer- 
ence to the construction of improved cells, and find that the 
change proposed can be effected at a reasonable cost. 

EXHIBIT C. 

Whenever a call comes in from any of the Patrol or Fire 
Alarm Boxes south of Hudson Street, it necessitates the 
Wagons responding to the call being driven down King Street 
to Calhoun Street, and in a crowded street with two street 
car tracks, it is liable to cause a severe accident at any time ; 
and I would respectfully suggest, if practicable, that a road- 
way similar to the new St. Philip Street roadway be laid in 
Hudson Street, and Vanderhorst Street, from King Street to 
St. Philip, which would relieve this difficulty, by opening up 
the route down St. Philip or Meeting Streets as the emergency 
should require. 

EXHIBIT D. 

The Ordinance in relation to Chimney Contractors, as well 
as the construction of Chimneys, Stove-pipes, &e., should be 
amended, and all matters pertaining to the same placed under 
the control of the Board of Fire Masters or Chief of the Fire 
.Department. 

EXHIBIT E. 

The number of cases of runaway and deserted girls, who 
may be on the very threshold of vice, that are constantly 
coming under my observation, impress me with the fact that 
a great deal of good could be accomplished by the employ- 
ment of a Matron, at a small cost, who could investigate such 
cases and afford relief to worthy persons by having them 
referred to the proper charities 

EXHIBIT F. 

By an Ordinance recently passed by the City Council, upon 
the complaint of reputable citizens residing or owning prop- 



180 Mayor Fichu's Annual Review. 

ertj in the neighborhood where disorderly houses may be 
located, they can be proceeded against. 

This Ordinance lias had a wholesome effect and has a de- 
cided tendency to restrict the bad conduct of the inmates to a 
very great extent of all such houses. 

~We have proceeded against a number of these houses. The 
Ordinance, however, only provides that the keepers or in- 
mates of such houses, upon conviction, are subject to tine or 
imprisonment unless their premises are vacated, and affords 
no safeguard to their moving in respectable localities, subject 
of course, however, to be proceeded against by the citizens in 
the vicinity. 

I am fully convinced that the only practicable solution of 
this question is to have these houses (by Ordinance) restricted 
to certain localities, and placed under the proper Police regu- 
lations, thereby preventing the location of such houses in 
respectable neighborhoods. 

exhibit o. 

I again respectfully call your attention to the fact that the 
five mounted men appointed July 12th, 1S92, to patrol that 
territory extending from river to river, north of Cooper and 
Sbcppard Streets to the City Boundary, were taken from the 
Force proper, thereby reducing the numerical strength of the 
Department that number of men who have never been 
returned. I would urge that five additional men be appointed 
to fill the vacancies thus made on the regular Force. 

EXHIBIT II. 

At present there is no Ordinance forbidding any person 
who is not connected with the Police Department from wear- 
ing our Police Uniforms. You can readily see the harm that 
is likely to accrue from any one who impersonates himself as 
a Police Officer in a similar uniform to the one adopted by 
the Police Department, and I would respectfully recommend 
that an Ordinance be passed subjecting any person who 
attempts to pass himself oil" as a Police Officer as mentioned 
above to a line of not less than §50 or imprisonment. 



Police Department. 181 



PAWN BROKERS. 

I would suggest that the recommendations as contained in 
Exhibit "B," of my Annual Report of 1893, be adopted; 

which gives the public the proper protection against thieves 
and irresponsible persons who dispose of stolen goods in Pawn 
Shops. 

GAMBLING. 

In conformity with a recommendation made in my report of 
last year, in relation to Gambling, a City Ordinance was 
passed, amending Sections 5-1:7 and 548, which has had a most 
wholesome effect, and the Department has succeeded in a 
marked degree in suppressing this wholesale form of robbery. 

The Officers have strict orders to arrest all persons found 
Gambling, and but for want of space any number of cases 
could be cited where Gamblers were arrested and convicted 
during the past year. Faro Banks, Roulette Wheels, Spindle 
Wheel , and similar devices of Gambling are things of the 
past. 

The Electrician has kept the Telephone and Signal Service 
Instruments in good condition, but reports however that the 
induction caused by the Electric Light Company's wires on 
the third circuit is affecting the Telephone service of that 
circuit. 

An arrangement with the Electric Light Company will 
have to be effected to relieve this difficulty. 

STRENGTH OF THE FORCE. 

The dicipline of the Force lias been thoroughly maintained 
and kept, as far as practicable, at its full strength, viz : one 
Chief, three Lieutenants, one Orderly Sergeant, one Acting- 
Orderly Sergeant, eight Line Sergeants, four Detectives, one 
Electrician, seventy-one Privates, four Gatemen, two Day- 
men, and five Drivers. 

I am satisfied that the present Force is inadequate to furnish 
proper Police protection to the citizens at large when the im- 
mense territory to be covered and the small number of men 
employee! is considered; more men. are required to give cer- 



182 Mayor Ficken's Annual Review. 

tain portions of the city the protection to which the residents 
are entitled. 

I have found it necessary to detail not less than two officers 
for special duty, in citizens clothes, during the entire yeai\ 

To have the city properly Policed, the Force should be in- 
creased to one hundred Privates. It is possible that the funds 
of the Treasury at present will not permit of this increase, but 
I am fully convinced that it is only a question of a short time 
when the city will be compelled to employ that number of 
men. 

From a comparison of this Department's pay-roll with that 
of other cities, it will be found that the salaries paid, here are 
lower than in almost every other city in the country. If the 
city is not in a position to materially increase the wages of 
the men, I would be glad to see their uniforms furnished them 
in addition to the salaries they now draw. When their duties 
are carefully considered, it is evident that they are justly 
entitled to this assistance. 

A report of the various charges against the members of the 
Department, together with the disposition of the same, will be 
found annexed to the Annual Eeport. 

The health of the Force has been good during the past- 
year. 

I regret to have to report the death of Orderly Sergeant 
Charles Liebenrood, which occurred on the 28th of February, 
1894. He was a reliable and efficient officer, and served the 
city faithfully many years just prior to his death. 

On September 30th, 1894, an unfortunate shooting affair 
occurred in King Street, near George Street, which resulted 
in Private L. C. Knox killing a citizen, Mr. John Carey, and 
the shooting of Mr. Conroy. 

Private Knox was indicted for Murder, and tried at the 
November Term of Court, and was accpiitted. He was ably 
represented by the Corporation Council, Mr. Charles Inglesby, 
and Messrs. Murphy, Farrow and Legare. 

In the November Term of the Court of Common F*leas, 
action was brought by one J. II. OstendoriY, claiming to have 
been run over on the 9th day of June, 1S93, in King, near 



Police Department. 183 

Liberty Street, through the carelessness of the "Driver of one 
of our Patrol Wagons. The Jury rendered a verdict in favor 
of the city. 

The buildings erected for the use of the Patrol Wagons and 
Horses, on the Hudson Street property, were completed in the 
early part of last year by Mr. Henry Oliver, the Contractor, 
and are thoroughly fitted up for Police Service, with all the 
modern attachments,' and is a most decided improvement in 
comparison to the buildings previously used in the yard of 
the Central Station. 

This change was carried out in conformity with recom- 
mendations made in my annual report of 1892. 

The horses are all in first-class condition. We lost on 
August 6th, 1S94, one horse ; his death, the Yeterinery Sur- 
geon claims to have been caused by an attack of "Enzootic 
Paraplegia," and is not attributed to any carelessness of the 
Hostlers. 

The city may be congratulated on the possession of as fine 
Stables, Patrol Wagons and Horses as will be found in 
any City. 

There is no disputing the fact that the City has been freer 
from professional criminals during the past year than it has 
been for many years, and that we have escaped, to a remark- 
able extent, from serious crime; that in itself is an evidence 
of the diligence and efficiency of the Detectives, 

We have had and will always have petty thefts committed 
by sneak thieves, but they too have been captured with 
marked success. 

But the real test of the efficiency of the Department is the 
absence of professional criminals of all classes who work where 
there is the least chance of detection. 

The vigilance of the officers and their skill and knowledge 
of the criminals, together with the fear that the local crimi- 
nals have for them, is a great protection to the community. 

A partial list containing some of the most important cases 
referred from the Recorder's Court to the Court of Sessions 
that were tried during the year 1894, where convictions were 
all secured, will be found in a Statement annexed. 



184 Mayor Ficherts Annual Review. 

The report proves the watchfulness of the Detectives and 
members of the Force under my command. 

A number of these cases are of a most meritorious charac- 
ter, and the ingenuity displayed by the officers in bringing 
these cases to a successful issue, demonstrates the efficiency of 
the Department. 

The discipline and morale of the Force upon the whole is 
very satisfactory, and shows a laudable disposition on the part 
of all its members to maintain that standard of efficiency with 
which it has been so justly credited by the public generally. 

While maintaining a strict discipline, we have earnestly en- 
deavored to treat every officer with due consideration, and I 
desire to express my appreciation of the assistance and uni- 
form support rendered by the Officers, Detectives and Mem- 
bers of the Force, and to also express to them my appreciation 
for the ability and zeal they have displayed and the creditable 
manner in which they have performed the duties assigned to 
them. 

In conclusion I desire to express my thanks to his Honor, 
the Mayor, who is responsible to a very great extent for .the 
present general efficiency of the Department, and the good 
feeling that prevails, the result of which has been a steady 
improvement in the character of the work performed. 

All of which is respectfully submitted. 

J. ELMORE -MARTIN, 

Chief of Police. 
Official: S. ALEXANDER, 

A. 0. S. 



Police Department. 



185 



Statement of Charges Preferred against Members of the 
Farce and the Disposition of Same. 



OFFENCES. 



Absent without Leave 

Absent from Roll Call... 

Assault 

Being off Post 

Conduct unbecoming an Officer 

Conversing while on Duty 

Ca reless Driving. 

Conversing with Prisoners in Cells 

Entering Bar Rooms 

Intoxication 

Insubordination 

Larceny..... >• 

Leaving Post before being properly Relv'd 

Leaving Station House without Leave 

Refusing to make an Arrest 

Smoking on Post 

Refusing to obey an Order 

Sitting down on Post 

Not taking Post Assigned • 

Neglect of Duty 

Unnecessarily Clubbing Prisoner 

Unnecessarily Firing Pistol. 

Violation of Telephone Rules 



Total. 





T3 


rd 


| 




0) 
■73 




T2 1 




3 


c3 


C3 




■ <v 

£2 


r3 


30 


a 


QQ 


a> 












fc 


w 


A 


M 



38 4E 



2 3 89 



3 
3 

2 
13 
10 

2 

1 
1 
1 
2 
2 
1 
2 
1 
1 
1 
1 
2 
1 
31 
2 
3 
3 



Partial List of Criminals Tried in the Court of Sessions 
from the Police Department during the Year 189 % 

William Gibbes — Grand Larceny, 1 year Penitentiary; 
Edward Davis — Grand Larceny, 1 year Penitentiary. 
William Simmons — Aggravated Assault, 6 months in Co. 
Jail. 

Jas. Barnwell — Aggravated Assault, 2 years Penitentiary. 
Stephen Vance — Grand Larceny, 1 year Penitentiary. 
Salina Alston — Grand Larceny, 4 years Penitentiary. 
Amos Mitchell — Aggravated Assault, 2 years Penitentiary. 
William White — Aggravated Assault, 9 months Co. Jail. 



186 Mayor Fie ken's Annual Review. 

William Green — Burglary and Larceny, 2 years Peniten- 
tiary. 

H. W. C. Petsch — Murder, 5 years Penitentiary. 

William Lawrence — Grand Larceny, 3 years Penitentiary. 

Prince Albert — Attempted Rape, 5 years Penitentiary. 

Geo. Butler — Burglary and Larceny, 18 months Peniten- 
tiary. 

Jerry Evans — Burglary and Larceny, 3 years Penitentiary. 

Moses Evans — Burglary and Larceny, 3 years Penitentiary. 

Joseph Smith — Aggravated Assault, 1 year Penitentiary. 

Jno. Brown — House-Breaking and Larceny, 5 years Peni- 
tentiary. 

• Plow Martin, alias Young— Grand Larceny, 3 years Peni- 
tentiary. 

Lou Batterer, alias Walker — Rape, 7 years Penitentiary. 

Anna Smalls — Aggravated Assault, 5. years Penitentiary. 

Wm. M. Jones — Burglary and Larceny, 5 years Peniten- 
tiary. 

Boston Sweeper — House-Breaking, 3 months Co. Jail. 

Wm. ISTesbitt — Burglary and Larceny, 5 years Penitentiary. 

Alexander Bryan — Highway Robbery, 3 years Penitentiary. 

1ST apoleon Crawford — Highway Robbery, 3 years Peniten- 
tiary. 

Wm. Jackson— House-Breaking and Larceny, 5 years Peni- 
tentiary. 

Robt. Moore — Grand Larceny, 3 years Penitentiary. 

C. W. Turner — Forgery, 1 year Co. Jail and $50 Fine. 

Frank Johnson — Grand Larceny, 2 years Penitentiary. 

Cloyie Wilson — Grand Larceny, 1 year Penitentiary. 

Henry Singleton — Burglary and Larceny, 1 year Peniten 
tiary. - 

John Singleton — Burglary and Larceny, G years Peniten- 
tiary. 

Henry Watson — Burglary and Larceny, 6 years Peniten- 
tiary. 

Wm. Banister — Burglary and Larceny, years Peniten- 
tiary. 

Wm. Stewart — Burglary and. Larceny, 6 years Penitentiary. 



Police Department. 187 

Lizzie Alston— Aggravated Assault, IS months Peniten- 
tiary. 

Jas. Burvey — Burglary and Larceny, 1 year Penitentiary. 

Edward Drayton — Grand Larceny, 2 years Penitentiary. 

Sarah Jackson — Aggravated Assault, 6 months Peniten-* 
tiary. 

Allen Hammond — Aggravated Assault, 1 year Penitentiary. 

Edward Jones — Aggravated Assault — 1 year Penitentiary. 

Daniel Washington — Burglary, 1 year Penitentiary. 

Louis Gardner — Burglary, 2 years Penitentiary. 

Edward Screven — Burglary, 1 year Penitentiary. 

Pobt. Simmons, alias Cain Hoy — Grand Larceny, 5 years 
Penitentiary. 

Hector Favor — Burglary and Larecny, 5 years Penitentiary. 

Nathan Martin — House-Breaking and Grand Larceny, 7 
years Penitentiary. 

"Win. Robinson — Larceny of Live Stock, 1 year Peniten- 
tiary. 

Sherman Staten — House-Breaking and Larceny, 3 years 
Penitentiary. 

James Fair — Car-Breaking, 2 years Penitentiary. 

London Merritt— Grand Larceny, 1 year Penitentiary. 

John L. Williams — Rape, Life Sentence. 

Simon Jenkins, alias " Old Kill," — Burglary and Larceny, 
7 years Penitentiary. t 

William Johnson — Murder, 5 years Penitentiary. 

Isaac Wilson — House-Breaking and Larceny, 5 years Peni- 
tentiary. 

Geo. Harrison— Grand Larceny, 1 year Penitentiary. 

Wm. White— Aggravated Assault, 1 year Penitentiary. 

Jno. Broderick — Burglary and Larceny, 5 years Peniten- 
tiary. 

Saml. Jackson, alias Savannah Jackson — Aggravated As- 
sault and Highway Robbery on Wadmalaw Island, 7 years 
Penitentiary. 



iss 



Mayor Ficheris Annual Review. 



Report of the Chief of Police to the Mayor and City Council 
of tit e City of Charleston, shovnng the number of persons 
Arrested in the City of Charleston during the Fisced 
Year ending December 31st, 189 i, and, the cause of their 
Arrest. 





Amount of Fin.es 
imposed at Po- 
lice Court 


Amount of Fines I 
Paid by Prisoners, 


Amount Paid to 
Treasurer 


Amount of For- 
feitures deducted! 
from pay of Po-| 
lice for lost time! 


Amount of Fines 
imposed on Po- 
lice for violation 
of Rules and Reg- 
ulations 


1st Quarter 

2d - 


% 2,239 00 
2,3 L3 00 
4,551 00 

3,800 00 

$12,903 00 
>r Recorder 


$ 979 00 
989 00 
913 00 

683 50 



$3,564 50 


$ 979 00; $ 403 91 
989 00! 377 82 
913 00 402 90 
600 50 479 08 


$ 24 50 
49 50 


3d " 

4th " 


20 50 
22 00 


Held by ord( 


§3,541 50 
23 00 

$3,564 50 


$1,663 71 


$110 50 



OFFENCES, 



WHITES COLORED 



Abandoned by Parents 

Accidentally Burned 

Accidentally Drowned..... 

Accidentally Kil!e f d 

Accidentally Shot 

Aggravated Assault 

Aggravated Assault and Inciting to Riot 

Aiding Prisoner to Escape 

Allowing Chimney to take Fire 

Allowing Dog to Run at Large and Bite 

Allowing Horse to Bark Shade Trees 

Allowing Horse to Run at Large 

Allowing Lottery Wheel to Run 

Applied for Lodgings...., 

Arrested on Telegram 

Assault 

Assault, and Carrying Concealed Weapons. 

Assault and Highway Robbery 

Assault, and Resisting an Officer — 

Attempted Rape.... 

Attempted Suicide - 

Attempting to Rescue a Prisoner 



1 

315 

4 

28 

1 



o:: 



134 

"i 

""i 



24 



4 
3 
1 
100 
2 

1 

17 

10 

1 

1 

1 

369 

5 

186 

i 

l 

2 
3 
1 



Police Department. 



189 



IFumher of Persons Arrested and Causes of Arrest. 
(Continued?) 



OFFENSES. 



Breach of the Peace •. 

Burglary 

Burglary and Larceny 

Oar-Breaking 

Car-Breaking and Larceny 

Carrying Concealed Weapons 

Careless Driving 

Cruelty to Animals... 

Cruelty to Children ... 

Desertion 

Destroying Shade Trees 

Detained as Witness 

Died Suddenly 

Disorderly Conduct : 

Disorderly Conduct and Trespass 

Disorderly Conduct and Resisting Arrest. 

Disturbing Public Worship 

Drunk 

Drunk and Disorderly 

Escaped Convicts 

Escaped from Hospital 

Escaped from Orphan House. 

Escaped Prisoners 

Exposure of Person 

Fast Driving 

Fast Hiding 

Firing a Pistol 

Firing Crackers on the Stieet 



WHITES 



Found Dead, 

Found Drowned 

Found Injured 

Found Sick 

Found Sick and Destitute 

Found Wounded 

Gambling 

Grand Larceny 

Having Low Lots and not Filling them 

Having Drain not Properly Connected.. 

Having Counterfeit Implements in his Poss'n 

Highway Robbery 

House-Breaking 

House-Breaking and Larceny 

Injured trying to Escape from Gambling House 

Insane. 

Interfering with an Officer 



16 

4 

1 

1 

97 

127 



COLORED 




K 




o 


to 


cS 






*5l 


o 


S 


fa 



16 



•• 1 

1 * 
2 

5 



3 
16 
11 

312 

2 



o 
5 

20 

5s: 



67 83 175 

7 
65 

9 

1 
63 

l 



i 

14 
133 
6 
1 | 



19 7 

1981 2j 
44! JOi 

3i ; 

i i 



71 
9 
1 

68 
9 

21 
2 

1 
1 

23 
17 

498 
6 
1 
2 
120 
339 
6 
1 
2 
3 
7 
2 

2 

32 

S 

2 

9 

2\ 7 

4; 42 

12! 121 

,...!j 6 

7{ 35 

2|| 204 

56 

3 

1 

1 

14 

5 

15 

1 

24 

7 



100 



Mayor Fichu's Annual Review. 



Number of Persons Arrested and Causes of Arrest. 
(Continued.) 



OFFENCES. 



WHITES 


COLORED 




w 1 

CD 




8 


05 

1 rS 




«3 


cS 

g 


1 ^< 


* | 


rt 


, 5 ! 


! S 




<*, 


fcn II 



,2 h <1 



Interfering with Dog Catcher 

Keeping Barber Shop Open on Sunday 

Keeping a Disorderly House 

Keeping a House of Ill-fame 

Killed in Self-Defence by an Officer 

Killing Cattle in the City 

Larceny 

Larceny from the Person 

Larceny of Live Stock 

Leaving a Dead Animal on Street 

Leaving; Horse Unattended 

Lodged for Safe Keeping 

Lodged on Requisition Papers 

Lodged on Suspicion 

Lodged, Subject to Order of Coroner 

Lodged on Telegram 

Lodged on Warrant 

Lost Children 

Murder 

Not placing Garbage in Proper Receptacle 

Obstructing the Street 

Obtaining Goods under False Pretences 

Obtaining Money under False Pretences 

Pedaling Goods without a License 

Racing Animals 

Rape 



Refusing to Obey an Order issued by Recorder 

Rescued from Drowning 

Riding a Bycicle with no Lights.... 

Running a Game of Chance 

Running a Leaking Night Soil Cart 

Running a Lottery Wheel 

Running Vehicles without a License 

Selling Fish without a License 

Selling Live Stock without a License 

Selling Lottery Tickets '. 

Selling on Sunday 

Smoking in the Market 

Subject to Warrant 

Trespass 

Trespass and Gambling 

Trespass and Larceny 

"Using Unstamped Measures 

Vagrancy 

Violating City Ordinances; ■•■ 

Violation of Dispensary Act 



10 



1 
251 



f > ; ; 



IS 
J 
2 

116 
2 

6 
3 

7 

9 

,3 

7 



1 

n\\ 

:i\ 

3|| 



1 

6 
5 
7 
1 
1 
276 
1 
8 
1 
2 

58 
1 

18 
3 
5 
144 
9 
9 

11 

14 
2 

3 

12 
2 

o 

O 

1 
1 
1 

3 

4 
1 

6S 
1 



94 
1 
3 
1 

52 
1 
8 



Police Department. 



191 



Number of Persons Arrested and Causes of Arrest. 
(Continued?) 





WHITES 


i COLORED 


02 


OFFENCES. 


o 
Hi 


1 * 

g 


11 


s 

Pn 


u 

3 

O 

i c- 1 


Violation of Ord. putting Garbage on Street... 

Violation of Ord. Gleaning Privy Vaults 

Vio. of Ord. Hitching Horse to Shade Trees.. 
Vio. of Ord. Storing Manure on Premises 


1 

1 
1 

1 

] 

1001 




..... 
102 


i \ 

i 






Vio. of Ord. Throwing Water on Street 


!'"l9 
1 2093 


404 




Vio. of Ord. Using Unstamped Measures 

Wife Eeatin°' 


9 


Total 


3 POO 











SENTENCES. 



Bail Forfeited 

Delivered to Coroner.... 

Delivered to Italian Consul 

Delivered to Officer... 

Delivered to Orphan House , 

Delivered to Parents 

Delivered to Penitentiary 

Delivered to Warrant 

Dismissed 

Fined 

Let the Dog be Killed 

Referred to Coroner 

Referred to Society P. C. to Animals. 

Referred to Trial Justice 

Sent to Alms [louse 

Sent to Court of Sessions 

Sent to Hospital. 

Sent to Infirmary , 

Sent to Jail 

Sent Home 

Sent out of the City 

Sent to Old Folks Home 

Suspended Sentence 

Continued 



Total 1001 



WHITES 




02 
02 


02 


S 
O 
PH 1 



COLORED 



24 



76 
3 

106 
10 



10 



102 



4 
1 

117 
493 



i',00 



2 
107 



923 
4 
2 
4 
1 
9 

>093 



15 137 



12 



1 

39 

2 

13 

1 

;55 



124,1221 

111 1 

2 ; | 7 

16 58 

ij 1 

26 1 393 



24 217 



1641284 
7 22 

6 

9 



9 
6 
1 

21 



404; 3600 



192 Mayor Fi'chn's Annual Review. 

Police Signal and Telephone Service. 





a 


Distance j 




Alarms responded to by Wagons 


1,751 

• 79 

151 

226 

71 

1,482 

359 


•• 


3,502 
544 


Wagons sent to Jail with Prisoners 


Wagons sent to Trial Justice with Prisoners 

Wagons sent to Hospital with Prisonei's 


302 
452 


Wagons sent to Fires with Squad 

Wagons sent with Relief Squad... 

Wagons sent on Special Cases 


142 

4,446 

718 


Total 


4,312 


|| 10,106 





Calls sent in by Policemen 75,828 



Prisoners brought in by Wagons 2.362 

Prisoners brought in by Policemen 1,118 

Reported Cases 120 



Total. 



.600 



Seventy-one alarms of 'fire were sounded from the boxes 
and attended by the Police. 

Seven fires, no alarms, were extinguished by the Police. 

Sixty-five Stores, eleven Barber Shops, three Stalls in Mar- 
ket, four Bakeries, one Carriage Emporium, one Storeroom, 
twenty-three Offices, one Hall, five Shops, four Banks, two 
Ice Houses, one Stable, two Warehouses, one Storehouse, one 
Auction House, one Laundry, two Factories, one Restaurant, 
one Church, and one News Paper Office were found open and 
secured by the Police. 

Killed at request of owners, twenty-nine Dogs, eight Horses, 
two Mules and one Cow. 

Found running at large, and disposed of according to Ordi- 
nance, nine Horses, twelve Cows, eleven Mules, three Dogs, 
twenty-six Goats, two Ponies, Seven Ducks, sjx Sheep and 
two Calves. 



Police Department 193 

RECOVERED PROPERTY. ' 

One pistol, 2 pants patterns, 1 dress coat, 1 overcoat, 1 deck 
of cards, 9 cents, 1 lot brass machinery, 1 bundle of clothing. 
1 valuable setter dog, 1 deck of cards. 1 valuable dog, 1 lot of 
clothing, 2 overcoats, 1 pair turkeys, 1 valuable newfoundland 
dog, 2 diamond rings, 1 wagon wrench, 3 turkeys, 1 fowl, 1 
lot of harness, 1 lot of clothing, 1 gold watch, 1 lot of cotton, 

1 lot of canned goods, 1 lot of old iron, 1 silver watch, cash, 
$8.54, 2 dice, 1 tackle block, 1 valuable dog, 2 school books, 1 
gold watch, 1 pistol, 2 valises and lot of clothing, 1 pistol, 1 
ham, 2 coats, 1 lot sundries stolen from S. C. Railway, 3 
fowls, cash, 10c, 1 clock, 1 pistol, 1 drawing knife, 1 dress 
pattern, 1 wagon license, No. SOS, 2 overcoats, 4 geese, 2 
knives, 3 fowls, 1 hat and base ball bat, 1 wagon license, No. 
838, 1 lot of groceries, 12 buckets, 1 gold watch, 1 lot shoe- 
makers' tools, 1 lot wood, 1 lot shoes, 1 umbrella, 1 clock, 1 
bible, 1 clock, 3 fowls, 1 valise and clothing, cash, 6 cents, 1 
deck of cards, 2 dice, cash, 5 cents, 1 pistol, cash, $1.95, 2 car 
brasses, 1 fowl, 1 chewing gum slot machine, 1 pistol, 1 silver 
watch and chain, 4 pots geraniums, 2 nickel in the slot ma- 
chines, 1 gold watch, 1 silver watch, cash, $3.20, 1 can oil, 1 
can lard, 2 bolts of cloth, 2 decks cards, 5 dice, 4 pots gera- 
niums, 1 lot of potatoes, 8 boxes segars, 3 nickel in the slot 
machines, cash, §19.75, 1 pistol, 1 case condensed milk, 1 dog, 
3 pieces cloth, 7 china plates, 1 bucket, 1 deck of cards, 2 dice, 

2 boxes tobacco, 1 bridle, 1 goose, 7 fowls, 1 lot of clothing, 
1 rubber stamp, 4 pistols, 1 silk dress and hat, 1 dice and 
pocket book, 2 gold watches and 1 chain, 1 basket of groce- 
ries and 2 pair shoes, 2 trunks and contents, 1 deck cards, 1 
boat, 1 push cart, 1 gold headed cane, 1 spindle and board, 1 
aog license No. 271, 1 gold seal ring, 2 pistols, 1 valise, um- 
brella and cane, 1 demijohn, 1 cow, 1 gold watch and chain, 
1 silver watch, 1 tub beans, 1 steam valve, 1 lot groceries, 14- 
chickens, 1 rope and anchor, 1 nickel in the slot machine, 
cash, $555.48, 1 table cloth, 3 fowls and 2 pair pigeons, 2 dice, 

1 deck cards, 1 gold necklace, 1 lot of clothing, 1 piece pork, 

2 razors, 5 chickens, 7 pair shoes, 1 deck cards and 4 dice, 2 
pistols, 1 pair pants, 1 rooster, 1 coat, 1 boat, 1 horse, 1 saddle, 

13 



194 Mayor Fichenh Annual Review. 

1 piece meat, 1 ladder and pair clippers, 2 clocks, 1 goat, 2 
rings, 1 gown, 1 baby carriage, 2 lots of dry goods, 1 lot of 
clothing, 1 lot of jewelry, 1 breast pin, 3 table cover, 1 step 
ladder, 1 coat, 17 fowls, 1 seal ring, 1 watch, 2 fishing rods, 2 
gold lockets and chains, 3 gold watches, 2 lots of clothing, 
cash, §115,20, 1 pair pants, 2 decks cards, 1 pistol, 1 pair 
field glasses, 2 sets harness and bridles, 1 clock, 1 steam 
whistle, piping, etc., 1 pair shoes, 3 suits of clothing, 1 shawl, 

2 fowls, 4 pistols, 1 deck cards and dice, 1 excursion ticket, 1 
diamond ring, 1 piece calico, 1 silver fork, 2 plates and 3 
saucers, 1 silver watch and chain,.! vest, 1 coat and pair pants, 
1 watch and chain, 1 lot clothing, 1 gold ring, 1 valise, 1 pack, 
age coffee, 1 silver medal, 1 watch and chain, 1 watch and 
chain, 2 decks cards, 1 flannel sack and pin, 4 pistols, 1 pug- 
dog, 2 pair rubber shoes and 6 towels, 1 pair gold rimmed 
glasses, 1 fowl, 1 lot clothing, 2 watches, 1 overcoat, 1 lot 
jewelry, pocket book, etc., 1 lot dry goods, 1 duck, 1 gold pin, 

3 pigs, 1 pocket book, cash, $62.60, 1 saw and wheelbarrow 
17 pistols, 2 overcoats, 2 cocoa mats, 2 dice, 2 boxes of segars, 
1 box candy, 1 rifle, 1 lot of dry goods, 1 lot lead pipe, 1 saw 
and axe, 2 decks cards, 1 overcoat, 1 umbrella, 1 satchel, purse 
and papers, 3 purses and lot stationery, 1 watch and chain and 
pocket piece, 1 card, 1 pair gloves, 3 car brasses, 1 razor, 1 
gold watch. 

Valued at $5,776 75 

I certify that the foregoing is a correct report as per 
Recorder's Mousing Reports. 

J. ELMORE MARTIN", 

Chief of Police, 
Official : 
S. ALEXANDER, 

A. 0. & 



Pleasure Grounds. 195 

PLEASURE GROUNDS. 
COMMISSIONERS MARION SQUARE. 



Charleston, S. C, December 31st, 1894 
Ron. Jno. F. FicJcen, Mayor, Charleston, S. C. : 

Sir :— I have the honor to report that during the year 
ending December 31st, 1894, the condition of Marion Square 
lias been maintained up to the average of the last three years. 
The broken, unsightly appearance of the drill ground con- 
tinues ; but as you are aware of, the Commissioners have no 
means to remedy it. 

The Commissioner of Streets has promised to grade and 
cover with Pyrites Cinders, Lowndes Street, early in January. 

On the first of January a new keeper of the Square will take 
charge. He will be invested with Police powers, by which it 
is hoped that the nuisances and depredations now committed 
by goats, boys and night prowlers will be largely abated. 

Respectfully submitted with the accompanying Statement 
of Expenditures. 

ASBURY COWARD, 
Chairman Commissioners Marion Square. 



STATEMENT OF EXPENDITURES 1894. 

Appropriation.. ., $500 00 

Expended for labor on Square §427 99 

For Trees and Implements 71 60 499 59 

Balance Unexpended 41 

ASBURY COWARD, 

Chairman. 



196 Mayor Pickett's Annual Review. 



EEPORT OF COMMISSIONERS. COLONIAL 
COMMON. 

Charleston, S. C, February, 6th, 1895. 

Hon. John F. Ficlen, Mayor City of Charleston: 

Dear Sir : — The Board of Colonial Common and Ashley 
River Embankment beg leave to submit the following Report 
"for the year ending December 31st, 1894:: 

Jan'y I, 1894. To balance to Credit Board, in hands of Chair- 
man. $ 424 70 

To amount received during year 1894, through 

City Treasurer, from rent Pond 1,450 00 

To amount received from sale Condemned 

Boats 4 00 

$1,878 70 

Expended during year 1894 : 
Raising concrete wall on north of Lake, from Lynch to Rut- 
ledge Streets, filling up walks and shelling same ; also 
brick sidewalk on Lynch Street, from Beaufain to Broad 
Street; also paving diagonal walks on four sides of the 

Lake, and short walks from Streets to Lake S 856 73 

Planting trees around Lake and boxing same, (fee 114 34 

Labor for year mowing grass, and work around Lake, &c 252 57 

New benches, and repairing old ones, and painting same 109 77 

Total expenditures $1,333 41 

Balance to Credit, January 1, 1S95, in hands of Chairman 545 29 

$1,878 70 

Vouchers for all amounts expended during the year 1894, in the 
hands of the City Treasurer'. 

The unsafe condition of the Brick Culvert on Lynch Street, 
connecting the Lake with the River, necessitated the Board 
calling on City Council to have a new Culvert put in, which 
petition they trust will be favorably acted upon by Council. 
Very respectfully, 

O. A. CHISOLM, Chairman, 
C C. & A. R, Embankment. 



Pleasure Grounds. 197 



REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON PLEASURE 
GROUNDS, LOWER WARDS. 

Hon. John F. Fickcn, Mayor of the Oily of Charleston : 

Dear- Sir : — The Committee on Pleasure Grounds, Lower 
Wards, beg leave to submit the following report for the year 
ending December 31st, 1894:. Touchers for all amounts ex- 
pended are in the possession of the City Treasurer : 

Appropriation for 1894 $2,889 50 

EXPENDITURES. — CANNON PARK. 



04,261 Bushels of Earth. $819 23 

1,169 Feet of Curbing, and setting same... 650 40 

120 Settees, complete 483 00 

Lumber and Hardware 19 75 

Labor 144 79 §2,123 77 



BAITER Y. 

30 Trees and Boxes $ 60 00 

Paintiug Benches and Fountain 73 05 

2,971 Bushels Shell 89 13 

Repairing Benches 27 55 

Labor 22 50 272 23 



WASHINGTON PARK. 

Painting Benches and Trellis. 17 00 

Labor and Manure 1 50 18 50 

Superintendent, Sam'l V\ 7 ebb 475 00 

$2,889 50 $2,889 50 



Yours respectfully, 

It. S. CATHCAKT, 

Chairman P. G. L. Wards. 



198 Mayor Ficken's Annual Bern 



ew. 



PLEASURE GROUNDS, UPPER WARDS. 

Hon. John F. fflcken, Mayor: 

Dear. • Sir : — Your Committee in charge of Pleasure 
Grounds, Upper Wards, would respectfully submit this their 
Annual Report for the year ending December 3 1st, 1894 : 

Appropriation §600 00 

Labor, care of Grounds $360 00 

Repairs to Drain 10 50 

Repairing, and Painting Benches and Fountain. 44 00 

Sundry Materials 8 50 $423 00 

Balance in City Treasury ,,... $177 00 

All the parks could be very much improved, with larger 
appropriation. Hampstead Mall needs grading and curbing. 
The walks on Wragg Mall need repairing. Benches have been 
removed by request of neighboring residents. 
Yours respectfully, 

L. E. WILLIAMS, 

Chairman. 



Pleasure Grounds. 



100 



PUBLIC MARKETS. 



Market Hall, ) 

Charleston, S. C, January 2nd, 1895. j 

To the Commissioners of the Public Markets : 

Gentlemen : — In accordance with law, I hereby submit a 
statement of the transactions of this office from January 1st, 
1894, to December 31st, 1894. 



Collections from Fish and Vegetables, $1,557 95 

Centre Beef and Pork Markets .' 4,064 35 



Weights and Measures 

Scale Fees 

Mount Pleasant Ferry Co 

Fish Licenses 

Ice House Rent, Upper Market. 

Market Hall Kent 

Sundries 



EXPENDITURES. 



Wages to Hands.. 

Repairs 

Sundry Expenses. 

City Treasurer 

Insurance 



176 43 


97 31 


200 04 


230 00 


20 00 


89 00 


23 49 


$6,4-58 57 


§ 888 00 


362 94 


221 24 


4,866 39 


120 00 


$6,458 57 



G. W. HOUSE, 

Chief Cleric Markets. 



200 Mayor Ficl:en\s Annual Review. 

CITY SURVEYOR'S OFFICE. 

Charleston, S. C, January 1st, 1895. 

Hon. John F. Fickcn, Mayor: 

I respectfully beg leave to submit the following report of 
work done by this Department during the year ending Decem- 
ber 31st, 1894. 

Before proceeding with the report, however, I would like, in 
behalf of this Department, to thank your Honor, the Chair- 
man of the several Committees of Council, and the various 
City Officials for the courtesies and assistance extended to us 
during the past year. 

Yery respectfully, 

J. II. DINGLE, 

City Surveyor. 

REPORT. 

The appropriation for this Department for 1894 was as follows : 

Car Fare $ 50 00 

Stationery 150 00 

New Level Instrument 120 00 

Office Assistants 1,080 00 

Total $1,400 00 

This was expended as follows : 

Blue Print Paper $ 13 59 

Tracing Cloth 16 SO 

Sundries (including express charges on material) 12 85 

Tape Lines ! 16 10 

Stationery, (including Index and Level books) 22 95 

Instrument, (including repairs to Old Level, and a New 

: Transit) 170 75 

Car Fare 60 00 

Bills left over from 1893 5 00 

Office Assistants 1,080 00 

Total $1,398 04 

Balance on hand 1 96 

Grand Total $1,400 00 



City Evjjinee/s .Department. 201 



DRAINS. 

Levels taken and Profiles furnished for Drains. 

Bee street, Ashley to President 400 feet. 

Bogard street, Wooden Trunk 100 

Charlotte street, Elizabeth to Meeting 719 

Coming street, near Morris st., (Kiker) and North of Morris, 475 

Cooper street, Nassau to Meeting 700 

Doughty street, Ashley street, westward .1,022 

East Battery 990 

Harney Court, (Main Drain) 225 

Islington Court, from Cannon, south 250 

Ladson street, King to Meeting 523 

Lynch street, Beaufain to Bull , 1,500 

Mary street, Meeting to America L043 

Meeting. street road (Pviker property) 495 

Morris street, Smith to Coming , 850 

Mount street, Payne to Rutledge Ave 493 

Nassau' street, Amherst to Cooper 1,625 

Nassau street, Mary street, northward 115 

Payne street, Congress to Mount 566 

South Battery, Meeting street, westward 2,281 

Wall street, Laurens to Calhoun 886 

Water street, High Battery, westward 95 



Total 15,358 feet. 

CURB AND PAYING. 

Levels taken and Profiles furnished for Curb and Pavement. 

Ashley street, Doughty to Bee 600 feet. 

Atlantic street, East Bay to Church, both sides 1,030 

Bennett street, Rutledge to Lynch " 475 

Burns Lane, N. S. Meeting street, westward 100 

Calhoun street, Smith street to Riverside Infirmary 1,925 

Calhoun street. King, eastward 150 

Calhoun street, Rutledge to Lynch 470 

College street, George to Green 370 

Coming street, Cannon to Radcliffe 1,090 

Cumberland street, State, eastward 152 

East Bay, Longitude Lane to Tradd 175 

Gendron street, East Bay to Prioleau 257 

George street, St. Philip to College '.' 285 

Green street, St. Philip to College 285 

Hayne street, Meeting street, eastward 212 

King street, Columbus to Line ... 563 

King street, Broad to Tradd 614 

Lynch street, Bennett to Calhoun 510 



202 Mayor Pickeries Annual Review. 

Lynch street, Beaufain to Bull ! ; 1,200 feet. 

Line street, Sires Alley to King 500 

Market street, east of East Bay 300 

Mary street, King to B. R 265 

Mary street, America street, westward 246 

Meeting street, Sheppard, southward 248 

Pritchard street, East Bay, eastward 500 

Pinckney street, Meeting to Maiden Lane 3S6 

Quenn Street, Archdale to King 513 

Queen street, Church to State 406 

Queen street, Church, eastward .' 132 

Queen street, Archdale to Mazyck 473 

Rutledge street, Bennett to Calhoun 440 

Smith street, Wentworth to Montague 425 

St Philip street, Calhoun to George 677 

Smith street, Beaufain to Wentworth .' 425 

Wentworth street, Meeting to Anson... 565 

Total .....10,964 feet. 

ROADWAYS. 

Levels taken and Profiles furnished for Roadways. 

Beaufain street, King to Arcndale 542 feet, 

Calhoun street, Concord to Elizabeth 1,625 

Cannonsboro Drive (proposed) 3,450 

Cumberland Street, East Bay to State 340 

Friend street, Broad to Queen 535 

King street, South Bay to Calhoun (proposed) 5,800 

Legare street. South Bay, northward....; 200 

Line street, Sires Alley to King 500 

Lynch street, Broad to Tradd 725 

Queen street, Friend to King 625 

Rutledge street. Broad to Tradd 735 

Spring street, Chestnut to Chinquapin 464 

St. Philip street, Beaufain to Line . 5,712 



Total 21,253 feet. 

TOPOGRAPHICAL SURVEYS MADE AND MAPS WITH PLANS FOR 
DRAINAGE FURNISHED. 

Coming street, Harney's Court Drainage. 

Coming street, south of Morris, (Biker's) 

Coming street, north of Morris 

Meeting street road, (Hiker's)..... 



City Engineer's Department, 20 



OTHER SURVEYS. 

Archdale street, corner Clifford Alley, (strip conveyed to City.) 

Addison's Court, for Lights. 

Battery Extension, (topographical.) 

Beaufaiii street, corner Gadsden, (encroachments.) 

Broad street corner Meeting, (rounding S. W. and N. E. corners.) 

Calhoun street, corner Rutledge Ave., (rounding N. E. corner.) 

Calhoun street, corner Rutledge street, (rounding S. W. corner.) 

Cannonsboro Drive, (proposed,) 

Cannon Park (topographical) rounding corner and changing of track. 

Cannon Park Extension (topographical.) 

Chestnut street, Spring to West Point Property, (West Point streets.) 

Chinquapin street, Spring to West Point Property (West Point streets.) 

Fourth street Extension. 

Island, foot of Bee street (topographical.) 

Kirkland Lane, Beaufain to Wentworth, (encroachments.) 

Larne Court, Lights. 

Line street, Payne to President, (encroachments.) 

Lynch street, across Calhoun to Ashley. 

Marion Square Roadway around Monument, from Calhoun to Citadel. 

Market street, Anson street, east, low places covered by spring tide. 

Meeting street, at N, E. corner Wentworth, rounding corner at Park. 

Murphy's Court, Lights. 

Northwestern portion City, Lights. 

Poinsett street, King to R. H. (encroachments.) 

Potters Field, to ascertain area and lines. 

Rodgers Alley, King to St. Philip, Lights. 

Rutledge Avenue Extension, Grove to Simons, (topographical.) 

South and East Battery, for Trees. 

South Bay, from Legare, west pavement, 

South Bay, S. S., corner King. 

Sixth street, through Cannonsboro Mill Pond. 

St. Philip street, N. W. corner Beaufain. (rounding corners.) 

West Point Mill Property, (topographical.) 

Wentworth, Meeting to King, Lights. 

GRADE PEGS SET. 

Calhoun street, Elizabeth to East Bay roadway, (every 250 30 pegs, 

740 feet. 
Calhoun street, Smith to Rutledge, roadway, (every 500 32 P e S s > 

575 feet, 
Calhoun street Rutledge, westward, Curb to Park, (every 250 175 feet, 
Cannon Park, grade pegs (25' apart each way,) 43 pegs. 
Cannon Park, extension, (pegs 25 / apart each way,) 1S7 pegs. 
Carolina street, Rutledge Ave, to King, grading, (500 | 

Cleveland - " (500 f Sce Note * 

Coming " Sheppard to N. of Sumter, " (500^ 



204 Mayor Fichcirs Annual Review. 

East Battery, north end to South Battery, Asphalt roadway, (50') 

23 pegs, 1,150 feet. 
Fishburne street, Rutledge Ave. to King, grading, (50 / ) / 
Francis •• - '■ - - (50') \ See hote ' 

Gendron street, East Bay to Prioleau, Curb, (50') 5 pegs, 257 feet, 
Harney Court. 

Johnstone street, Meeting to Nassau, grading, (50') 8 pegs, 400 
Line street, Sires Alley to King, Pyrites roadway (50 / ) 10 pegs, 500 
Lynch street, Broad to Tradd. 
Maverick street, Rutledge Ave. to King, grading, (50 7 ) 



Perry street, Sheppard to Sumter, (50') j Sce Note " 

Rutledge street, Broad to Tradd. 

South Bay, East Battery to West End, Asphalt roadway, (500 39 

pegs, 950 
Spring street, Chinquapin to Chestnut, roadway, 9 pegs, 484 
St. Philip, Sheppard to Carolina, grading (50 r ; See Note. 
St. Philip St., Beaufain to Line, Pyrites roadway,! 114 pegs, 

grade pegs (50') i 5,712 feet. 



St. Philip St., Beaufain to Line, Pyrites roadway, I 22S pegs. 

Line pegs J 
Tracy street, Francis to S. of Maverick, grading, (50') ) 

Sheppard to N. of Sumter, - (500 ) See Note « 
Water street, High Battery, westward, Drain, (lo') 6 pegs, 95. 

Note,— These streets had been staked out both for Line and Grade, 
in 1893, but the stakes were lost and had to be replaced from time to 
time during 1894. 



STREET LINES FURNISHED FOR ERECTION OF BUILDINGS, 



All citizens receive the services of this Department for such, 
purposes, free of charge. 

America street, above Cooper. 

Anson street, S. E. corner Calhoun. 

Alway street, Chestnut, eastward, 

Atlantic street, Church to Zig Zag Alley. 

Beaufain street, N. E. corner Kirkland Lane. 

Bee street, N. S., between President and Ashley. 

Bogard street, N. S., between Rosemont and President. 

]3ennett street, Rutledge to Lynch. 

Calhoun street N. W. corner Smith. 

Rutledge street to Lynch. 

S. S. Marsh, to Concord. 

N. E. corner Ogier. 



City Engineer s Department. 20i 

Calhoun street S. E. corner Anson. 

- Through West Point. Mill Property 
N. &., between Ashley and Lucas 
Cannon street, X. W. corner Coming, 
Chestnut street, N. E. corner All way. 
Coming street N. W. corner Cannon street. 
Coming street, W. S., above Radcliffe. 
Coming street, E. S., between Green and Calhoun. 
Concord street, W. S., between Calhoun and Inspection. 
Congress street, President, west. 
Cooper street. 

Grove street, King street to west end. 
Hampstead. 

Inspection street, Concord to Marsh. 
Kirkland Lane, Beaufain to Wentworth. 
King street, between Radcliffe and Morris, W. S. 
King street, N. W. corner Simons. 
King street, E. S , Mary and Reid. 
King street, linger and Moultrie. 
Laurens street, east end. 
Line street, S. S., Rutledgeto Ashley. 
Line street, N. S., President and Payne. 
Lucas street, W. S., Mill and Doughty. 
Lynch street, Bull to Calhoun. 
Lynch street, N. W. corner Tradd. 
Lynch street, N. W. corner Wentworth. 
Lynch street, Tradd to Broad. 
Marsh street, Calhoun to Inspection. 
Meeting street, Hill to Cooper. 
Mill street, Cannonsboro property. 
Nassau street, near Line. 
Ogier street, N. E. corner Calhoun. 
Payne Street, Mount to Fishburne. 
Payne street, S. \V. corner Fishburne. 
Pine street, through Cannonsboro Mill Pond. 
Poinsett street, King street to S. C. & Ga. R. R-, both sides. 
Pritchard street. 
Roinney Court, west of King. 
Rutledge street, Tradd to Broad, E. S. 
Rutledge street, Calhoun to Ball, E. and W. sides. 
Sans Souci street, S. S., King to Hester. 
Savage street, W. S., Broad to Tradd. 
Second street, across West Point Mill property- 
Simons street, jN. W. corner King, and from King street, west. 
South Bay, S. S., King street to Ashley River. 
Smith Street, N. W. coiner Calhoun. 
Stewart street, America to Railroad. 
Tradd street, N. W. corner Lynch. 



206 Mayor Fickm's Annual Review. 

Washington street, W. S., Charlotte and Chapel. 
Washington street, corner Vernon. 
Wharf street, Laurens, northward. 
Went worth street, N. W. corner Lynch. 

PLAN'S AND SPECIFICATIONS. 

Manhole Water street Drain. 

Inlets on Battery. 

Retaining Wall S. W. corner City Hospital property. 

Steps for East Battery. 

Steps for South Battery. 

Extension of Calhoun street Drain, westward. 

Concrete Sidewalk, South Battery. 

S. W. corner Marion. Square, rounding corner. 

Cannon Park, Grading and Sub-division into Walks and Grass Plots, 

Beaufain street, X. W. corner St. Philip, rounding corner. 

Bennett street, N. W. corner Rutledge street, rounding corner. 

Calhoun street, N. E. corner .Rutledge avenue, rounding corner. 

Calhoun street, S. W. corner Rutledge street, rounding corner. 

Marion Square Roadway, around monument* 

Broad street, S. W. & N". E. corner Meeting street, rounding corners. 

Lynch street, S. W. corner Calhoun street, proposed changes. 

Suggestion in connection with re-building of west wing to Charleston 

College. 
Wentworth street, N. E. corner Meeting street, rounding corner. 

KKrOETS. 
On City Hall Condition. 
On condition of Battery Drains. 
On Completion of Asphalt Roadway. 
To Committee on Lighting City. 
As regards Wentworth street. King to Meeting. 
As regards Rodgers Alley. 
As regards Larne Court. 
As regards Murphy's Court. 
As regards Addison Court. 
As regards X. W. portion of the City. 

On Building X. E. corner Mary and King Street, (reported dangerous.) 
On Chimney Wharf street. 
On Building S. S. Calhoun street, near Wall. 
On Building S. S. Hayne street, Meeting to Anson. 
On Flintite as a Paving Material. 
On Drainage Piker's property, Meeting street road. 
On Drainage Harneys Court, Coming Street. 
On Drainage Biker's property, Coming street. 
On Drainage W. S. Coming, north of Morris street. 
Tabulated report (with Capt. R. T. Hartford,) to the Sewerage Com- 
mittee as to bids received for Sewerage work. 
On Drainage Strawberry Lane. 



City Engineer's Department 207 



INSPECTION DURING CONSTRUCTION. 

All City work done during the year was inspected from 
time to time. 

On the following works, however, particular attention was 
paid to inspection, and a representative of this Department 
was present almost continually, from commencement to com- 
pletion : 

East Battery, repairs to High Battery. 
South Battery, repairs to Sea Wall. 
Water street Drain, across East Battery Drive. 
Asphalt Roadway, East and South Battery. 
Curb Setting at Cannon Park. 

New Stable for Police Department inspected previous to acceptance 
by City. 

MEASUREMENT OF SAND, SHELL, GRAVEL, ETC. 

Sand, 38 loads, (flats) 86,052 bushels. 

Shell, 7 - - .....17,202 

Gravel, 21 •• •• .' 29,046 

MEASUREMENTS OF PAVEMENTS AND CURB. 

Blue Stone 40,425 square feet. 

Brick 961 " . 

Concrete 545 

Curb, Blue Stone 9,102 feet. 

Curb, Buff Stone 2,299 " 

MEASUREMENT OF ROADWAYS. 

Granite 7,678 square yards. 

Pyrites ...15,180 

Cobble 11,756 

ESTIMATES. 

Roadways '. 41,297 

PAVEMENTS. 

Blue Stone, (106 places) 248,940 

Curb, (80 places) 38,797 

TESTING. 

Tested Cement used in repairs to East Battery during whole time of 

its reconstruction. 
Tested Cement used for foundation of Asphalt Road. 



. ' 



208 Mayor Fichu's Annual Review. 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

Leveled four miles to ascertain elevation of various localities proposed 

as sites for Sewerage Disposal Works. 
Indexing Record Books of Plats, Bench Marks and Street Lines. 
Examination of Record Books. 

Previous to 1894, the Engineering and Surveying of the 
City was .done by the City Civil Engineer. During the latter 
part of 1893, however, a change was made to take effect Jan- 
uary 1894, and on this latter date the City Surveyor's Depart- 
ment came into existence, having the same duties and the same 
requirements as the Department which it succeeded. 

The advent of this Department found the work of recon- 
struction of High Battery well under way, Mr. Colin Mclv. 
Grant being the contractor 

To the inspection of this work our attention was directed, a 
representative of this Department being continually on the 
ground during working hours, until the work was completed 
in March, 1891, During this time the Brick Drain crossing 
East Battery drive at "Water Street was also rebuilt, and was 
daily inspected. The completion of this contract gave to the 
City a solid and substantial piece of work which we trust and 
believe will stand the storms for many many years. 

The only other large contracts in which this Department 
was interested during the year were the paving with Asphalt 
of East and South Battery ariot the new Sewerage System. 
The former of these was begun on April 30th, 1894, and com- 
pleted July 20th, 1894— giving the City one of the 
prettiest drives in the country and the most substantial in the 
City ; about 0.6 miles long, with Granite Curb on each side 
for the greater parts of its length, and bordered by grass 
plots planted with Palmetto and Oak trees. This road is built 
on a foundation of Concrete 6" thick, is a fine piece of work, 
and is the only road in the City having a substantial founda- 
tion. 

During its construction close attention was paid to daily 
inspection ; and to Mr. J. C. ¥. Bisehoff, Snpt. of Streets, 
and Mr. J. B. Bobbins, Supt, Warren-Scharf Asphalt Com- 
pany, our thanks are due for assistance and co-operation in 
subserving the best interest of the City. 



City Engineer' } s Department. 209 

Work on the new Sewerage System was begun in Novem- 
ber, 1894, under immediate supervision of Capt. E. F. Hart- 
ford' with whom this Department has co-operated to its fullest 
extent. In the matter of inspection, Mr. Bobt. B. Olney, 
Assistant City Surveyor, has been detailed and placed under 
Capt, E. F. Hartford, as Chief Inspector, in which capacity 
he has acted since the commencement of the work. 

Considerable Road Paving has been laid with Iron Pyrites 
Cinders, which makes quite a cheap road covering, but has 
not been in use long enough to test its durability. 



The following items might prove of interest : 

The area of the City is as follows : 

Marsh and Mud Flats.. 1.36 square miles. 

High Lands...,. :....3,76 

Total area 5.12 

STREETS, EXCLUDING LANES AND ALLEYS. 

Number of Miles of Streets (57.23 miles. 

MATERIAL OF ROADWAY AS FOLLOWS : 

Asphalt '.. 0.60 miles. 

Cobble Stones 5.90 " 

Dirt 39.04 " 

Granite Blocks 5.55 

Granite Blocks and Cobble 6.72 - 

Granite Blocks and Dirt 1.55 

Plank 1.39 '" 

Plank and Dirt 0.02 " 

Pyrites 0.09 ■• 

Pyrites and Cobble 1.64 

Pyrites and Blocks 0.085 " 

Shell 1.62 " 

Tracks, Plank and Dirt 3.03 •• 

PARKS. 

Aiken Park 1.23 acres. 

Cannon Park and Extension 2.85 

Colonial Lake (including water)....., 9.29 

14 



210 Mayor FicJcen's Annual Review. 

Keystone Park 0.10 acres. 

Mall , 3.G7 " 

Marion Square.. 5.73 

Market Park 

Washington Park 0.94 

White Point Garden G.8& - 

LENGTH OF DRAINS IN CITY EXCLUDING NEW SEWERAGE 
SYSTEM. 

Brick Drains (1ft. to 4 ft.) .1S.02 miles. 

Tidal Drains 5.16 " 

PIPE DRAINS. 
24".... „ 0.09 



18" 2.25 

15" 3.15 

12" 16.13 

10" , 0.75 

8" 1.96 

Total length of Pipe : 24.33 miles. 

STREET RAILWAY TRACKS WITHIN CITY LIMITS. 

City Railway Single Track 0.88 miles. 

Double " 6.29 •• 

Enterprise Railway Single Track ...0.73 

- " Double " 4.80 •• 

PLATS, 

Number of Plats in Office Plat Books 876 

•• Large Plats, (rolled) 43 

** Plans and Designs 34 

** Profiles, (Drains, Pavements, Etc.) ...283 

In connection with the purchase of a new Transit, I would 
like to add that our old Transit has been disposed of to Messrs. 
Young & Sons, Instrument Makers, of Philadelphia, Pa., for 
$30.00, less $2,10 expressage, which amount, (827,90) will be 
turned into City Treasury upon its arrival. 

During the year our spare time, which was rather limited, 
was devoted to a survey of the City, and at present the section 
south of Broad Street has been nearly completed. We hope 
in time to have a new map of the entire City, and with this 
end in view we are adding from time to time to the section 
mentioned above. 



Harbor- Master's Report. 211 



PORT OF CHARLESTON. 



Office of the Harbor Commissioners. ) 

Chakleston, S. C, December 18th, 1894. j 

To the Honorable the Senate and House of Representatives of the 
State of South Carolina : 

As required by Section 15, of an Act entitled "An Act to 
Amend an Act entitled "An Act Creating a Harbor Commis : 
Bion for the Bay and Harbor of Charleston, approved 24th 
December, 1880," I have the honor in behalf of the Harbor 
Commission for the Port of Charleston to report : . 

That the officers under the control of the Board have dis- 
charged their several duties in a manner entirely satisfactory 
to the Board. 

That the pilotage of vessels entering and leaving the port 
during the past year has been successfully conducted, and no 
serious complaints of neglect or incompetency have been 
made. 

The work of deepening the bar which obstructed the 
entrance to the port has been continued with most encourag- 
ing success, and the efficiency of the Jetties has been satisfac- 
torily demonstrated. Under the able and intelligent direction 
of Capt. Frederic Y. Abbot, of the corps of U.S. Engineers, 
this great work has reached a point at which permanent 
results have been secured, and already a depth at the bar of 
over twenty-two feet at high water is officially reported. 

From the records of the Harbor Master's Office, I find there 
were, during the twelve months from. November 1, 1893, 
to October 31, 1894, €49 .arrivals of American vessels, classi- 
fied as follows : 363 Schooners, 259 Steamships, 10 Barks and 
9 Briggs, aggregating 679,784 tons. Of British vessels there 
were 63 arrivals, classified as follows : 70 Steamships, 1 Bark 
and 2 Schooners, aggregating 104,807 tons. Of other Foreign 
Nationalities there were 54 arrivals, classified as follows : 
Steamships, 39 Barks and 5 Brigs, aggregating 29,504 tons, or 



212 Mayor Ficken's Annual Review. 

a total of 7G6 arrivals, and S14,215 tons, as compared with 
777 arrivals and 78S,S32 tons in the previous year. 

From the report of the Financial Committee of the Board 
it appears that there was cash on hand November 1, 1893, 
§34.5S, and Harbor Fees to the amount of $1873.50 have -been 
collected from vessels during the year. The expenses for the 
past year amount to $1,866.60. There was a balance on hand 
November 1, of $41.48. There remain unpaid a few bills 
which must be met during the current year. 

The Port Wardens report that they have surveyed 68 ves- 
sels during the past year, the fees amounting to §585.00, as 
against §751.00 for the previous fiscal year. 

The reports ill detail above referred to are on record in this 
office, and at the service of your Honorable Body. 
Respectful]} 7 submitted, 

JNO. F. FICKEX, 

Mayor of Charleston and Ex- Officio Chairman. 



Office of Haejjor Master, 
Charleston, S. C, January 2, 1895. 

Hon. John F. Ficken, Mayor and Chairman Ex- Officio Board 
of Harbor Commissioners: 

Dear Sir : — I have the honor to submit the accompanying 
report of the arrivals of Vessels at this Port, for the year 
ending December 31st, 1894. This does not include Yessels 
under one hundred tons, or Steamers plying between Ports in 
South Carolina. 

Capt. Henry F. Baker, the honored and able Chairman of 
the Board of Port Wardens, has, as usual, rendered me valu- 
able assistance, for which I am profoundly grateful. 
I remain, Dear Sir, 

Yours respectfully, 

JAMES ARMSTRONG, 

Harbor Master. 



liar b or- Master s Report. 
No. 1. 



213 



MONTHS 







a> 






b£ 




CO 

60 


CJ 


oS 


Ut 


O 


pq 


cq 


H 



Nationality, 



January.... 
February.. 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September 
October.... 
November. 
December . 

Totals. 



28 1 



39 
28 
42 
25 
31 
28 
25 
28 
26 
31 
30 
31 

364 



io! 11 



65,292 United States 
47,6441 
55,282 
57,785 
57,698 
48,3341 
49,379 
* 5) ,320; 
54,739! 
71,406' 
61,331 
65,226 

685,496 



No. 2. 



MONTHS 



January.... 
February. . 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September. 
October .... 
November. 
December. 





CO 








32 


O 






CP 


CD 


a 






60 

n 

o 


a 


O 

o 


SO 


in 

"C 


Ul 


ID 


w 


w 


H 



3 
2 

.a 

8 

10 
8 



Totals. 



Nationality 



9,275 

1,125 

1,157 

4,604 

2,618 

3,536 

3,036 

5,884 

16,451 

12,379 

17,455 

14,131 

91,661 



British 



214 



Mayor Fickcn's Annual Review. 
-No. 3. 



•MONTHS 


CO 

o 

s 

a 

03 


w 
© 

O 

o 
w 




PQ 


CO 

a. 
m 


© 

bfl 

a 

Q 

Eh 


Nationality 




1 




1 

o 
3 

r> 
1 

1 






1,814 

974! 

560 

948 

499 

1,630 

1,007 

1,003 

1,249 

586 

964 

1,229 

456 

2,] 27 

350 

492 

439 

501 

287 

2, 30 

667 

675 

595 

492 

1,710 

2,307 

941 

346 

4,286 

1,575 

1,512 

34, 251 


Norwegian 








Spanish 
Italian 


















Italian 










Spanish 

Norwegian 

Norwegian 


February 

March. " 


1 
1 












March ■•■ 




1 

3 

I 

1 
1 


1 




Italian 


March 






Spanish . 

Spanish 

Italian 


April 1 






1 




















Norwegian 


Mav 






Spanish 
Spanish 
German 


June 


1 




1 

1 










June 






1 
1 

J 
1 
4 

1 


Italian 


July 










Italian 


July. 










German 


July. 










Spanish 
Italian 












September, 


1 






Austrian 




1 


1 


i"" 




Norwegian 


October.. . 






1 
1 
1 
3 
2 
1 
1 
2 
3 

42 


1 




Danish 


October 










Italian 


October . 


1 








Spanish 
Spanish 
Italian 








November 










November.. 










German 


December 


1 




" i 


1 


Norwegian 


December 


Spanish 


December 






Italian 




6 




! 5 


1 





Making a total of 125,902 tons, Foreign. 



Education in Charleston, 2J5 



EDUCATION IN CHARLESTON. 



ANNUAL REPORT OF SUPERINTENDENT ARCHER. 

Office of the Superintendent of City Public Schools. 

Charleston, S, C, December 31st, 1894. 

To the' City Board School Commissioners : 

Gentlemen : — I beg to submit herewith the report of your 
Schools for the year ending with date : 

ENROLLMENT. 

Number of white males 1,048 

Number of white females 1,358 

Total number of white pupils 2,406 

Number of colored males 977 

Number of colored females 1,236 

Total number of colored pupils 2,213 

Total number of male pupils 2,025 

Total number of female pupils 2,594 

Grand total 4,619 

attendance. 

Number of white males 952 

Number of white females 1,244 

Total number of white pupils 2,196 

Number of colored males 902 

Number of colored females 1,136 

Total number of colored pupils 2,038 

Total number of male pupils 1,8-54 

Total number of female pupils 2,380 

Grand total 4,234 

NUMBER OF PUPILS STUDYING EACH OF THE BRANCHES, 

Alphabet 460 

Spelling 3,774 

Reading 3,774 

Writing 4,234 

Mental Arithmetic 3,774 

Written Arithmetic 3,774 



216 Mayor Fid-en's Annual Review. 

Geography 3,193 

English Grammar... 1,465 

History of United States 2,002 

Physiology and Hygiene 395 

Higher Branches ,857 

Number of months in session d% 

Number of Teachers employed 102 

ADOPTION OF RECOMMENDATIONS. 

The adoption of the recommendation made in my last An- 
nual Report that Rule 2, Page 6, of the Book of Rules be so 
amended as to make persons holding a certificate of qualifica- 
tion eligible for positions as extra teachers, as well as those 
holding a diploma of the Memminger School, has removed 
the hardship that previously obtained in cases where persons 
were not graduates. 

The adoption, too, of my other recommendation, that va- 
cancies in the corps of regular teachers be filled from among 
the extra teachers, and that vacancies among the latter be filled 
by competitive examination from among those holding either 
a diploma or a certificate, has removed the undue advantage 
hitherto enjoyed by competitors over the extra teachers. 

It gives your Superintendent great pleasure to report that 
the work done by the Schools during the past year was good. 
The teachers have all been active and painstaking, and the 
pupils punctual and studious. The first honor of the Mem- 
minger School, with the Peabody silver medal, was awarded 
to Miss Anna W. Marshall, and the Mitchell prize for compo- 
sition to Miss Eliza C. Mellichamp. In the Grammar Schools 
the bronze Peabody medals were awarded to Master Clarence 
Sclmell, of the Bennett School, Master Charles Stein meyer, of 
the Crafts, and Masters Brooks and Daniels, of the Courtenay, 
these boys having led their classes for the year. 

RESIGNATION OF TEACHERS. 

Since my last report the following teachers have resigned 
their positions in the schools : Miss L. IT. Alexander, of the 
Bennett ; Miss E. F. Hayne, of the Courtenay ; Miss Carrie 
Weekeley, of the Shaw. Miss AVeekeley has accepted a posi- 
tion as teacher of the Indians, at Carlisle, Pennsylvania, and, 
from what I can learn, is doing excellent work. 



Education in Charleston. 217 

TEA CH EKS ELECTED. 

Miss Agnes Irving "Miscall y for the Bennett School, Miss 
Marie Graham for the Shaw, Miss Alice G. Moran for the 
Shaw, Mrs. R. J. Ball for the Courtenay, Miss Leonarda 
Jacques for the Bennett, Miss Ephie Jordan for the Shaw. 

EXTRA TEACHERS. 

The extra teachers subject to call in case of temporary 
absence on the part of regular teachers, were Miss Mattie P. 
Macmillan for the Memminger School, Miss Florrie Smith for 
the Bennett, Miss Etta Jordan for the Crafts, Miss Eliza Mel- 
lichamp for the Courtenay, Miss Isabel Kennedy for the 
Simonton, and Misss Ida Cronan for the Shaw. 

DEATHS. 

There was but one death among the teachers during the past 
year, that of Miss Minna E. Roper, which occurred on the 19th 
of April. Miss Roper was an earnest and conscientious 
teacher, and gave promise of great usefulness. Though con- 
nected with the Memminger School for but a short time as 
the teacher of French, she endeared herself to pupils and 
teachers alike, and has left behind her a record of which her 
friends have good reason to be proud. 

Her place has been filled by the appointment of Mrs G. W. 
Alexander. 

DEATH OF COMMISSIONER RURNIIAM. 

There was one death, too, among the commissioners, that of 
Commissioner Burnham, which occurred in this City on the 
22d of August, 1S94: ; and in order to make it a matter of 
official record I have incorporated in my Report the following 
Minute, prepared by a committee of the Board, and unani- 
mously adopted at the November meeting : 



218 Mayor Fieken's Annual Review. 



IN MEMOEIAM. 

The committee charged with the duty of preparing a Minute 
to the memory of the late Commissioner Burnham, beg leave 
to report that they have discharged the same, and present the 
following for the consideration of the Board : 

One year ago this Board was called upon to mourn the loss 
of one of its members — the late Commissioner Dingle — and 
now again the Reaper Death has visited us, and with sickle 
keen has cut down another of our members — Commissioner 
llobert F. Burnham. The chair made vacant had not long 
been tilled when another one is found empty. 

Mr Burnham was born hi Charleston on the 11th of Septem- 
ber. 1841, and died on the 22d of August, 1894, after a pro- 
tracted illness. 

He w^as educated in this City at the w r ell-know r n school of 
Mr. Angus Wilson, and as a youth was studious and pains- 
taking. Methodical in his habits he became a successful ac- 
countant, and in that capacity served for many years in the 
car building department of the South Carolina Bailroad. 

Being interested in matters of Education he was elected 
School Commissioner of the Sixth School District in Decem- 
ber, 1891 j and on the 16th of that month he qualified by taking 
the oath of office, and was assigned to the Courtenay School 
as one of its two supervising commissioners. 

The other supervising commissioner was the late Mr Dingle, 
and it is somewhat significant that both of these commission- 
ers should have been assigned to the same school at the begin- 
ning of their term of office, and that both should have died 
before that term had ended. 

But brief as was his service, it was characterized by zeal and 
earnestness, and with an eye single to the public interest. 
Mr. Burnham was of a modest and retiring nature. He had 
no taste for politics, and it is said that the office of School 
Commissioner was forced upon him. In private life he was 
loving, and amiable to a fault. He was fond of his home and 
did all in his power to make that home a happy one. He was 
devoted to children, and in his intercourse with them he ex- 
hibited all the elements of his sympathetic nature. Your 



Education- in Charleston. ■ 219 

committee regret bis removal from our midst, and recommend 
the adoption of the .following resolutions : 

1. Resolved, That this Board mourns the loss of Commis- 
sioner Robert F. Burnham. 

2. Resolved, That in his death we have lost an earnest col- 
league, one who was deeply interested in the welfare of our 
schools, and always ready to assist in their development. 

3. Resolved, That we tender to his bereaved family our 
sympathy and condolence ; that a copy of these resolutions be 
sent to them by the Superintendent, and that a blank page in 
onr Journal be dedicated to his memory. 

II. BAER, 

C. F. PANKNIN, 

¥M. J. MILLER, 

Committee. 

There is nothing connected with the work of the Schools 
during the past year that has given me more positive pleasure 
than the action taken by the Memminger (School Alumnse 
Association at their meeting in November. 

This action will be best explained by the following corre- 
spondence: 

Charleston, S. C, December 5th, 1894. 
To the Hon. Charles II Simonton, Chairman, and the Other 
Members of the City Board of Piiblic /School Commis- 
sioners : 

Gentlemen. — At a meeting of the Memminger School 
Alumnse Association, held on the 7th of November, 1894, I 
was directed to send you the following copy of resolutions 
unanimously adopted by them, and to ask your approval of 
the same. 

Resolved, That the Memminger School Alumnae Associa- 
tion offer to the Class of 1895 of the Memminger School, and 
to each succeeding class a medal for the best recitation of an 
original or a selected piece, the same to be awarded by com- 
petition. 

Resolved, That this competition shall occur on Thursday 
of the week next preceding Graduating Day. 



220 Mayor Mcken's Annual Review. 

Pesolved, That the Executive Committee (the President of 
the Association acting as Chairman) shall designate three com- 
petent persons, who shall act as judges. 

.Resolved, That the committee of judges shall render their 
decision in a sealed envelope to the Superintendent of the 
City Public Schools, on or before the day of graduation in 
order that the medal may be presented on that day. 

Resolved, That the Superintendent of the City Public 
Schools be requested to make notice of this award on the Ex- 
hibition programme of the Memminger School. 

Resolved, That the medal shall be a circular disk of gold, 
pendant from a gold bar, the latter to be inscribed with the 
name of the successful contestant and the class date. The 
medal proper to be about one inch and an eighth in diameter, 
showing a view of the Memminger School Building in the 
centre, surrounded by the words: " Memminger School 
Alumnee Medal," and " Palmam qui meruit ferat" all en- 
circled by a wreath of laurel leaves. Yery respectfully, 

AG1S T ESS C. STROHECKER, 
President Memminger School Alumnee Association. 

Office of the ) 

Superintendent of City Public Schools, \ 

Charleston, December 5th, 1894. j 

Miss Agness C. Strohecker, President Memminger School 
Alumnee Association ; 

'' Dear Miss Strohecker. — I am directed by the Board of 
Commissioners to acknowledge the receipt of your resolutions 
of November 7th, ult., and to say that they accept with thanks 
the medal offered. I am also instructed to express to you, and 
through you to the Association you so ably represent, the 
Board's high appreciation of your action in this matter and, 
to extend their best wishes for the continued prosperity of so 
useful an organization. 

Very respectfully, 

HEXRJ P. ARCHER, 

Superin Undent* 



Education in Charleston. 221 

It is most pleasing to notice this action of the Memminger 
School Alumnae, as it not only shows that they have not for- 
gotten their Alma Mater, but demonstrates also a desire on 
their part to stimulate undergraduates to still higher achieve 
ment in the Department of Elocution and Voice Culture. 

The young ladies of the School have during the past year 
done excellent Work for Miss Alargaiet Y. Jenkins, the accom- 
plished teacher of Vocal Expression, and I feel satisfied that 
their work will he still better because of the generous spirit of 
competition which the offer of the medal has already excited. 

I am much pleased with the qualit}^ of the work done by 
the pupils in the Art Department of the Memminger School 
under the able direction of Mademoiselle L. Fery. 

All the drawings give evidence of care and painstaking on 
the part of the teacher, and diligence and appreciation on the 
part of the pupils. Some of the specimens, notably those 
from casts, are really very creditable, 

I am pleased, too, with the Drawing of the boys from the 
Bennett, Crafts, and Courtenay Schools, who go to Mademoi- 
selle Fery's studio, three times a week in the afternoon, for 
the purpose of receiving instruction from her. Some of their 
specimens were on exhibition at the school houses last July at 
the closing exercises, and were much admired. 

During my visit to the North last summer I went to several 
schools, and in all the High Schools, for both boys and girls, 
I found that Gymnastic exercises formed a part of the regular 
daily curriculum. Upon inquiry I found that better intel- 
tectual work had been done by the pupils since their intro- 
duction, and that the health of the pupils had greatly im- 
proved. I could see for myself that, with but a very few ex- 
ceptions, the boys and girls alike were robust and well devel- 
oped, with no pale faces, sunken chests and stooping postures. 
On the contrary, they were fresh and ruddy, with elastic step 
and graceful carriage. I would, therefore, recommend that 
Gymnastic exercises be introduced at once into the Memmin- 
ger High School, and that a competent instructor be employed. 

While visiting Northern schools I also found that the 
awarding of certiiicates to pupils was based on a higher per- 



222 Mayor Fickeris Annual Review. 

centage than obtains in our schools. I would, therefore, 
recommend that Rule 12, Page 9, of the Book of Rules, be 
amended by substituting 95 per cent, for 90, as the basis of 
the award. 

I would also recommend that the 3d, or lowest graded cer- 
tificate, be hereafter awarded to pupils making from 95 to 9C> 
per cent; as an average, without a demerit for conduct or at- 
tendance ; that the 2d, or intermediate certificate, be awarded 
to those making from 97 to 98 per cent, without a demerit for 
conduct or attendance, and that the 1st, or highest certificate, 
be awarded to those making from 99 to 100 percent., without 
a demerit for conduct or attendance. 

I noticed also that a minimum percentage was required of 
all applicants for competitive examinations on the branches of 
the school course. With us the practice has been to appoint 
teachers from the competitive returns, regardless of any fixed 
percentage ; but I am satisfied that the standard of qualifica- 
tion on the part of applicants for the responsible position of a 
teacher in our schools should be definitely fixed and rigidly 
observed. In no other way will the Board be able to get first- 
class talent and first-class work. 

I would, therefore, recommend that 65 per cent, as an 
average be fixed as the minimum for the appointment of 
teachers, and that no person be allowed to teach in the City 
Public Schools who is not 19 years of age. A lower percent- 
age than the one suggested would be an insult to the intelli- 
gence and attainments of the applicant, and it would be an ex- 
ceptional case, indeed, where a teacher younger than 19 could 
command the respect of her pupils. 

Good schools are made by good teachers, and it is in the 
interest of good schools that I make the above reommenda- 
tions. 



FINANCES. 

The following is a statement of receipts and disbursements 
for the year commencing January 1st, 1894, and ending De- 
cember 31st. 18M : 



Education in Charleston. 223 

RECEIPTS, 

From City Treasurer $71,978 02 

From sale of books 49 17 

Total of receipts $72,027 79 

DISBURSEMENTS, 

For salaries $57,165 55 

For repairs 8,327 27 

For fuel r 335 75 

For waterrent 163 81 

For ground rent 712 13 

For stationery 313 78 

For High School scholarships 188 00 

For Art School appropriation 500 00 

For collecting school tax 500 00 

For making out poll list 500 00 

For insurance premiums 162 00 

For incidentals 472 89 

Purchase of Lot adjoining the Courtenay School House 2,666 66 

Total of disbursements 872,0(7 84 

Cash balance in the hands of the Treasurer $ 19 95 

Respectfully submitted, 

HENRY P. ARCHER, 

Superintendent. 



HIGH SCHOOL OF CHARLESTON. 

Hon. John F. Fickeri, Mayor, Charleston, S. C. : 

Dear Sir: — In compliance with your request, it gives 
me pleasure to send you the Report of the Principal 
of the High School to the Board of Trustees. 

Any addition to this Report, on my part, is rendered use- 
less by the admirable and full account of the work given 
therein. 

The liberality of the City Council in aiding us to increase 
the facilities of the School, is greatly appreciated by all 
who have at heart the interests of our City, and the Board 
feels satisfied that when the new building is completed, the 
results hoped for will be fully attained. 



224 Mayor fflckm's Annual Review. 

I must add that we consider ourselves fortunate in the 
corps of instructors at the School. They all take a deep 
and lively interest in the work which they have in charge, 
and devote themselves to its fulfilment according to the 
highest standard of excellence. 

Yours truly, 

JULIAN MITCHELL, 
President Board of Trustees 
High School of Charleston. 



High School of Charleston, January loth, 1895. 

The President and Trustees oj the High School of Charleston : 

Gentlemen: — The following table gives the attendance 
at the School during the sessions of the past year : 

January 1st to March 31st. 

First Class 12 Pupils. 

Second Class 29 

Third Class, Section A ..21 

Third Class, Section B 20 

Fourth Class, Section A 25 " 

Fourth Class, Section B ■. 2S " 

Preparatory Class .....24 

Total '. 102 

April 1st to June 30th. 

First Class.... 12 Pupils 

Second Class 27 

Third Class, Section A 24 " 

Third Class, Section B 18 " 

Fourth Class, Section A 22 

Fourth Class, Section B ....27 " 

Preparatory Class 24 

Total 154 



Education in Charleston. 225 

October 1st, to December 3.1st. 

First Class 19 Pupils. 

Second Class 31 " 

Third Class 41 

Fourth Class, Section A 29 ,! 

Fourth Class, Section B 26 " 

Preparatory Class 30 " 

Total 176 

The School is in a prosperous condition. I had feared 
that, in consequence of the financial depression which for 
nearly two years has so seriously affected business interests, 
the attendance would be much reduced ; the enrollment, 
however, with which the present School year opened (Octo- 
ber 1st) exceeded that of the previous year. I regard this 
as an indication of the high estimate in which the School 
is held in the community — parents making special efforts 
and practicing economy in other matters, that their sons 
may not be deprived of the advantages which our School 
offers. 

I am gratified also to state that the percentage of pupils 
remaining at the School until they graduate, has increased. 
Ten years ago, in an annual report, I called attention to 
the small number of those entering the School who com- 
pleted the course of study. There has been a decided change 
for the better. Our upper classes are larger, and the pros- 
pect seems good of graduating each year in the future, 
classes of not less than fifteen pupils. This improvement 
is the more satisfactory because our course of study has 
been steadily extended, and the present requirements for 
graduation are in advance of those of any period in the 
history of the School. 

A summary of the work now accomplished, in the several 
departments of the School will show considerable progress, 
and if compared with that of other secondary schools will 
not be to our discredit, despite the fact that our graduates 
are much younger than those who pass out from the lead- 
ing High Schools and Academies of New England, the 
Middle States or the West. 

15 



226 Mayor Fickm's Annual Review. 

In the classical department, our boys are thoroughly 
grounded in the forms, syntax and prosody of Latin and 
Greek, and are subjected before graduation to an examina- 
tion in their Grammars, from cover to cover. In reading, 
beginning with a literal rendering of their texts, they are 
led, as the course advances, to recognize and appreciate" 
elegance of expression, and to employ good English in 
their translations. They receive, especially during the last 
two years., the most careful training in writing Latin and 
Greek, and are made to memorize many of the best portions 
of the authors studied. They are «lso taught the history 
and geography of ancient Greece, Italy and Asia Minor, 
and are made familiar with classical Mythology. Our 
pupils enjoy, I am sure, the very best advantages, and when 
they leave us, whether they pursue their studies in some 
higher institution of learning, or enter at once upon the 
practical work of life, they cany with them the vigor of 
thought", facility of expression and appreciation of culture 
which a classical education inspires and develops. 

The course in Mathematics is directed not only to the 
learning of processes, but to the understanding of princi- 
ples and their application. The boys who come to us are 
supposed to be already well advanced in Arithmetic, but 
they receive such additional instruction in this important 
study as will make them independent of their text-books in 
solving difficult problems, and will prepare them for the 
work to be done in the higher classes. Algebra we now 
begin before the close of the first year, and our pupils are 
required, in the remaining years of the School course, to 
accomplish in this branch all that is demanded for admis- 
sion into the best Colleges of the Country. As indicating 
the extent of our course, I will state that at the last annual 
examination, the Algebra paper of the Graduating Class 
was the paper used at the Harvard entrance examination 
two years previous. The Geometry course is accomplished 
in the second and first classes, and the instruction is made 
as practical as possible, so as to develop and train the logi- 
cal faculty of the pupils. It is hoped in the near future to 



-Education in Charleston. 227 

enlarge the course in Mathematics, so as to include Plane 
Trigonometry. 

The department of English is being steadily developed. 
Our pupils are not only made to study and learn what are 
called the English branches, and thus acquire a considera-. 
ble iund of information, but they are given large opportu- 
nities of becoming familiar with English as a language. 
They are encouraged to read our best authors, and are re- 
quired frequently to prepare Compositions, so as to be able 
to write correctly and with ease. All that can be included 
in a four years' course is insisted upon, and the boys acquire 
that which will prove a good working capital when their 
school days are over. 

The department of Modern Languages includes French 
and German, the two languages which, in the scope and 
beauty of their literature, and in the spirit and attainments 
of their scholars, are most closely allied to our own lan- 
guage. French is begun in the Fourth Class, and German 
in the Third, and the boys thus have ample time in which 
to master the requirements of our course. Those who ac- 
complish the course can have no difficulty in reading at 
sight ordinary passages in French or German. 

Two years are given to the course in Physics. Experi- 
ments are performed before the Class, and the boys are en- 
couraged to test for themselves the principles and formulas 
of the Science. Their mastery of the subject is such as to 
fit them intelligently and without difficulty to enter upon 
any of the special courses in Technological Institutions of 
high grade. 

In every department the theory upon which the School 
is conducted is, that education implies as well the develop- 
ing and. training as the storing of the mind, and that what 
a boy can do is the test of successful school-work, rather 
than what he may have acquired. Learning is not an end, 
it is a means. The boy's school-course is to prepare him to 
discharge life's duties in a practical way. He is to be a 
worker, and must be furnished for his work ; he is to be 
strong enough to meet difficulties and overcome them ; he 



228 Mayor Ficken's Annual Review. 

is to be a living force, who.se influence will be felt by those 
around him. The well-educated man is the strong man, 
and because be is strong the possibility of his success in life 
becomes a probability. Our graduates, I am sure, enter upon 
life well prepared for any work to which they may givatheir 
energies, and can not only command success for themselves, 
but do their part in advancing the interests of the commu- 
nity. 

The Preparatory Class continues to do excellent work. 
It has more than thirty pupils, who are receiving thorough 
instruction in the studies required for admission into the 
Fourth Class of the School. Especial attention is given to 
Arithmetic and Grammar, and there are frequent exercises 
in Dictation and Composition done under the eye and di- 
rection of the teacher. Latin is included in the course, 
and the boys are drilled in forms and in analysis of simple 
sentences, so as to be prepared for the demands of the High 
School course. 

At the Commencement, held June 20th, eleven members 
of the First Class received their diplomas as graduate-. 
Their names are as follows : Joseph Dixon Andrews, 
Benj. Perry Gibbes, Wade Hampton Graham, Geo. 0. Jager, 
Roberts P. Johnson, B. Herbert Martin, Jas. J. McLoy, 
Dair'l M. O'Driscoll, Jr., A. Burnet Rhett, Eugene M. 
Schmetzer, Daniel G. Wayne, Jr. The silver Peabody 
Medal, awarded to the graduate who stands, in scholarship, 
first among his peers, was won by A. Burnet Rhett, who 
was closely followed by Wade Hampton Graham. Young 
Rhett received also, by vote of his class-mates, the Colcock 
Conduct Medal. In the Second Class, bronze Peabody 
Medals were awarded to Huger W. Jervey, and Henry 
Wetheihorn, each of whom had a general average above 09 
per cent. 

The munificent appropriation made by our public-spirit- 
ed City Council for the purpose of erecting a commodious, 
and handsome Annex to our present building, giving us 
an Assembly Hall and additional class-rooms, will add 
much to the efficiency of the School, I hope, in my next 



Education in Charleston. 229 

annual statement, to speak of its completion and occupancy, 
and to report as one of the immediate results an increase in 
the number of our pupils. I can promise, for my associates 
and myself, earnest efforts to utilize to the utmost the bet- 
ter facilities afford us, and thus secure for the boys of 
Charleston, the largest return for the investment made in 
their interest. 

Respectfully submitted, 

VIRGIL C. DIIJBLE, 
Principal High School of Charleston. 



COLLEGE OF CHARLESTON. 

Charleston, S. C, Feb. 4th, 1895. 
Hon. John F. Ficken, Mayor of Charleston: 

Dear Sir : — "With this I have the honor of making the 
report of the President of the College of Charleston, showing 
the Academic condition of the College. 

Since your last year book, the trustees have been enabled 
to restore the west wing of the College building, and now all 
results of the earthquake have been repaired. 

The finances of the College with the most strict economy, 
are kept on a sound basis. We have no margin for extraordi- 
nary expenses of any kind. 

The funding from City securities at four per cent, reduced 
the income 33-J- per cent. But the generosity of the City 
Council assists very much in relieving the pressure consequent 
on this reduction. With great respect, 

Your obedient servant, 

CHARLES H. SIMONTON, 
President Board of Trustees. 



230 Mayor Ficken's Annual Review. 

Charleston, S. 0.. Feb. 2nd, 1S95. . 

Hon. C II. Simonton, President Board of Trustees, College 
of Charleston : 

My Dear Sir : — It affords me genuine pleasure to report 
that the academic work of the College has proceeded with the 
utmost harmony and regularity during the year which has 
elapsed since my previous annual statement was submitted to 
your Board. Every member of our Faculty has labored with 
the utmost zeal and fidelity ; scarcely a day has been lost by 
any one during the entire scholastic year. Decorum and pro- 
priety have prevailed among our young men — and the in- 
stances of marked failure in examinations have been conspic- 
uously few. Since my last report, our honored colleague, Dr. 
Lewis 1\. Gibbes, has entered into rest, retaining to the last, 
undiminished intellectual vigor and his insatiable longing for 
new and broader scientific acquirement, a longing which I 
doubt not is being abundantly satisfied in the congenial fel- 
lowship of those supreme intelligences that — 

'Eye to eye, do look 

On knowledge ; under whose command 
Is Earth and Earth's, and in their hand . 
j Is Nature like an open book.' 

f 
The high character of our collegiate work is being more 

thoroughly appreciated with every successive year. * Our re- 
presentative graduates advance rapidly to the front and reveal 
in the assured character of their success the broad and stimu- 
lating culture which they have received from their collegiate 
training. Inquiries in reference to our requirements, terms, 
etc., are received from all parts of our State, as well as from 
other j States. If proper facilities were provided for the ac- 
commodation of students from a distance, I am confident that 
we shpuld gradually attract them to the College of Charleston. 
The restoration of the west wing and the construction of a 
laboratory in accordance with modern scientific requirements, 
are among the notable — I might say — historic incidents of the 



. ' Education in Charleston. 231 

past year. I hail these auspicious indications with the utmost 
pleasure and satisfaction. Our lack of chemical and philo- 
sophical appliances, I trust, will be supplied gradually but 
assuredly. The same faith inspires me in regard to our admi- 
rable library, which is in sore need of the latest and most 
advanced treatises in science and philology. In closing this 
brief report, ' I can only repeat my previous utterances, that 
with co-operation, sympathy and adequate resources, I can see 
no reason why the College of Charleston should not attain a 
recognized and honorable rank among the foremost institu- 
tions of the Country. In despite of most complex obstacles, 
it has moved steadily to the front, and in no period of its his- 
tory has the fame of its representative graduates been circum- 
scribed by local lines or their power for good and noble ends, 
been coniined within the same narrow limits. 
I am, with sincere respect, 

HENRY E. SHEPHERD, 
President College of Charleston. 



232 Mayor Mcken's Annual Re 



view. 



ACTS OF THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY RELATING TO THE 
CITY OF CHARLESTON PASSED DURING THE YEAR 1894. 



AN ACT to Amend Section 256 of the General Statutes of 
18S2, (Appearing as Section 311 in the Revised Statutes 
of 1893,) Relating to the Board of Equalization of the 
City of Charleston. 

Be it Enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives 
of the State of South Carolina, now met and sitting in General 
Assembly, and by authority of the same, That Section 256 
of the General Statutes of 1882, (appearing as Section 311 
in the Revised Statutes of 1893) be, and the same is hereby, 
amended by striking out the word "September " in said Section and 
inserting in lieu thereof the word "April." Amend by adding ac 
end of Section 1 the words, so that said Section as amended, shall 
read as follows : 

" There shall be a Special Board for the equalization of the real and 
personal property, moneys and credits in the City of Charleston, to 
be composed of the County Auditor and six citizens of said City, to 
be elected by the City Council of Charleston, and to be subject to re- 
moval by said City Council, which Board shall meet annually at the 
Auditor's office on the first Monday in April, and shall have power 
to equalize the value of the real estate and personal property, 
moneys and credits within said City, and shall be governed by the 
rules, provisions and limitations prescribed for the government of 
annual County Board of Equalization, but said Board shall not con- 
tinue in session more than two weeks in one year." 

Approved December 17th, A. D., 1894. 



AN ACT to Enable the City Council of Charleston to 
Hold Lands Acquired and to be Acquired for Munici- 
pal Purposes. 

Be it Enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of 
the State of South Carolina, now met and sitting in General Assem- 
bly, and by the authority of the same, That the City Council of 
Charleston be, and hereby is, vested with power to have, hold, and 
possess in fee simple, through purchase or otherwise, such lands al- 
ready acquired or hereafter to be acquired, as it shall deem proper, 
to be used as hospital or quarantine sites, or as parks or for other 



Acts Relating to City of Charted on. 233 

mUDicipal purposes : Provided, that such lands shall be situated 
within a radius of twelve miles from the site of the City Hall in the 
City of Charleston. 

Approved December 18th, 1894. 



AN ACT to Amend the Charter of the City of Charles- 
ton, with Reference to the Enforcement and Collec- 
tion of Taxes on Personal and Real Property. 

Be it Enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of 
the State of South Carolina, now met and sitting in General Assem- 
bly, and by the authority of the same, That the City Council of 
Charleston be, and they are hereby, authorized and empowered, for 
the enforcement and collection of taxes for municipal purposes on 
real and persona! property within the City of Charleston, to adopt 
such of the State legislation heretofore enacted or hereafter to be 
enacted, as they may deem expedient and as may be applicable, 
with reference to the enforcement and collection of State and 
County taxes and sales of real and personal property for payment of 
the same, including the levy and sale of real and personal property 
for delinquent taxes and the proceedings subsequent to sale, as pro- 
vided in the Act entitled " An Act in relation to forfeited lands, de- 
linquent lands and collection of taxes, approved December 24th, 
1887, and all amendments thereto : Provided, always. That such mu- 
nicipal legislation shall provide for the priority of State and County 
taxes over municipal taxes. 

Approved December 17th, A. D., 1894. 



234 Mayor Ficlcen's Annual Review. 



ORDINANCES OF THE CITY OF CHARLESTON, RATIFIED 
DURING THE YEAR 1894. 



AN ORDINANCE to Amend Sections 465, 467 and 470 of the 
General Ordinances, Relating to Dogs, Ratified Septem- 
ber 26, 1S32, AND ALL AMENDMENTS OR SUBSTITUTES THEREFOR. 

Be it ordained by the Mayor and Aldermen of the City of Charles- 
ton, in City Council assembled. That Sections 465, 467 and 470 of 
the General Ordinances, ratified September 26, 1882, and all amend- 
ments or substitutes therefor be and the same are hereby amended 
so that the same shall read as follows, that is to say : 

Section 465. Any person or persons owning, keeping or having a 
dog or dogs within the limits of this city shall annually, before the 
1st day of March, pay to the City Treasurer the sum of one dollar for 
a badge or license for such dog, and if more than one, one dollar for 
each dog, which shall be in lieu of all taxation and shall permit such 
dog or dogs to go at large under charge of some responsible person 
able to control the dog or dogs under all circumstances. 

Section 467. No dog, licensed or otherwise shall go at large in 
this city, except in charge of some responsible person able to control 
the same under all circumstances. Any licensed dog found going at 
large contrary to the provisions of this Section shall be caught and 
detained in some suitable place, and the owner or person entitled to 
control shall be notified, who shall be entitled to redeem upon the 
payment of a fine of fifty cents ; if said fine shall not be paid within 
three days after such notice the said dog shall be killed. 

Any unlicensed dog found at large within the city limits shall be 
caught and detained in some suitable place, and if not redeemed, as 
hereinafter provided, within three days shall be killed ; Provided 
however, that any such dog so taken up maybe redeemed upon ex- 
hibiting a receipt from the City Treasurer showing that a license for 
said dog has been obtained, and upon the further payment of a fine 
of one dollar and fifty cents. 

Section 470. All bitches running at large while in heat, licensed 
or unlicensed, shall be caught and detained in some suitable place- 
If a licensed bitch, the same can be redeemed upon the payment of a 
fine of five dollars ; if unlicensed, the said bitch can only be re- 
deemed by the payment of a fine of five dollars and the production 



0rdi?iances Ratified Daring the Year lS9J h 235 

of a receipt from the City Treasurer showing that a license has been 
taken out. Should said penalties, as the case may be, be not paid in 
three days, the said bitch shall be killed. 
Ratified February 13th, 1894. 



AN ORDINANCE to Amend Section 1 of an Ordinance enti- 
tled "An Ordinance to Regulate Street Railroads and 
Railways in the City of Charleston," Ratified Septem- 
ber 12, 1S93. 

Be it ordained by the Mayor and Aldermen of the City of Charles- 
ton, in City Council assembled, That Section 1 of an Ordinance en- 
titled ' An Ordinance to regulate street railroads and railways in the 
City of Charleston," ratified September 12, 1S93, be and the same is 
hereby amended so that said Section shall read as follows ; 

Section 1. That from and after the passage of this Ordinance it 
shall be the duty of each street railroad or railway company in this 
city to run its cars (except where otherwise provided in this Section) 
from G A. M. till 11 P. M., on all its lines south of Line street ; Pro- 
vided, however, that up to the hour of 10 P. M. the cars on all lines 
shall be run on the same schedule as during the day, and after that 
hour at no greater intervals than fifteen minutes ; and provided fur- 
ther, that during the period extending from the first day of Novem- 
ber to the thirtieth day of April, inclusive, the last car on each line 
may leave the upper terminus at 10 o'clock P. M. and the lower ter- 
minus at 10.35 o'clock P. M. 

Ratified February 13, 1894; 



AN ORDINANCE to Amend Section 66 of the General Ordi- 
nances of the City of Charleston, Ratified September 
26, 1882, : 

Be it ordained by the Mayor and Aldermen of the City of Charles- 
ton, in City Council assembled, That Section 66 of the General Ordi- 
nances of the City of Charleston, ratified September 26, 1S82, be 
amended so as to read as follows : 

Section 66. Each agent in this city of any insurance company 
organized under the laws of any other State or country and doing 
business in this city, or of any individual insurer or underwriter of 
insurance, or firm or joint stock company of insurers or underwriters 
of insurance residing without the State, and. doing business in this 
city, shall annually, in the month of June, or before the 20th day of 



236 Mayor Mchen% Annual Review. 

July, return to the assessor a sworn statement of the gross business 
of such agency in this city for the year ending on the 1st day of the 
said month of June, including all notes, accounts and other things 
received or agreed upon as a compensation for insurance effected, 
renewed or continued in this city, together with all the value of any 
personal property of said company, individual, firm or joint stock 
company of insurers or underwriters of insurance situate at said 
agency, and the said company, individual, firm or joint stock com- 
pany shall be charged with taxes at the place of said agency on the 
amount so returned, and the agent shall also be personally responsi- 
ble for such taxes, and may retain in his hands a sufficient amount 
of the assets of his principal or principals to pay the same, unless the 
said taxes shall be paid bj^ the said principal or principals. 
Ratified March 13th, 1894. 



AN ORDINANCE to Amend Section 120 of the General Ordi- 
nances of the City of Charleston, Ratified September 
26, 1882. 

Be it ordained by the Mayor and Aldermen of the City of Charles- 
ton, in City Council assembled, That Section 120 of the General Or- 
dinances of the City of Charleston, ratified September 2G, 1882, be 
amended so that the same shall read as follows, that is to say ; 

Section 120 The Superintendent of Streets during his term of 
office, shall not, directly or indirectly, save as the representative of 
the city, be engaged or interested in any contract or part of a con- 
tract between the city and any person, firm, company or corporation; 
nor shall he, save as the representative of the city, have any connec- 
tion with the subject matter of such contract; neither shall he en- 
gage in any other business which will interfere with his duties as 
provided by this chapter, or engage in any work for any person, 
firm, company or corporation, other than the city, which he may 
be called upon in any way to pass upon in behalf of the city. 

Ratified March 13, 1894, 



AN ORDINANCE to Amend an Ordinance Entitled "An 
Ordinance to Regulate Licenses for the Year, 1894," 
Ratified the 20th Bay of December 1893. 

Section 1. Be it ordained by the Mayor and Aldermen of the 
City of Charleston, in City Council assembled. That an Ordinance 
entitled, "An Ordinance to Regulate Licenses for the Year 1894," 



Ordinances Ratified During the Year lS9J h 237 

ratified the 29th day of December, 1803, be and the same is hereby 
amended, by inserting between Class 25 and Class 26 in Section 10, 
the following, that is to say : 

Class 25.- A. 
Dealers in Wines, Cider, Brewed or Malt Liquors. 

1. Retail Dealers, each $]oo 00 

2. Bottlers of Beer and Ale, or Agencies, each 75 00 

Section 2. That the said License Ordinance be further amended 
by making the present Section 15 Section 16, and by inserting 
as Section 15 the following, that is to say : 

Section 15. That no spirituous liquors or any admixture thereof 
shall be sold under the License granted pursuant to the provisions 
of this Ordinance or of Class 25— A thereof, and that the place of 
business of the person holding such License shall be closed and no 
business transacted under said License on any Sunday or between 
the hours of 11.30 o'clock, P. M. and o'clock, A. M. on any other 
day, under a penalty of fifty dollars fine or thirty days in Jail for 
each and every violation of this Section or any part thereof , the 
said penalty to be enforced in the Police Court of the City of Char- 
leston and to be a special penalty in addition to the penalties pro- 
vided in Section 3 of this Ordinance. 

Ratified May 31, 1894. 



AN ORDINANCE to Strike Out Sections 547 and 548 of the 
General Ordinances, Ratified September 26, 1S82, and 
to Insert New Sections in Their Stead. 

Be it ordained by the Mayor and Aldermen of the City of Charles- 
ton, in City Council assembled, That Sections 547 and 548 of tne 
General Ordinances of the City of Charleston, S. C. ratified Septem- 
ber 26, 1882. be and the same are hereby stricken out, and the follow-, 
iug inserted in their stead. 

Section 547. No person or persons whomsoever shall open, keep 
or maintain any gaming bouse in any building within the corporate 
limits of the city, or suffer or permit any description of gaming or 
playing any game of chance or skill for money, goods, chattels or 
other things whatever ; nor shall it be lawful for anyone to partici- 
pate or engage in any device of gaming whatever in any building, 
street, lane, alley, court, park, lot or public way within the City of 
Charleston.. Any person or persons violating this Section or any 
portion thereof, upon conviction shall be subject to a fine of not less 
than fifty dollars, nor more than eighty dollars, or to imprisonment 
not exceeding thirty days for each and every offence. 



238 ^ Mayor Fichu's Annual Review. 

Section 548. If any person or persons shall publicly or privately 
erect, set up or expose, to be played, drawn or thrown at, or shall 
cause to be erected, set up or exposed to be played, drawn or thrown 
at, any lottery or anything whatsoever in tbe nature of a lottery or 
game of chance for money or any stake whatsoever, either by dice, 
cards, lots, tails, numbers, figures or tickets, or who shall make, 
write, print or publish, or shall cause to be made, written or pub- 
lished, any scheme or proposal for any of the purposes aforesaid, or 
whoever shall sell or offer for sale any tickets, wmether written, 
printed or otherwise, or plan by which a game of chance may be en- 
gaged in for money or any other goods whatsoever, shall upon con- 
viction of any portion of this Section, be subject to a tine of not less 
than fifty dollars, nor more than ninety-nine dollars, or to imprison- 
ment not exceeding thiriy days for each and every offence, which 
said fine shall be recovered and paid, one-half to the informer and 
the remainder into the city treasury for the use of the city. That all 
lottery wheels, wheels of fortune and all things whatsoever used or 
employed in the conduct of any .such lottery or game of chance, are 
hereby declared forfeited and shall be publicly broken to pieces and 
destroved. 



TO CREATE A BOARD OF FREIGHT COMMIS- 
SIONERS IX AND FOR THE ClTY OF CHARLESTON, AND TO DEFINE 
THE POWERS THEREOF. 

Whereas, the charter of the City of Charleston vests the said city, 
among other powers, with full power and authority " from time to 
time, under their common seal, to make and establish such by-laws, 
rules and ordinances * * * that shall appear to them requisite and 
necessary for the security, welfare and convenience of the said city ;" 
and 

Whereas, The welfare of the said city is absolutely and indisso- 
lubly connected with its commerce, which commerce is suffering 
serious damage and detriment by reason of the unfavorable rates of 
freight in, to and out of the said city made and enforced by the 
several transportation lines, and it is therefore the duty of the said 
City Council, in the exercise of the powers so conferred upon it. to 
take such action as will prevent tire continuance thereof : 

Section 1. Be it ordained by the Mayor and Aldermen of the City 
of Charleston, in City Council assembled, that from and after the 
passage of this Ordinance, there shall be a Board of Freight Commis- 
sioners for the City of Charleston, which shall be one of the 
municipal Boards of the said city, and shall be appointed and hold 
office as is hereinafter ordained. 



Ordinances Ratified During the Year 189 % 239 

Section 2. That said Board shall consist of seven members, two 
of whom shall be Aldermen of the City of Charleston, to be nomi- 
nated by the Mayor; one Commissioner, to be nominated by the 
Chamber of Commerce ; one Commissioner, to be nominated by the 
Cotton Exchange of the City of Charleston ; one Commissioner, to be 
nominated by the Merchants' Exchange of the City of Charleston; 
one Commissioner, to be nominated by the Fertilizer Exchange of 
the City of Charleston, and one Commissioner, to be nominated by 
the Young Men's Business League of the City of Charleston ; all of 
which nominations shall be reported to the City Council for con- 
firmation by them : Provided, however, that the Aldermen so 
appointed shall hold office on said Board only during their term of 
office as Aldermen. 

Section 3. That any vacancy arising from the death, resignation, 
removal from the city, or incapacity to serve of any one or more of 
their number shall be filled as provided in Section 2: Provided, 
always, however, that in filling said vacaucies the basis of repre- 
sentation hereinbefore ordained shall be preserved, and the person 
or persons so selected to fill such vacancy shall be reported to City 
Council for confirmation. 

Section 4. The said Board shall be authorized to examine into all 
matters appertaining to the rates of freight in, to or out of the said 
City of Charleston, whether by water or by land, and into all matters 
connected therewith : they shall be charged with the special duty of 
taking such steps as they may deem proper to prevent any discrimi- 
nation against the interests of the said City of Charleston, and to 
insure fair, just and proper rates of freight in. to and out of the- said 
city. They shall have power to appoint and at pleasure remove, an 
agent or manager, to be known as the Manager or Inspector of the 
Freight Bureau of the City of Charleston, and also a clerk, and to fix 
the amount of compensation for each. They shall have further 
power to make such rules and regulations for the management of the 
said Bureau, and the discharge of the duties herein imposed upon 
them as they may deem proper, provided such rules are not incon- 
sistent with the laws of the land or the Ordinances of this City. 

Section 5. The Board of Freight Commissioners shall have entire 
control and management of the Freight Bureau hereby created, and 
shall report all their operations, actions and expenses annually to 
the City Council for its information and approval. 

Section 6. That for the support and maintenance of the Fieight 
Bureau hereby created, the sum of eight thousand dollars 
(£8,009) be set aside and appropriated for the year 189"), subject to the 
order of the said Board of Freight Commissioners. 

Ratified Dec. 11, 1S94. 



240 Mayor Ficken's Animal Review. 

AN ORDINANCE to Provide for the Enforcement of the 
Dispensary Law and to Punish Offences Against the 

Same. 

WhereaSj the sale of intoxicating and spirituous liquors, other 
than in State Dispensaries is prohibited by the State Law, and it be- 
comes the duty of this municipality to enforce such law within its 
limits; and whereas, the ordinary uniformed policeman is not 
adapted to the successful performance of such duty unless aided by 
special detectives ; Therefore be it ordained by the Mayor and Alder- 
men of the City of Charleston, in City Council assembled : 

Section 1. That his Honor the Mayor be, and hereby is, empow- 
ered to appoint three special detectives, to be known as Dispensary 
Law detectives, who shall constitute a part of the City Police force, 
but who shall not be required to appear in uniform, whose chief 
duty it shall be to keep a constant lookout for violations of the State 
Dispensary Law, and to report to the Chief of Police all offenders 
detected in making such violations, and in general to enforce the 
provisions of the said law, That said detectives shall receive the 
same pay as do the privates on the police force. 

Section 2. That any person found guilty of violating the said 
law shall be fined in the sum of one hundred dollars for each and 
every offence, the said fine to be imposed by the City Police Court 
or by the City Court of Charleston, both of which Courts are hereby 
vested with special jurisdiction in the premises. 

Section 3. That it shall be the duty of the entire police force of 
the city toco-operate with such special detectives in the rigid enforce- 
ment of the Dispensary Law. 

Ratified December IS, 1894. 



3.+ 1 ■*>*■ 



APPENDIX 



History of the Carolina Art Association. 24-3 



HISTORY OF THE CAROLINA ART ASSOCIATION, 
PREPARED FOR THE CITY YEAR BOOR OF THE 
HOK JOHN F. FICKEN FOR 1895. 

By G. E. Manigault, M. D. 

The Carolina Art Association Las been an important feature 
in the social life of Charleston since the year 1858. 

Several attempts had been made at different times previ- 
ously to establish an Art Gallery, and the most practical ef- 
fort was the one by Mr. Joel R. Poinsett, who obtained from 
the Legislature, about the year 1820, the authorization to con 
duct a lottery in Charleston, which was to be continued from 
year to year until a stipulated amount had been collected, 
probably $20,000, which would be used as the starting capital 
of the enterprise. 

It was quite common during the first half of the century for 
lotteries to be used for the furtherance of various public 
purposes, and the money for the building of more than one 
church in Charleston was raised in that \vaj. The Second 
Presbyterian Church, on Meeting street, corner of Charlotte 
street — commonly known as Flynn's Church — so-called from 
one of its pastors, is said to have been built with the profits de- 
rived from a lottery, and not only in Charleston then, but also in 
other American cities, were the placards in front of the lottery 
offices in the business streets, announcing an approaching 
drawing, quite common. Quite a number were always visible 
in Broad street, upon which were represented large sums of 
money in figures, indicating the prizes that might be won by 
the fortunate, and made conspicuous so as to tempt the un- 
wary. ]STo less a person than the eminent jurist, Col. William 
Drayton, is known to have won a large sum of money in a 
lottery, with the greater part of which he enlarged and beau- 
tified his dwelling in Gibbes street, which, when he removed 
with his family to Philadelphia after the exciting times of 
nullification, was purchased by Mr. Nathaniel Heyward for 
his daughter, Mrs. Charles Manigault. So common was it 



244 Appendix to Year Book. 

then to take chances in lotteries that it was said that Col. Dray- 
ton sent liis servant with the money for the chance, and doubt- 
less had done so many times before. Of all the Atlantic cities 
Baltimore was the most conspicuous for its many lottery offices 
and the frequency of the drawings. 

The business was not considered then as lowering to the 
public morals, and the Art scheme of Mr. Poinsett did not 
suffer in the estimation of the honest and thoughtful members 
of the community in consequence of being based on a game of 
chance in which the certain profits were all one way, but for 
other reasons. 

The principal of these was Mr. Poinsett's frequent absences 
from the city, either in the diplomatic service of the United 
States Government, which generally kept him away for sev- 
eral years at a time, or in the pursuit of health, which every 
year necessitated a trip to Pendleton, where lie had a summer 
home, or to the North, and even to Europe. Notwithstanding 
those difficulties, though, progress was made to this extent 
that a temporary wooden structure was built in Broad street, 
on the south side, between Friend and Logan streets, in which 
was exhibited Peale's large canvas of the " Court of Death/' 
soon after 1S20, the year of its having been completed in Phil- 
adelphia. Mr. Poinsett was at his home then, for in 1822 he 
served on the commission of five distinguished citizens to try 
the conspirator, Denmark Vesey, who was the ringleader in 
the celebrated proposed insurrection of the slaves of that year. 

The plan of the Art Gallery, however, soon fell through, as 
Mr. Poinsett seems to have been its sole supporter. No other 
conspicuous name has ever been mentioned as having given it 
countenance and assistance, and the lottery was soon aban- 
doned without having accumulated any funds that the public 
ever heard of. During a period then of over thirty years no 
effort was made to revive a public interest in the subject. 

Charleston was not peculiar then in manifesting this indif- 
ference to Art during those many years, for of the other At- 
lantic cities Philadelphia alone possessed a building devoted 
exclusively to paintings and statuary, the Art collection of 
Boston not having a home of its own, but being housed in the 



History of the Carolina Art Association. 245 

library of the Atheneum building. The days of museums of 
curiosities and monstrosities, of which Barnum's Museum in 
]S T ew York was the most conspicuous example, were not yet 
over, and creditable for the times as was the Art Gallery of 
Philadelphia, it is amusing to look now at the immense canvas 
of " Death on the Pale Horse," by Benjamin West, and be 
told that it was once considered a masterpiece. 

At the same time there were in Charleston a dozen or more 
good portraits, dating from the colonial period, which had 
been executed in London by Allan Ramsay, Reynolds, Gains- 
borough, Romney, Zoffany and Copley, and of the post-revo- 
lutionary period there were two good Benjamin Wests and a 
few Sullys, Trumbulls and Gilbert Stuarts. There also came 
to Charleston occasionally during those years dealers in pic- 
tures, who managed to dispose of some of their wares. Those 
were only second and third rate productions, some of which 
figured as by certain great masters, and the writer does not 
know of one acquired from such dealers that is still estimated 
to-day as above mediocrity. Mr. Cole, whom many can re- 
member as a dealer in musical instruments, also dealt in oil 
paintings. He was permanently located in Charleston and 
did not belong to the category of travelling picture sellers, as 
certain of his paintings were fairly good and were disposed 
of advantageously to both buyer and seller from time to time. 

It is proper here to state, because the fact is only now re- 
membered by a few, that, in addition to a celebrated Romney 
which will be mentioned further on, there was owned in 
Charleston also by one of the branches of the Rutledge family 
a portrait of Mr. Pinckney Horry by the same artist, which 
was life-size, and which represented him as a student of one 
of the English Universities. It- was one of Romney's best, 
and altogether a charming picture, which would still be here 
to delight us had it not been swallowed up in the flames that 
destroyed Columbia during the memorable night of February, 
1865. 

The opportunities which presented themselves to the 
Charlestonians for securing good portraits were not as fre- 
quent after the Revolution as before, unless London or Paris 



246 Appendix to Year Book. 

could be visited. In addition to Thomas Stilly, who occasion- 
ally in the latter period, visited Charleston from his home in 
Philadelphia, more to see two of his sisters who lived here 
than to open a studio, the only other portrait painter who re. 
rnained here for any length of time was a German named 
Meyer. He executed many portraits while here, and one of 
his best efforts was the collection of the likenesses of the Chief 
of the Fire Department and the Presidents of the Fire Com- 
panies in the newly organized department after the great fire 
of 1838-. This picture hangs in the private room of the Mayor 
in the City Hall, and the skill with which the complicated 
grouping of so many sitters was treated proves the artist to 
have been of unquestioned ability. A careful examination of 
the picture will disclose the presence of the artist himself as a 
spectator in the background, which the writer remembers as a 
good likeness. 

The brothers Bogle are also deserving of mention as capa- 
ble oil painters, who had their studio for a short time in 
Charleston during the forties. Thev were Southern men and 
consequently of greater interest to us. They were peculiar, 
too, in this respect, that they divided with each other the work 
on a portrait, an arrangement that seems to have worked well,, 
for in their largest and best effort, the full length of Miss Jane 
Ball, now Mrs. John Shoolbred, there is no perceptible trace 
of divided labor. 

The pride, though, of the art lovers of Charleston in the 
closing years of the last century, as well as the early years of 
this, was in the miniatures on ivory by Edward Malbone, who 
ranks as having been the greatest of American miniaturists. 
He was a native ol Newport, K. I., and first opened a studio 
here in 1800, where he probably painted more portraits than 
in any other city. Our own miniaturist, Charles Fraser, 
should also be mentioned with him. He executed over '300 
portraits during a long life, and while there is not -the same 
uniform excellence in them all as in those of Malbone, his 
masterpieces certainly entitled him to a high rank in his art. 

While the encouragement given to art for over one hun- 
dred vears was almost exclusively in portraiture, the local por- 



History of ike Carolina Art Association. 247 

trait painter, Tlions, having opened his studio in Charleston in 
1750, there were several collectors, natives of the city, who had 
already purchased largely of paintings in Italy before the pres- 
ent century was many years old. The most noted of these 
was Mr. Joseph Allen Smith, the father of the late Mr. Allen 
S. Izard. His entire collection consisted of about forty oil 
paintings and a large number of beautiful aquarelles, mostly 
of nude figures, which were kept in portfolios, when brought 
together in the Izard dwelling at the corner of Meeting street 
and South- Battery, where the Eoss mansion now stands, was 
a revelation to his un travelled friends. His son many years 
afterwards presented a few of these to the Pennsylvania Acad- 
emy of the Fine Arts, one of which, a Salvator Rosa, not of 
absolutely positive authenticity, is a sufficiently striking paint- 
ing to be hung over a prominent doorway of their new gal- 
lery in Philadelphia. 

It can be seen, then, that when after the second half of the 
century was well under way, the propriety of founding an 
Art Gallery was being discussed, it was not in a city that had 
been a stranger to art. It was. on the contrary, in one that of 
the other Atlantic cities had given it more than the average 
encouragement, and the starting of an Art Association finally 
came about in the following way : 

In the fall of 1857 Mr John Ashe Alston, a well-known 
and public-spirited citizen, became very active in agitating the 
matter and in enlisting the interest and co-operation of other 
prominent gentlemen, of whom Mr. James Pose, Governor 
R. F. W. Allston, Mr. James II. Taylor, Professor A. Sach- 
tleben and Mr. Timothy Pickering Dodge, of Massachusetts, 
were some of the principal. Several meetings were soon held 
for the purpose of organizing, and before the winter was over 
they resulted in the name of Carolina Art Association being 
adopted, as well as the appointment of a committee to prepare 
an exhibition of paintings to be opened in the following April, 
Governor Allston having been elected the first President. 

It would not be inappropriate to here give a short sketch 
of each one of the members above mentioned, so as to better 
see what were their qualifications for prominence in the Asso- 
ciation and what their motives were in favoring the cause. 



248 Appendix to Year Book. 

Mr. John Ashe Alston, who was enthusiastic in its advo- 
cacy, was so from being a man of fashion, who considered it a 
necessity for an Art Gallery to exist in a cultured community. 
He had never been to Europe, and consequently had had but 
few opportunities of observing Art in its best forms, but lie 
recognized the importance of a collection of paintings and 
statuary as elevating to the public taste. 

Professor Sachtleben was, perhaps, the best informed by 
reading and opportunities for observation of those who have 
been named. He had left -Brunswick, his native city, when 
quite a young man, and therefore his knowledge of Art mat- 
ters had probably been completely acquired since coming to 
America. During subsequent visits to Europe he was able to 
purchase some good paintings, which prove the accuracy of 
his artistic judgment, and to study carefully the peculiarities 
and merits of the different schools. 

Mr. James Rose and Gov. Allston had no special knowledge 
of Art. They were educated and elegant gentlemen, who, as 
such, recognized the necessity of an appreciation for painting, 
and they regarded a picture gallery as an important feature of 
modern city life. Mr. Taylor had not had the advantages of 
these two, but he was public-spirited and always ready to give 
encouragement to any public purpose which was for the good 
of all. 

Mr. Dodge was in Charleston temporarily from having mar- 
ried here. He had lately returned from Europe, where he 
had collected about twenty oil paintings while staying princi- 
pally in Florence. Most of these were small, and they were 
illustrations of the art of painting before Raphael had mod- 
ernized it. They are known as pre-Raphaelite pictures, and 
in galleries where the history of painting is shown by arrang- 
ing them chronologically, as in Munich, they are important 
features. Mr. Dodge, like the others, except Prof. Sachtleben, 
could scarcely have been considered a connoisseur. He had 
not the wealth which is necessary to the purchase of fine 
paintings, and therefore what he brought with him was only 
interesting as exhibiting in a small way the history of paint 
iii£. In Florence, he was in the way of making a few pur- 



History of the Carolina Art Association. 2-19 

chases for his Charleston friends, at their request, and several 
pictures thus acquired are still owned here. 

Mr. John Ashe Alston was the chairman of the exhibition 
committee, and he succeeded in bringing together for the 
opening day a number of paintings which were fairly repre- 
sentative of what was owned in the city then. The largest 
number that were the property of one person were those of 
Mr. N. M. Porter, a brother of the Hon. "W. D. Porter, the 
eminent lawyer. He was for many years in the grocery busi- 
ness, where he had made a fortune, and some of his best in- 
vestments in pictures had been made in London. The com- 
munity were not generally aware that his tastes lay in that di- 
rection, and they were equally surprised at the merit of some 
of his best. 

Mr, Dodge's pre-Raphaelites were also there to the number of 
sixteen, and the names of most of the prominent citizens of the 
day are in the catalogue. Mr. Charles Manigault's two portraits 
on one canvas of Mr. and Mrs. Ralph Izard was loaned and 
was given a good place in the hall. 

The building selected was the upper floor of the Appren- 
tice's Library, in Meeting street, next to the corner of Ilorl- 
beck's alley, south of the alley. A skylight had been- fitted to 
the roof and the walls colored -a maroon brown. 

Later on during the summer, after the Copley of Mr. and Mrs. 
Izard had been returned to its owner, the full-length portrait 
trait of Mrs. Roger Smith, by Romney, the London artist, 
was loaned by its owner, Mrs. Professor Porcher. The com- 
parative merits of those two celebrated paintings was often 
discussed by those who had examined them both, but they 
were so different the one from the other that it was useless to 
undertake to decide which one was the best. The graceful 
pose of Mrs. Smith as she stands near a low column or ped- 
estal upon which an infant is seated, with foliage in the back- 
ground, is worthy of the great ability of the celebrated 
Romney, but the weak point of the composition is its unfin- 
ished condition. The Copley on the other hand has the front 
parts of the canvas most carefully finished, even to the cur- 
tain and the silk damask of the settee, and graceful as is the 



250 Appendix to Year Booh. 

pose of Mrs. Smith in the Rpmney it is not more so than the 
elegant and distinguished bearing of Mrs. Izard as she leans 
on the table at which she is seated. Copley was always very 
slow in his work, and all who sat to him were thoroughly 
tired out before he had finished. It was fortunate for Mr. 
and Mrs. Izard that they were obliged to leave London long 
before their portraits were ready for delivery, for the artist 
was busy with them an interminable time, and they might 
not have survived the ordeal of sitting to him until their com- 
pletion. The Copley is still owned by the Manigault family, 
but the Romney was sold in London eight or ten years ago 
for the large sum of $20,000. 

The catalogue of the exhibition of 1S5S has a great many 
names of old masters, not one of which was probably gen- 
uine. It is not likely that there were in Charleston then any 
real Watteau, Salvator Rosa, Domenichino, Teniers, Guido 
Reni or Paid Veronese, and on the first page of the catalogue 
the committee state that they have affixed to the differ- 
ent pictures the names of the artists furnished by the owners 
without being responsible for their corrections. 

Most of the old masters were owned by Mr. II. C. Flagg, 
who resided at the ISTorth, and was probably a relative of Geo. 
W. Flagg, who had been painting portraits in the city for 
several years. He had probably bought them during a trip 
to Italy, where tourists without experience were easily made 
to believe by the many picture dealers of the various cities 
that their wares were absolutely genuine. Papal Rome was 
a place to be remembered as much by its picture trade as by 
its more • solid attractions, and many a so-called original by 
one of the masters was there invested in by the unwary. 

Flagg, the artist, was fond of company, and was a man of 
pleasant address. He executed many portraits while here, the 
most ambitious and successful of which was a full length of 
Mrs. Governor Aiken, now the property of Mrs. Rhett, her 
daughter. The first exhibition of the Art Association was his 
last opportunity of appearing before the public of Charleston, 
with a portrait of the venerable Charles Fraser. Another por 
trait of Major Charles "Warley however, by John B. Irving, Jr., 



History of the Carolina Art Association. 251 

carried off the honors, and before long all the new sitters flocked 
to the new studio, and poor Mr. Flagg was left with nothing 
to do. His only alternative then was to return to the North, 
from which he came. There misfortune and disappointment 
crowded upon him too, and it was soon reported that his mind 
had given way under the strain. 

John B. Irving, Jr., was a son of Dr. John B. Irving, a 
conspicuous figure in Charleston for years. His most distin- 
guished position socially was the stewardship of the South 
Carolina Jockey Club, and his popularity was evinced by his 
having been twice elected Sheriff of Charleston district. The 
son had commenced life in one of the business houses on 
East Bay, and when he abandoned the desk for art, lie was an 
employee of the Custom House. 

His first absence in pursuit of his new profession was to 
New York, where he staid about a year, and then he pro- 
ceeded to Dusseldorf, in Northern Germany, where he re- 
mained two years. That city was celebrated in the middle of 
the century for its Art Schools, and a great many pupils re- 
ceived their instruction there. It has declined in importance 
as an art centre since then, and is now not often mentioned. 

Irving was of real ability, and his progress in art was rapid 
from the time he first devoted himself to it. Towards the 
end of his stay at Dusseldorf he executed a painting which 
was exhibited in 1858 — the No. 26 of the catalogue. The 
subject was " Sir Thomas Moore, on his way to execution, 
takes leave of his daughter, Margaret Roper, who has met 
him at the entrance of the tower of London." It was a strik- 
ing picture, with the grouping of the figures well arranged. 
Many persons, who had known Irving from his boyhood, 
found it difficult to believe that he had improved his natural 
talent so rapidly as to be able, after three short years, to paint 
so well, and some went so far as to say that the picture was 
only a copy. The Art Association, however, was not of that 
opinion, for as soon as they could spare the money they 
bought it, and it afterwards remained in their hall as a per- 
manency. 

He painted a great many portraits during the three or four 



252 Appendix to Year Booh. 

years that his studio was in Charleston, and several small pic- 
tures which are known by the French as " tableaux de 
genre." lie afterwards moved to Columbia, and when the 
war of Secession was over he located his studio permanently 
in Few York City. There he was befriended by Mr. Bel- 
mont, the wealthy banker, who engaged him to paint a por- 
trait of his wife, which was given a conspicuous place in his 
gallery on 5th Avenue, so as to bring him to the notice of the 
public. He did not, however, continue in the line of 
portraiture, but devoted himself almost entirely to " genre " 
pictures. Of these he executed quite a number which, from 
time to time, were for sale at the fashionable sales rooms of 
Scliaus, and which readily found purchasers. The two which 
attracted the most attention were "Cardinal Wolsey and his 
Friends," and the " Duel after the Game of Chess." His 
death was quite sudden and unexpected, after about ten years 
residence in New York, from having gone out too soon into 
the cold in mid-winter after a Turkish bath. 

There was a great deal of pride felt in Irving by. his friends, 
as he was the first native Carolinian who compared favorably 
with the best painters of the day, and his picture of Sir 
Thomas Moore was greeted with very general satisfaction. 
It was one of the few saved from the hall when it was burnt 
in the great fire of November 1S61, and it was then sold by 
the Association, as they had no place in which to keep it. It 
then passed through several hands, and was finally bought at 
an auction sale in Philadelphia by Mr. S. Prioleau Eavenel, 
w T ho has it in his dwelling in that city. 

After the first exhibition had been opened, and a report 
could be made of the disbursements and receipts, it was found 
that there was a debt on hand of about §3,000. This was 
partly due to the inexpsrience of the Committee having 
charge of the preparations, who probably did but little, work 
themselves and paid large salaries to those whom they employed. 
The-alterations to the ceiling and roof of the hall had cost a 
good deal, and there was a superintendent at the head of the 
work and of the hanging, who had to be paid. There was 
no trouble, though, in cancelling the debt, for at one of the 



History of the Carolina Art Association. 253 

early meetings of the Association the members present sub- 
scribed enough to raise the entire amount. 

Another Southern artist should be mentioned here, who ex- 
hibited a portrait among the others, at the same exhibition of" 
1858. His name was Boggs, and he hailed from Augusta, 
Ga. The portrait was of his uncle, Dr. Robertson, of Charles- 
ton, but it was not equal to the portrait of Major "Warley, 
by Irving. The writer met Boggs in Rome, in the spring of 
1850, and saw him frequently there. He had talent, but he 
should have'studied much longer before launching out as a 
full fledged portrait painter, which he was not then. It was 
said some years after this date that lie had abandoned paint- 
ing and taken up journalism. 

After the interest that had been excited by the exhibition 
was over, and most of the paintings had been returned to their 
owners, the hall seemed deserted for a time. The Romney 
portrait brought a good, many visitors, but the most important 
thing to do then was first to raise a sum of money by means 
of a fair, and afterwards either to order some picture repre- 
senting an event in the history of South Carolina, or buy in 
Europe at one of the Art centres some one or more of the 
many new pictures exhibited from year to year. 

The fair was held in May of the next year, 1859, and real- 
ized for the Association about $6,000. This was carefully 
invested, and from the members' 1 fees alone the sum of $1,000 
could be spared to order from Leutze, an American painter of 
German birth, a painting of heroic size representing Sergeant 
Jasper rescuing the flag at the battle of Fort Moultrie, in 
June, 1776. 

It is probable that Leutze was recommended to the Execu- 
tive Committee of the Association as the proper person to 
employ by Irving, who knew him well and had been his pupil 
at Dusseldorf. It was a good selection, for he had already 
painted several historical subjects which had attracted much 
notice. One of his most successful works was u Lafayette in 
Prison at Olmutz, visited by his Relatives." This was exe- 
cuted, however, in 1861, after the Jasper, 



254 Appendix to Year Book. 

Leutze was still in Europe when the order for the picture 
reached him, and instead of corresponding with the committee 
so as to have a correct idea of the probable appearance of 
Jasper, as well as of the celebrated palmetto fort and the low 
sandy beach with the British fleet in the distance, he com- 
menced the painting without being at all concerned about 
those very necessary details, and it was only a few months 
after the announcement in the daily papers that the picture 
had been ordered that it arrived and was hung in the gallery. 

Ko fuss was made about it as it was a complete disappoint- 
ment, especially in the representation of Jasper who, instead 
of being a thin and sickly looking low countryman in his 
shirt-sleeves, was a robust and florid complcxioned German 
youth well uniformed as a European soldier. The palmettoes 
of the fort were fairly well represented, and Jasper had just 
reached by a jump one -of the shallow embrasures into which 
the parapet was divided, holding the flag in one hand. The 
fleet in the distance was composed of several magnificent 
vessels, more after the style of those of the Spanish Armada 
than resembling those of European fleets of the last century, 
and on the whole, notwithstanding that as you looked at the 
picture it was evident at a glance that it was the work of a 
master hand in the anatomy of the figure of Jasper and in the 
skilfully executed perspective, into which one could look as 
into the atmosphere itself, it did not satisfy any one who was 
in the least critical as to the necessity of representing the de- 
tails of the engagement as much as possible as they really had 
been. A dead calm was supposed to have prevailed during that 
June day of 1776, and one of the triumphs of the artist's skill 
was a splash of the water between the fleet and the fort where a 
cannon ball had. fallen — the surface of the water being like 
glass. 

The committee for the purchase of new pictures, of which 
Professor Sachtleben was an active and important member, 
although disappointed at Leutze' s Jasper, were not discour- 
aged. Through friends of the Professor in his native town of 
Brunswick a number of recently painted pictures were 
gradually bought and others were received' for sale which the 



History of lite Carolina Art Association. 255 

public readily purchased at moderate prices. Of the former 
the most conspicuous was the "Death of Jacob surrounded 
by liife sons," by Oh. L. Nieper, for $000. Two others were 
" A Shipwreck on the coast of Scotland '' for $100, and a por- 
trait of one of the German Reformers copied from an original 
by Lucas Cranack for §75. The first of these three was a 
great success and brought a great many visitors to the gallery. 
Of the pictures received for sale a copy of the Madonna de San 
Sisto sold for $100, and a copy of the figure of Christ blessing 
the bread, from the original of the " Last Supper " in Milan sold 
for $25. The committee of management had reason to be 
gratified at the purchases that had been made, and they re- 
alized through the improved- receipts the importance of ac- 
quiring only a few good pictures at a time rather than a 
larger number of inferior ones. 

The date now referred to was the summer of 186 J, when 
Charleston like the other Southern cities was isolated from the 
rest of the world as for as art and pictures were concerned by 
the Federal blockade. The Association and its gallery had 
been fairly successful, and the most important pictures on ex- 
hibition were its property. The membership had been some- 
what reduced by the war then prevailing, but the annual fee 
of $10 per member had already permitted the purchase of the 
pictures mentioned. There seemed a reasonable hope of at 
last having a permanent Art gallery in the old city which 
would do it honor and, especially, diffuse a love for Art among 
its citizens. 

This fond hope, however, was rudely dashed to the ground 
during a single night in the memorable great fire of Novem- 
ber, 1861. It commenced in Haseil street among some wooden 
shanties at the eastern end, where some refugee negroes from 
the sea islands around Port Royal and Beaufort were tempo- 
rarily quartered. Its course from there was southwestward, 
and the Art gallery was in the very midst of its track. When 
the lire was at its height no building could escape it, and several 
commenced to burn before their turn had come. It did not 
cease until it had reached the waters of the harbor at the foot 
of Council street. The only pictures saved from the Hall 



256 Appendix io Year Booh. 

were those of Mr. N. M. Porter, who reached the building in 
time to remove them himself, and Irving's picture of Sir 
Thomas Moore, which has been described. 

The war which continued for three years after this pre- 
vented even the thought, of another attempt to establish a 
gallery, and notwithstanding a certain interest in the subject, 
it was not until 1880 that another loan exhibition was held. 
During the interval some of the invested capital of the Asso- 
ciation, proceeds of the fair which had been held in 1859, 
was spent in the inauguration of the bust of Wm. Gilmore 
Simms at White Point Garden. It was through the efforts of 
the Hon. "W. D. Porter that this was done. He had been 
much interested in securing the bust which, besides being a 
good likeness, is also an artistic work, and after great difficulty 
in securing the money to pay for it, it seemed as though it 
Would be impossible ever to have it placed in position, until the 
idea suggested itself to him that he might induce the Art As- 
sociation to do it. It was not strictly the province of the As- 
sociation to undertake it, but the money was on hand and 
there was no scheme of re-organization then being con- 
sidered, so that the few members then constituting the 
Association concluded without much discussion that they could 
sanction the proceeding as one germane to the encouragement 
of Art. 

Mr. JS". Russell Middleton, the President of the College of 
Charleston, was the President, of the Association in 1880, and 
had been so for some years. An exhibition had been talked 
of the year before, but was given up on account of certain 
difficulties in the way, and was successfully held at the Market 
Hall the following year, December, 1SS0. 

The Association was still in funds, and there was no expense 
spared to make the Exhibition a success. Besides, the best 
paintings owned in the city — about fifty modern ones — were 
received from Xew York, all of which were for sale. This 
was an important step in the right direction, as it gave to the 
Charleston public the opportunity of seeing what was going 
on in Art in its principal American centre, as well as of pur- 
chasing pictures for home decoration by those who were so 
inclined. 



History of the Carolina Art Association. 257 

This Exhibition was quite equal to the one of 1858, as far 
as the paintings owned in the city were concerned, and among 
those were certain ones, the property of Gen. 'Rudolph Sieg- 
ling, which had been acquired since 1858. They were mainly 
copies of certain of the celebrated paintings of the Dresden 
Gallery, by John Stolle, a German painter, who afterwards 
established his studio in Charleston, where he has remained 
ever since. During the thirteen years of his being here, he 
has executed a very large number of portraits of leading citi- 
zens, and of their wives and daughters, the large majority 
having . been good, likenesses, and satisfactory to those who 
ordered them. The Siegling pictures and the New York ones 
marked a turning point in the local exhibitions, and the facility 
for procuring the latter at any time through agencies in New 
York was followed up later in two other exhibitions. 

But, notwithstanding all the efforts and labor of the hang- 
ing committee, and the excellent appearance of the collection 
as a whole, the attendance of the public was meagre in the 
extreme. What was most striking was the almost total 
absence of young people among the visitors. Pictures to them 
seemed a subject which had never entered their thoughts, and 
the fact that so few came to the Gallery was mortifying. 
Several reasons were advanced for this indifference, and the 
most plausible seemed to be that no facilities had been offered 
to the generation which had grown up since the war of Secession 
for education in Art. The proper remedy evidently was, that 
the education should be supplied as part of the usefulness of 
an Art Association, and it was then that the subject of an Art 
School was first considered. 

The Exhibition lasted three, weeks, and, before the pictures 
from New York were. returned, three of them were bought 
by the Association, and retained for distribution among its 
members through a lottery. 

There was nothing done during 1SS1 in the interests of the 
Association. Mr. S. Prioleau Ravenel had succeded Mr. Mid- 
dleton as President, but having removed permanently to Phila- 
delphia as his future home, he was unable to attend to its 
duties. It. therefore had become necessary to elect a new 
17 



25S Appendix to Year Book. 

President. After due consideration upon the advice of Prof. 
Saelitleben, Dr. G. E. Manigault was chosen without opposi- 
tion. His-election occurred in February, 1882, at a meeting 
held in a hall over Lazarus' hardware store, corner of King 
and Ilasell streets, and the lottery was held the same evening 
for distributing the three paintings bought in 1SS0. There 
were also enough large photographs of modern paintings for 
each member to receive one, which were distributed by lot 
also. 

With regard to the lottery of the paintings, it may be here 
mentioned as part of the good accomplished by the Associa- 
tion, that the best of the three was won by Mr. F. W. Dawson, 
the then talented editor of the Charleston Xews and Courier. 
His financial success was already accomplished, and lie fully 
understood the importance of. beautifying his home with paint- 
ings, but lie had not yet given thought to the subject. When 
he was told of his luck the next day it took him by surprise, 
and it was the starting of his purchases, which were mainly 
the selection of his accomplished wife during more than one 
trip made to Europe, where in Rome he acquired two of his 
best. 

At the election of the new President, upon taking the chair, 
he stated that his plan would be to devote the energies of the 
Association to the maintenance of an Art School. This was 
already tacitly agreed to, and a motion was adopted for a 
committee of five (5) to be appointed, of which the President 
should be the chairman, which would be known as the School 
Committee, whose duties would be to organize and conduct 
the School. The four other members then appointed were : 
Messrs. W. L. Trenholm, James S. Murdoch, Joseph Barn- 
well and G. W. Dingle. 

The Committee soon afterwards began to hold its meetings 
and finally decided to purchase for the school a building in 
Chalmers street, alongside of Washington Square, known as 
the Depository. They then reported to the Association, who 
authorized the purchase, as well as the spending of the fund 
in the treasury, about $1,000, for the alterations to the build- 
ing and the equipment of the school in furniture and models 



History of the Carolina Art Association. 259 

for the classes. Tin's sum was the last that was left of the pro- 
ceeds of the fair of 1859. 

The report encountered some opposition at the meeting and 
was not adopted. unanimously. The older members-, who had 
been identified with the gallery of paintings, were doubt- 
ful as to the expediency of undertaking a school, but in the 
following November when it had been successfully started 
there was a general acquiescence in its probable usefulness. 

The Depository building was an old structure consisting of 
four small rooms on the basement or first floor, and a hall 
above. One of the rooms was occupied then during the day 
by an old lady who was an agent for the sale of bottles of 
syrups, sauces, jellies, etc., made by impoverished gentle- 
people, and beyond that the building served no other useful 
purpose, except that occasionally the hall above had served for 
church purposes, an old reading-desk or pulpit being still at 
one end, and the name c ' Depository " in large letters on the 
west wall was due to the building having been for years a 
depot or supply station for Bibles, tracts and other religious 
literature. In July, 1861, a few days after the battle of 
Manassas, or Bull Bun, there was a large and enthusiastic 
meeting held there by the ladies of the city to arrange for the 
making of underclothing for the soldiers of the various South- 
ern armies. The material was supplied by the officers of some 
association, all of them ladies, and then worked up at home in 
varying cpiantities by those who received it. The quantity of 
underclothing for the armies made in this way during the war 
was very great, and in that respect the purpose served was 
patriotic and far-reaching. 

The building was held in trust by parties who represented 
the Presbyterian churches of the city, one of the trustees, or 
the attorney for the trustees, being Mr. Augustine T. Smythe, 
through whom the purchase was negociated. The price asked 
was $3,000, with interest at 7 percent, from date of sale. One 
of the conditions of the sale was that the building should never 
be converted into a private residence. 

The alterations to the building were not commenced until 
July, the authority to purchase having been given by the As- 



260 Appendix, to Year Book. 

sociation early in May. The most important change was to 
remove the entire roof and substitute another, which included 
the space occupied by the hall, and what had been the garret or 
attic in the old building. This gave greater height of ceiling 
and better ventilation. A skylight was also a part of the new 
roof. 

Soon after the work had been started it was found that the 
cost would exceed $1,000, and at a subsequent meeting in 
August the committee was authorized to expend $500 more, 
if so much should prove necessary. 

It had been hoped that all the alterations would be finished 
by the 1st October, but it was only by the 1st November that 
the school was opened. The attendance of pupils, mainly 
ladies and young girls, was quite large, and exceeded alto- 
gether the expectations of the School Committee. They were 
organized into four day and one night class — the first, with 
the exception of a few boys, composed of females, and the 
latter of men, whose occupations prevented their attendance 
during the day. The applications to be received as pupils 
were so numerous that many had to be refused, and some of 
those were never admitted during the first year. 

Drawing alone was taught the first year, the two day classes 
of thirty pupils each being sub-divided into a primary class 
which drew blocks and. an advanced class which drew hands, 
feet and other parts of the human body. The attendance was 
therefore sixty in all each day, there being also an afternoon 
class of thirty, composed of school children who were sub- 
divided into a primary and advanced class. Each total of 
sixty attended only three days in the week, and the grand 
total of such amounted to 120. The night class never ex- 
ceeded thirteen and was discontinued in January of the first 
school year. 

The principal instructor was a German named Engel, who 
had come to Charleston during the } r ear 1SS2 with his wife, on 
account of his health. He had taught drawing at a large 
Catholic school for boys at Fordham, a small town in West- 
chester County, near New York City, and was well recom- 
mended by the principal of the school. He was intelligent 



History of the Carolina Art Association. 201 

and well informed, and his opening address to the pupils on 
Art was thoughtful and well considered. He overtaxed him- 
self, however, in the teaching of so many every day and he 
broke down completely before the end of the session. 

There was a mechanical feature in his method of teaching 
which he had evidently adopted while teaching at Fordham, 
and which was not suited to an Art School. If he had been 
continued as an instructor, therefore, there might have been 
fastened on the school a system which would have proved ob- 
jectionable.- 

His assistant was Miss Edith Matbewes, a native of Charles- 
ton, who had studied for a year or more in the Art Schools of 
New York. She was young and not sufficiently experienced 
as a teacher, but she had been one of those who had first agi- 
tated the teaching of drawing in a school and the attendance 
of pupils having been unexpectedly large, the school commit- 
tee decided to give her the position. She proved to be a 
competent critic of the drawings as she went from pupil to 
pupil, and was quite satisfactory in that respect, but after 
three years employment, when the attendance had much 
diminished and one teacher was sufficient, she was no longer 
employed. 

Soon after the opening of the school there was added to 
its teachings china painting and embroidery, — the first with 
Miss Delia Torre as instructor and the second with Mrs, En- 
gel, the wife of the instructor in drawing. These were an 
innovation which many disapproved of, especially the em- 
broidery, and the latter was not continued more than a few 
months — the china painting however, having been an impor- 
tant feature of the school for over ten years, at the end of 
which time some beautiful and artistic work was produced. 

At this time, after a month's experience with the school, 
when the applications for admittance were greater than there 
was room for them all and the number of new members of the 
Association had reached twenty-six, making a total of one 
hundred, which number alone guaranteed an income of 8500, 
it was proper to consider seriously how the debt incurred for 
the purchase of the building with its alterations and equip- 



202 Appendix to Year Book 

ment as a school should be paid. The School Committee had 
only received §1,000 to start with, and to that had been add- 
ed §800 as the work progressed. The itemized indebtedness 
then in December, 188% was as follows : 

Cost of building §3,000' 00 

1 year's interest at 7 per cent, to 1st July, 1883 210 00 

Increased expenditure on building 800 00 



Making a' total of. $4,010 00 

This was a large sum to pay and one of the suggestions 
made to accomplish it was to sell the life memberships of the 
Association to as many as could be induced to buy them for 
§50 each instead of 8100, the regular price. Two members 
of the Association, Messrs. S. Y. Tupper and Samuel AVragg, 
volunteered to canvass the city for this purpose and were 
about commencing when Mrs. Andrew Simonds, Sr., at the 
recpiest of the Committee agreed to undertake the organization 
and management of a Bazaar or Fair with Theatrical Eepre- 
sentations added, in order to raise the money that was wanted. 

It was the first opportunity that Mrs.- Simonds had had of 
evincing her public spirit on so large a scale, and her judg- 
ment and tact were conspicuous throughout the three months 
that the preparations for the Bazaar lasted. Through the 
generous and even enthusiastic support of all those of the 
community who appreciated the elevating tendencies of Art, 
the whole of the complicated machinery of the scheme work- 
ed to every one's satisfaction and ended in a success that was 
a general surprise. 

The total amount raised was sufficient to pay the §1,010 of 

debt incurred with a balance left of §2,079 S3 

Of this sum there was spent for new pictures. ..... 450 00 

Sundries ! 129 83 

Invested in State and City bonds 1,500 00 

The grand total therefore realized by the Bazaar with the 
performance of Cinderella and certain tableau* from the 
rhymes of Mother Goose's Melodies at the Academy of Music, 
added to which were about §1,000 more, contributed by friends 
of the cause living in other cities, amounted to §0,089.83. 



History of the Carolina Art Association. 2G3 

The Bazaar was held at the Agricultural Hall in Meeting 
Street, which was afterwards converted into a theatre, and 
since then has been burnt. About a third of the floor space 
had been partitioned off by a screen and contained a loan col- 
lection of a variety of different things owned by individuals 
and families as heirlooms. The miniatures of Malbone and 
Fraser were the most interesting of these, and it was a rare 
opportunity to observe closely the eminent talent of the first 
named. The rest of the floor was occupied by booths where 
different tilings were sold and raffled, and there were several 
refreshment stations which were well patronized. 

During the month of May, 1 SS3, soon after the great success 
of the Bazaar, an exhibition of paintings was held at the 
school building. The pictures had all been sent from New 
York by a firm doing business on 6th Avenue whose specialty 
consisted in supplying other cities with the material necessary 
to an exhibition. They came carefully packed in boxes and 
were sufficient in number to fill the wall space of the hall 
with two rows of pictures. The artists of New York are 
always ready to send off their unsold work in this way, which 
is at no expense to them, and with the prospects of a sale. It 
was then that the Association bought the pictures which have 
been mentioned, and in every case when the artist owner was 
telegraphed to, offering a smaller sum, it was accepted with 
avidity. A catalogue total of over $3,000 was in this way ob- 
tained for $450. They were all good pictures and they had 
doubtless been to several other exhibitions with no offers having 
been made for them, so that when an offer had been finally 
made it was accepted without delay. 

The attendance of the public at this exhibition was fairly 
good, but not large enough to pay all expenses. The surplus 
of $1^500, which had been invested, was consequently en- 
croached upon to pay the balance due. Compared with the 
attendance at the Market Hall, in December, 1880, the im- 
provement was gratifying, especially among the young. These 
latter had responded well to the efforts made in their behalf, 
and the Association was generally commended for the steps it 
had taken in the now direction. During the summer of 1SS3 



264 Appendix to Year Booh. 

the school committee had to consider the selection of a new 
instructor, and, after some correspondence with parties in 
Kew York, Mr. George S. Burnap was chosen. He had stu- 
died in the Paris schools, and was very capable in drawing; 
hut had not accomplished much in painting. He proved to 
he a good teacher in both drawing and painting, and he 
brought the pupils forward in the former in a manner that 
was marked. Every good drawing of blocks in the primary 
class would entitle the pupil to enter the advanced drawing 
class, and the drawing would be secured to the wall of the 
entry way down-stairs as evidence of proficiency. The two 
walls soon became covered with those drawings. 

The attendance of pupils under Mr. Burnap was as great as 
during the first year ; so large in fact that the chairs touched 
each other in many cases. In January, though, the numbers 
began to decrease, and only about half continued until the 
end of May. 

Mr. Burnap' s salary was $} 50 a month for the school term 
of eight months, and Miss Matthewes $50 a month for the 
same period. In February, 1884, the Art Committee pur- 
chased from Mrs. Thomas Osborne Lowndes a portrait by 
Gilbert Stuart of her father, the Hon. William Loughton 
Smith, the first representative in Congress from the Charles- 
ton District. The price paid for it was $100, which was ex- 
tremely low, but it was due to its not being known for certain 
by whom it had been painted. It is in the best style of Stuart, 
and was executed in the last decade of the last - century, 
when his ability was at its highest. Two other portraits were 
thrown in at the purchase, one of Benjamin Smith, the father 
of Wm. Loughton, and the other of Benjamin's second wife, 
born Loughton. 

Benjamin Smith was one of several rich merchants of" 
Charleston between 1750 and 1770, and he was also speaker 
of the Commons House of Assembly of the Province perhaps 
more than once. His face indicates the generous living of 
his time, which was in imitation of the style prevailing in old 
England, but which was eventually abandoned as unsuited to 
a latitude so near the tropics. His Carolina ancestor had come 



History of the Carolina Art Association. 265 

from New England, and was of the same family as Abigail 
Smith, the wife of John Adams. His wife is also typical of 
the same period by her appearance and dress. They both lie 
buried in a vault in St. Philip's churchyard, on the west side 
near the street. Both pictures are by Theus, and they were 
in such a damaged condition when turned over to the Associ- 
ation that it was necessary to send them to Paris to be re- 
stored. This was supervised by Mr. Richard "W. Corbiu, a 
well-wisher of the Association living in Paris, and the entire 
cost was defrayed by him. 

When the school opened in October of the second year, 
1883, there was a large class ready for instruction in painting, 
as many as thirteen. The prospect seemed encouraging at the 
first glance, but after a week's trial Mr. Burnap found that 
the large majority were entirely unprepared for painting by 
previous thorough instruction in drawing. It was difficult 
to make the class understand this, and therefore a subject in 
still-life was placed before them, and each one was called upon 
to paint it. The result of the test was that, of the thirteen, 
only two were considered to have executed it sufficiently well 
to be continued in the class. It so happened, as might have 
been expected, that those two were the best pupils of the ad- 
vanced drawing class of the year before, while the eleven 
others had only tried painting before the school was estab- 
lished in an amateurish way, and were without the necessary 
training to fit them for the brush and palette as taught accord- 
ing to recognized rules. 

Mr. Burnap's methods of teaching, good as they were in 
themselves, proved in the long run unsuited in an important, 
respect to the pupils of the Charleston Art School. They 
were in imitation of what he had observed and experienced 
in the Paris schools, of which there are several in that city, 
not connected in any way with the celebrated government 
school named " L'Ecole des Beaux Arts," and run by private, 
parties, the attendance being largely of foreigners. . 

The pupils in those schools consist principally of men and 
women who are thoroughly in earnest in the pursuit of Art 
and who expect to make it their life occupation. They can 



260 Appendix to Year Booh. 

therefore stand a good measure of hostile criticism of their 
work as the instructor goes around, and this is commonly 
given with no sparing hand. It is better that each one should 
hear the unvarnished truth about his or her drawing or 
painting, and not be deceived into the belief that the first 
rungs of the ladder of fame have been securely stood upon 
through the hesitancy of the instructor to tell the truth. This 
method could be practiced without injurious results as long as 
every seat in the school was occupied. But in Mr. Burnap's 
second year when the novelty of the school had worn off and 
the attendance much diminished it was advisable to be less 
rigid in criticising the drawings, for the early style of proceed- 
ing caused discouragement in several cases and consequent dis- 
continuance of attendance. To give encouragement to every 
pupil varying in degree according to proficiency was clearly 
the policy after an experience of three years. 

In the Spring of 1884, another exhibition of paintings was 
held in the upper hall of the school. The public did not 
attend as numerously as the year before, notwithstanding that, 
as a whole, the quality of the pictures was somewhat better. 
The celebrated portrait by Eomney, of Mrs. Roger Smith, 
which has been mentioned, was exhibited for the last time in 
Charleston at this second exhibition. It was given the place 
of honor in the hall, and its beauty acknowledged by every 
one. In consequence of- the small attendance of the public, 
the balance of the reserve fund of $1,500, which had been set 
aside and invested the year before, was entirely expended in 
the expenses of the exhibition, so great is always the cost of 
such undertakings. The Association, therefore, found itself 
at the beginning of the third school term, in November, 1884:, 
with only §100 in the treasury. 

There was no change made in the instructors of the school 
when the session of 1883-81- had closed. Mr. Bitmap and 
Miss Mathewes were continued for the next year. The almost 
emptiness of the treasury, however, was a matter for serious 
consideration, and early in 1885 the ladies of the city were 
appealed to for help. They met by invitation to the number 
of over forty, at the residence of the President of the Asso- 



History of the Carolina Art Association. 267 

ciation, who explained to them the situation, and they soon 
afterwards organized into committees to tale charge of the 
several subdivisions of the plan of work. 

Each committee worked by itself, and there was no central 
organizing committee for the whole, as during the winter and 
spring of 1883, when the bazaar was being prepared. Five 
evenings of entertainment were given at the Academy of 
Music, commencing on the Tuesday of Easter week. The first 
was Mr. Burnap's e veiling, and consisted of comical scenes, 
which were quite unique and very cleverly arranged. The 
next was Mrs. Andrew Simonds', consisting of a theatrical 
performance in two acts, called the Wishing Well. The third 
was an Operetta, by the pupils of the Conservatory of Music, 
a school of music then in operation in Charleston which lasted 
only one year. The fourth was a concert by the Professors of 
the same school, and the fifth was a calico ball given at the 
then Agricultural Hall, in Meeting street. The only success 
of the week was the Wishing Well, and it was repeated twice. 
It was the only performance by which any money was made, 
certain of the others having entailed loss, and the total pro- 
ceeds, after all the expenses had been paid, were onby $700. 
The short receipts were largely due to the small seating capacity 
of the Academy of Music, for when the Wishing Well had 
been once played the perfect way in which it had been pre- 
pared for the stage was so patent that the building was 
jammed for the two repetitions, and if there had more room 
the total net receipts would probably have been doubled. 

It was evident, then, after such an experience, that, unless 
the Association could in some way secure a certain sum annu- 
ally outside of the receipts from pupils to make up the deficit, 
which was increasing from year to year, the school would in a 
short time fall through. It was idle to expect to raise it by 
canvassing the city and asking for contributions. The novelty 
of the school had already worn off, and paying members of 
the Association as well as pupils had very much decreased. 

The only alternative was to petition the Legislature at its 
approaching session of December, 18S5, for an appropriation, 
which it was agreed should be §500, for the teaching of draw- 



268 Appendix to Year Book. 

ing to a certain number of the scholars of the city public 
schools. This, it was understood, should be eighty, and it was 
to be confined to the four schools for whites. 

Strong efforts were made during the summer to influence 
the public in the direction of favoring such a novel appropria- 
tion. A reception was given at his dwelling by the President 
of the Association to the teachers and others who were attend- 
ing an Educational Convention at the Memminger School 
building during August, and the Art School building in 
Chalmers street was occupied several afternoons in each week 
by a class of pupils for drawing, who were attending the Con- 
vention, at no expense to them for the use of the building. 
The State Commissioner of Education, Col. Asbury Coward, 
was among the guests at the reception, and he also visited the 
school building, where he was shown its complete outfit. • He 
responded willingly to the request to urge the appropriation 
before the Committee of Ways and Means of the Legislature, 
and it was afterwards learned that he had done so with much 
earnestness. All the members of the Charleston .delegation 
were apj>roached on the subject, several of whom spoke favor- 
ably of the usefulness of the school, audit ended in the appro- 
priation being included in the report of the Committee, and 
passed by the House without any discussion. - 

The instructor of the school for that session was Mr. Mc- 
Dowell. He was from New York, where, like his predecessor, 
Burnap, he had not been successful as an artist. He was a 
man of gentlemanly manners ; he could draw well, and he 
liad studied also in the Paris schools. He was the sole instruc- 
tor, as no assistant was necessary on account of the diminished 
attendance, and Miss Mathewes was therefore discontinued. 
His defects were irritability of temper and an unwillingness 
to descend to the drudgery of explaining to a parcel of boys 
from the public schools what was self-evident to him in draw- 
ing, but not so to every beginner. His salary was $100 a 
month for the session of eight months. 

There was still a trilling difficulty to be overcome before 
the teaching could bs commenced at the public schools. 

The commissioners had not been consulted as to whether 



History of the Carolina Art Association. 2G9 

they desired drawing to he added to the teachings, and they 
were entirely ignorant of what had been applied for to the 
Legislature until they were informed that the money had been 
appropriated. At their monthly meeting soon afterwards 
several of the members were strongly opposed to any such in- 
novation, and at their adjournment it seemed likely that they 
would refuse to order the addition to the curriculum. Two 
important members of tlia Board, though, Judge Simonton 
the chairman and Mr. Julian Mitchell who was in charge of 
the Memminger School, favored the plan, and at a conference 
held with them at the school, when Mr. McDowell was pres- 
ent it was decided that the attic room of the building should 
he fitted up for fifty scholars with the necessary tables, chairs, 
drawing boards and models. The president of the Association 
who had some experience in the arrangement of such details 
was entrusted with the work, and in less than a week the room 
was completely transformed from an empty lumber room con- 
taining odds and ends of old school furniture into a completely 
equipped one for the teaching of drawing. 

At the first lesson many interested persons not connected 
with the school were present, and when all the class . were 
seated with the instructor passing from chair to chair, the 
novelty of the scene made a most favorable impression. 

Drawing- was already being taught in the public schools of 
many of the Northern cities. Its principal purpose on such a 
large scale is to train the eye, and supplementary to that, it 
gives to every scholar the opportunity of discovering whether 
he or she has any aptitudes for an art which lies at the founda- 
tion of many of life's occupations, of men as well as of 
women. 

Those of the Board who had given education the most 
thought were perfectly satisfied with what had been done, for, 
as one of them said at the time, the teachings of the public 
schools should be so varied, without any extravagance with 
the public money, that they will seiwe as a starting point for 
any occupation. If reading, writing and arithmetic are only 
to be taught, a life of drudgery will, be in store for many who 
could otherwise have a more extended horizon opened to them* 



270 Appendix to Year Book. 

To complete the satisfaction felt by the Art School Commit- 
tee two members of the Public School Board who had strong- 
ly opposed the innovation at first, were invited to visit the 
drawing class when it was being instructed and it could easily 
be observed that they were strongly impressed with what they 
saw. 

The opposition however to the teaching of drawing in the 
public schools as far as some of the teachers were concerned 
was only smothered for the time. It manifested itself the 
year afterwards when the Memminger school building was so 
injured by the earthquake of 18S6 as to require extensive re- 
pairs. The whole school was then accommodated for about 
three mouths in one of the unused buildings of the Porter 
Academy, and when the chairman of the school committee 
interviewed one of the teachers in the absence of the princi- 
pal, to see what arrangements could be made for continuing 
the class, there was decided unwillingness manifested to facili- 
tate matters. The prospects seemed quite unpromising to him 
as a result of the interview. 

The committee considered though, that to delay the drawing 
class until the reoccupation of the regular school building 
might jeopardize its future, and a large empty room under 
the hospital quarters of the Porter school was finally fitted up 
with all the furniture of the class which was transferred from 
the regular school. There was no expense attending this be- 
yond the cost of cartage, and even the exclusion of cold from 
the new room by a stove and the fitting of sashes to two empty 
windows was done by the committee. 

After all this there was general acquiescence in drawing 
being regularly taught to the girls of the Memminger School, 
the instruction beinof given three times a week from 12 to 1 — 
and to ten boys from each of the other three schools, the 
lessons being given at the Art School building three after- 
noons in the week from 3.30 to 5 o'clock. During ten years 
of such work the results have been so satisfactory that the 
Public School Board have indicated their readiness to con- 
tinue the drawing through a teacher engaged by them, if in 
the course of time it became inconvenient for the Art Associa- 
tion to supply its teacher. 



History of the Carolina Art Association. 271 

Mr. McDowell remained the instructor of the school for 
two years. He painted a few portraits while in Charleston 
but his style was the modern one of laying n the paint in 
large masses which was altogether new to the art-loving pub- 
lic of the city and he consequently received no orders. His 
most ambitious effort was the portrait of a very beautiful 
young lady of Charleston which, when finished, was sent to 
ISTew York for an annual spring exhibition, and to his mortifi- 
cation it was rejected. All that he did in Charleston in the 
way of portraits was without pay, and since then lie has been 
employed in Xew York by a firm who undertake the decora- 
tion of the interiors of the dwellings of the rich — a lar<re and 
important business — and he has been doing well. 

Mr. McDowell, although of good address and gentlemanly 
appearance, was at times irritable and somewhat rude to cer- 
tain of the pupils who asked for information as to the combin- 
ing of colors to produce certain shades, and his loss of temper 
on several occasions did injury to the school. The committee, 
therefore, found it necessary after he had left to engage an- 
other instructor, their choice being in favor of Miss Fery, a 
French lady, who had visited the city several years in succes- 
sion, having first been employed by Miss Kelly at her school. 
She was giving private lessons then and was staying with 
friends, and. the agreement was that she should do all that 
Mr. McDowell had been doing for six (C>) months, from 1st 
November to 30th April, for §100 a month, making a total of 
$600 for the term. 

Miss Fery had good credentials and a number of very cred- 
itable water colors as evidences of her professional ability. 
She also took portraits, her best likeness being in crayon. She 
was given a room in the school building which she fitted up 
as her studio, and the taste she displayed in showing her work 
to advantage was much to her credit. A fish woman from 
Boulogne in France and a shrimp woman from the western 
French coast, both life sized and in oils, were her most success- 
ful pieces, and she soon sold the first at a good price. 

Her methods as a teacher were entirely different from those 
of Messrs, Bitmap and McDowell, inasmuch as she gave en- 



272 Appendix to Year Book. 

couragement to every pupil, however dull and incapable he or 
she might be. Her treatment of the boys especially from the 
public schools was altogether different from Mr. McDowell's. 
They had been the despair of the latter on account of their in- 
experience, and some of the class were so unreasoning as to 
place the shadow of a block on their papers on the side to- 
wards the window admitting the light. Nothing of this kind 
occurred with .her, for she had the patience to explain the most 
elementary rules, and during her first year two boys made such 
progress as to have accomplished two original designs for the 
annual exhibition. Miss Fery was chosen instructor in 1887, 
and has continued so to the present. 

The China painting with Miss Delia Torre as instructor was 
an important feature of the school until the term ending; in 
June, 1893, At first the work was very crude, consisting al- 
most entirely of little flowers and buttei flies on the white 
ground of the china. By degrees a background of a darker 
shade was attempted, and for several years before the class 
was discontinued fish dishes and large vases were successfully 
decorated in away that rivalled professional work. The col- 
lection of . china paintings at the annual exhibitions of the 
school was always the most attractive to the public, and al- 
though that branch of art does not rank as true art, according 
to the current acceptation of the word, and was at first trifling 
and amateurish, it ended by attracting pupils of decided 
talent. 

At the end of eleven years, during which the Art School 
was conducted by the Association, it was decided that it would 
be best to rent it with its entire equipment of -models in 
plaster and oil paintings, and Miss Fery being willing to be 
the tenant, the agreement was closed with her. The purposes 
of the school are the same as under the first management and 
the good that it lias accomplished is being continued. This 
good can be summed up as having been a more enlarged ap- 
preciation of art by the public to this extent, that many young 
women who had been pupils became teachers in private 
schools and at their homes, thus injuring in a measure the 
Art School by drawing away pupils from it, but benefiting 



History of the Carolina Art Association. 273 

themselves by the support which it gave them. This is only a part 
of what has been accomplished, for a higher point has been 
reached in certain of the pupils having developed a decided 
aptitude for portrait painting and landscape, as Mrs. John For- 
rest, Miss Charlotte Hanckel, now Mrs. Avery, Miss Elize 
Willis and Miss Annie Coleock can be safely included among 
these, and the last named has opened a studio in this city 
where already she is receiving orders and producing promising 
work. The annual exhibitions of art work, too, by a club 
which was created through the interest in art, which the school 
had started, improved from year to year. The first exhibition 
contained a number of little water colors which could only in- 
cite laughter on being seen, although there were good pieces, 
also, while the displays of 1S92 and 1893, consisting of water 
colors and oils, were a vast improvement on the first. 

Before the Art School was founded there was not a single 
resident painter among us. Now there are four, one of whom 
is an ex-pupil of the school. They are all kept busy through 
the year and many a city dwelling now contains portraits from 
their easels which were scarcely dreamed of as possibilities 
formerly. The retail business in art material has also been 
benefited and increased, and there are dozens of picture 
frames now made for portraits painted here, while a decade 
ago there were but a few in comparison. 

A picture gallery may yet arise out of the efforts of the 
lion. Joel P. Poinsett and Professor Sachtleben. Where an 
interest has become so general something must eventually 
come out of it. A bequest to that end is contained in the will 
of the late James S. Gibbes who was always interested in the 
school and assisted it pecuniarily. When certain conditions 
have been fulfilled it will be turned over to the appointed 
trustees and at last the dream of over. seventy years will have 
materialized. 



is 



274 Appendix io Year Book 



This Sketch is prepared, at the request of the Mayor, for the Year Book 1891, by 
J. BACHMAN CHISOLM. 

ST. ANDREW'S SOCIETY, 

OF 

CHARLESTON, S. C. 

Founded A. D. 17 W. , .. "Nemo me Impune Lacessit." 

To write a short sketch of St. Andrew's Society is rather a 
difficult thing to do, when its history has been so long and 
honorable. 

Charleston is certainly a quaint, picturesque old town, one 
in which changes, simply because they are new, rarely take 
place, still, in years gone by many new and lasting ideas have 
originated here. 

The city has always enjoyed the presence of a large and 
varied number of Clubs or Societies, some of them dating 
back to the very misty past, and making history for the coun- 
try at large, and the city in particular. Among these is "The 
St. Andrew's Society." 

We believe this to be the oldest St. Andrew's Society in the 
United States, and probably one of the oldest organizations of 
any kind in "our country." It has the honor of being the first 
Charitable Society in South Carolina. 

Its birth took place in 1729 ; it has now lived to the good 
and ripe old age of over 165 years ; is still strong and vigorous, 
has by no means outlived its usefulness, and, strange to relate, 
grows more productive as its age advances. Think of its 
coming into the world the year the City of Baltimore was laid 
out as a town. 

Charleston is ever proud of her sons, many of whom are 
Scotchmen, or their descendants. 

Dear to the heart of every one of them is the patron saint 
of Scotland. St. Andrew's Cross uplifted meets their wonder. 




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St. Andrew's Society. '275 

ing gaze and seems to stand out in bold relief, as of old it 
stood, to cheer and lead on to noble deeds. Wherever Scotch 
blood doth How St. Andrew's Day hath been revered, and 
"where upon this habitable globe hath not the foot of a Scotch- 
man trod." His path is marked, and over each abode, cut in 
clear lettering, so that lie that runs may read, we see these 
words : "Perseverance, energy, industry, honesty and rev- 
erence for Holy things" Can we wonder, then, that with, 
these characteristics lie should succeed ! Ought he not to suc- 
ceed ? History is full of Scotland. ''The Tartan has been 
worn from the cottage of the peasant to the palace of the 
king." Sir William Wallace, "the uncrowned king of Scot- 
land," will live in song and story "till time shall be no more." 
Yes, for long years "the hero of Cambus Kenneth" has slept 
the sleep that knows no waking, but memory never dies, glo- 
rious deeds live forever, tarnished by no time, each decade as 
it slips away leaves its mark upon the heroes' undimmed 
escutcheon, cuts a notch thereon to his memory and his "fame 
goes sounding down the ages.'' 

In the Centennial address of the Hon. Mitchell King, de- 
livered before the St. Andrew's Society in 1829, he recalls 
an incident which shows strongly the courage and fortitude of 
the Scotch. He says : 

"I cannot on this occasion refrain from mentioning an anec- 
dote illustrative of this character, told me by a friend; who 
was in Flanders at the time of the battles of Qnartre Bras and 
Waterloo. Soon after these battles he conversed with a 
wounded soldier of one of the Scottish regiments which had 
suffered exceedingly at Quartre Bras, and had maintained 
themselves, during the protracted struggle of a terrible day, 
against repeated attacks by the elite of the French army in 
greatly superior numbers, led on by the intrepid Xey. Their 
successful resistance saved Brussels, and perhaps the British 
army. My friend asked this soldier why, when they found 
themselves overwhelmed by numbers, they had not retreated. 
"We were placed there," he replied, "to maintain the position, 
and we cou'd na rin." When the Persian commanded the 
Spartan to surrender his arms, was his answer — "come and 



276 Appendix to Year Rook. 

take fehem" — more heroic than this, "we cou'd narin."? Well 
might Burns, in the pride of his own noble spirit, say of such 
a soldier : 

"No cold, faint-hearted doubting tease him, 
Death comes, with fearless eye he sees him, 
Wi* bluidy hand a welcome gies him, 

And when he fa's, 
His latest draught of breathing lea's him 

In faint huzzas." 

With, these types of manhood before her the old Society has 
ever tried to live a life that will last for all lime. The his- 
torian tells us that "This Society was established to do good 
and help the distressed, the needy were not sent away empty 
handed." To be in want "was the only qualification an indi- 
vidual rerpiired to be permitted to partake of its bounty." On 
St. Andrew's Day, 1732, upwards of £4-00 currency -was dis- 
tributed in charity. 

Judge King in his address, above alluded to, says : 
"In examining the earlier records of the Society, it is inter- 
esting, and sometimes curious, to read the petitions and seethe 
various applications made to them. If a poor man had been 
oppressed by a rich neighbor, if he had lost his little crop, or 
stood in need of necessaries for his family, he applied to the 
Saint Andrew's Society, If an indigent mechanic was disabled 
or could not find employment, he was relieved by this Society. 
If the widow of a stranger was distressed, or wished to return 
with her children to her native country, she was assisted by 
this Societ}\ If the infirmities of age had rendered a man un- 
able to work, and lie was reduced to want, his wants were 
supplied by this Society. One tells them his neighbors have 
trespassed' on his lands, and that he has been harassed and 
ruined by law suits. Another says that after he had made a 
good crop a part of it was destroyed by the bears, and the rest 
stolen by negroes. In 1747, the sister of a Scotch Baronet, 
on her third application to them for further relief, informs 
them that she believes the recent troubles in Scotland (the re- 
bellion of 174-5) had prevented her brother from sending her 
assistance. If a storm or hurricane devastated the country, if 
sickness reduced the poor to indigence, the sufferers resorted 



St. Andrew's Society. 27? 

to this Society. Few, very few applications ever seem to have 
boon made to them in vain. The funds were not then allowed 
to accumulate to any considerable amount. They were dis- 
tributed in acts of charity nearly as soon as they were col- 
lected. The Society did not hoard up their revenue with a 
view either to future wealth or to more extensive usefulness ; 
they laid it out in doing immediate good, in relieving the 
afflicted, in purchasing the prayer of the poor and the 
blessing of Heaven." 

Dr. Milligan, in his account of Carolina (in 1763,) remarks : 

"I must not forget to mention the St. Andrew's Club, which 
is chiefly composed of Scotchmen, but whose charitable dona- 
tions are confined to no country." And as her charity was 
open-handed her roll of membership also was not restricted 
within national lines. 

Although most of the original members were Scotchmen 
they placed their Society upon a broad and liberal foundation, 
declaring that " Any man of honor and integrity, of what 
nation, degree or 'profession soever" was admissible to their 
Society, thus admitting the universal brotherhood of mankind. 
As far back as 1T9G, or soon afterwards, $15,000 was raised by 
the members to found an institution for the education, clothing, 
and 'maintenance of poor and orphan children — and in 1798 
an Act of incorporation was granted by the Legislature of 
South Carolina, permitting them to own land and to erect there- 
on a school house for the above purpose. Thus a '' free school 
was organized for the children of indigent parents, ante dating 
by many years the free school system in South Carolina, 
which was not inaugurated until 1811." 

We read in years gone by of curious customs that were then 
in vogue in the Society, one of which seems worth preserving. 
We are told that the members were fined at their anniversary 
meetings in a simple and childlike way that was quite unique, 
"the bachelors were blamed for remaining unmarried and liv- 
ing in single blessedness " and were made to pay for their ob- 
stinacy. " The married were lined because they had wives 
and ought to pay for that happiness." "Those who had chil- 
dren were fined because they had the wealth of a family, and 



278 Appendix to Year Booh. 

those who had none were fined,'' because, I suppose, they 
thought they ought to have some, and others were fined just 
for the fun. Under these circumstances, as might readily be 
imagined, the income was considerable. In South Carolina 
we glory in large families. 

From the wreck of many years the Society has still been able 
to preserve the original rules engrossed and first signed by its 
members on November 30, 1730, and kept up by successive 
signatures until the revolutionary war. This original roll is 
now in the Society's archives and contains probably as large a 
collection of authentic autographs as can be found in any 
one ancient document in the United States. The roll is of parch- 
ment and is of inestimable value ; it has lately been bound in 
book form to preserve it from the dust, and from the corrod- 
ing waste of time, a monument for future generations. 

On . November 30, 1730, a code of rules or by-laws was 
adopted, and sealed with the seal of the Society, at Charlestown, 
in South Carolina. These rules were printed. "London : 
Printed by James Crokatt, Printer and Bookseller to the So- 
ciety, at the Golden Key, next the Inner Temple Gate, in 
Fleet Street, 1731," with the names of all the original signers 
in November, 1730. The printer, the last on the list, des- 
ignated himself Bibliopola ad Societatem." 

These rules remained unchanged until 1796 — a period of 
sixty six years — when the new rules were adopted. " The Saint 
Andrew's Club, at Charlestown. in South Carolina " was then 
modified to read " The Saint Andrew's Society, of Charleston, 
in South Carolina." 

The Legislature in 179S passed an Act incorporating the So- 
ciety for live years, and in 1804 extended the time for four- 
teen years, and finally in 1817 repealed the limitation in the 
Charter and granted them the right of perpetual incorpora- 
tion, and also allowed them to hold property in perpetuity to 
the amount of 880,000. 

A relic that was greatly prized, but cannot now be found, 
was a President's mallet, made in 1810 from a block of wood 
taken from a large tree in old Tor-wood forest, known through- 
out the world as Wallace's oak. The handle was made in 1821 



St. Andrew's Society. 279 

from, a piece of cedar cut from the tree which overhung the 
tomb of Washington, a most striking combination — Wallace- 
Washington. 

The Society lias now in its possession the Secession gavel 
and the table and chairs that were used at the St. Andrew's 
Hall, when the Ordinance of Secession was passed there by the 
South Carolina Convention on December 20, 1860. This his- 
toric Hall was erected in 1815, and on St. Andrew's day of 
that year the Society for the first time dined in their new 
building. The plans of the Hall were drawn by Hugh Smith, 
an amateur architect and a member of the Society. 

The lot in which the Hall stood was purchased in 1811, and 
was situated on the north side of Broad street, near King, 
next to the old Cathedral. This Hall besides being used for 
the meetings of the Society, was the home of the South Caro- 
lina Jockey Club, and was a favorite resort of the St. Cecilia 
Society. 

" Agassiz and many eminent lecturers have made its walls 
resound with the learning of the ages." 

His Excellency, James Monroe, President of the United 
States, on his Southern visit in 1817, made it his temporary 
residence, accompanied by Calhoun, and other distinguished 
men. 

In 1825 it sheltered the brave and noble LaFayette, while 
in Charleston. 

At a procession formed to receive LaFayette the St. An- 
drew's Society, as the oldest in. the State, took precedence of 
the other societies. 

On November 30, 1829, their Centennial anniversary was 
celebrated in their Hall with great ceremony, and solemnity, 
the orator of the day being the Hon. Mitchell King, (who 
afterwards became its President, and who has done so much 
to preserve its acts and traditions) who gave an account of the 
origin, objects and history of the Society, and to whom we are 
indebted for most of the data contained in this sketch. 

The walls of the Hall were adorned by many striking 
portraits — among them : 

A full-length admirable likeness of Her Majesty, Queen 



280 Appendix to Year Book. 

Victoria, by that distinguished artist, Thomas Sully, presented 
by him to the Society. There were also portraits of the Presi- 
dents of the Society since the Revolution, whose occupancy of 
the chair lias closed. 

Gen. William Moultrie, copied by George "W. Flagg, from 
an original by Charles Frascr. 

Dr. Alexander Baron, by S. F. B. Morse. 

Adam Tunno, by Shiels. 

James Robertson, by Martin. 

Mitchell King, by George W. Flagg. 

And an excellent likeness of Dugald Stewart, copied by 
Sully, from a portrait by Sir Henry Raeburn, and presented 
to the Society by the late Dr. Philip Tidyman. 

Some engravings of a high style of art have been given to 
the Society. 

The " Storming of Seringapatam.'' Presented by Capt. 
Thomas Jervey. 

Two engravings of the martyrdom of St. Andrew. Pre- 
sented by Robert M. Allan. 

Three views of the Pattle.of Chevy Chase. 

The Entrance of Prince Charles Stuart into Edinburgh in 
1745. 

A view of Sir Walter Scott's Monument. Presented by 
Dr. Tidyman. 

And an admirable model in copper, of the City of Edin- 
burgh, with a corresponding explanatory chart. Presented 
by Dr. A. Hasell. 

After nearly fifty years of usefulness this historic Hall was 
destroyed by fire (the great fire of Charleston) on the. night 
of the 11 th of December, 1861, with the furniture, &c. 

The paintings, snuff mulls, Secession mallet and records 
were saved, but unfortunately most of the paintings were sent 
to Columbia for safe keeping, and were destroyed when 
Columbia was burnt in February, 1S65, Only two paintings 
were saved. Both of them hue works of art, but unidentified. 

After much research a picture of the Hall was found in 
Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper of May 5, I860, page 
302 ; a bound volume of the papers of that date being now on 



Si. Andrew's Society. 281 

file in the Charleston Library, a cut of the Hall is reproduced 
at the beginning of this article. The corner-stone of this 

famous building has been recently found, and bears the follow- 
ing inscription : 

" A. D. 1814. 4TII JULY. 

The Corner-Stone of St. Andrew's Society Hall, 

Charleston, S. C. 

Alex. Baron, M. D. Pres't., 

Adam Tunno, Y. P." 

The lot on which the Hall stood does not now belong to 
the Society. The meetings are held at the South Carolina 
Society's Hall on Meeting street. 

The seal originally adopted w r as of silver, with a thistle un- 
der a crown engraved upon it, with the epigraph "nemo rue 
irnpune lacessit" and this is still the seal of the Society. 

A large snuff mull, ornamented with cairngorms, mounted 
in silver, with several appendages, is believed to be cotempor- 
ary with the Society, and is still preserved. 

There is also a magnificent cranium and horns of a ram 
transformed into a snuff mull, it has even now a quantity of old 
snuff in it. These are real curiosities, well worth seeing. On 
each anniversary the officers wore a St. Andrew's Cross, and 
these trophies were produced. 

We give here a list of the original members, who formed 
the Society in 1729, or subscribed to the rules in 1730. 

OFFICEKS. 

Elected on St. Andrew's Day, 1730. 
Alexander Skene, President. 
John Eraser, Vice President. 
James Crokatt, Treasurer. 
Thomas Grceme, Assistant. 



Walter Burn, Cleric. 



232 



Appendix to Year Book. 



MEMBERS. 



John Atchison, 
William Clieland, 
John Orokatt, 
James Berrie, 
Daniel Crawford, 
William Scott, 
Philip Aytin, 
George Ducat, 
John Moultrie, 
Henry Curry, 
James Bullock, 
William Tennant, 
John Buchanan, 
John McGilivraj, 
Mungo Welch, 
James MeXabney, 
William McKenzie, 
James Walker, 
Peter Murray, 
William Williamson, 
James Stuart, 
Sir Alex. Cuming, Bart. 



Alexander Vanderdussen, 
John Skene, 
David Anderson, 
James Fyffe, 
Alexander Stuart, 
Robert Msbit, 
John Haig, 
David Hunter, 
George Sinclair, 
Alexander Smith, 
James Hutchinson, 
Andrew Terney, 
Duncan Campbell, 
Rev. William Maxwell, 
Walter Dallas, 
John Clark, 
William Gordon, 
David Mclver, 
James Dickson, 
Charles Crockatt, 
John Smart, 
James Crockatt. 



On the death of Mr. Skene in 1740 the Hon. James Aber- 
crombie was elected President. The Hon. John Cleland suc- 
ceeded him/and on his death in lTGO.Dr. John Moultrie was 
elected to the Presidency. On the death of Dr. Moultrie in 
1771, the Hon. John Stuart tilled the office, and was Presi- 
dent at the time of the Revolutionary War. 

After the war, in 17S7, the Society elected Gen. William 
Moultrie, President. 

Note. — After the preparation of this article, Langdon Cheves, 
Esq, a member of the Society, suggested, that it would be inter- 
esting to ascertain, if possible, who were the officers of the Society 
previous to 1787, from which year the completed list of offi- 
cers begins. From some researches lie had made in that direc- 
tion, and from notes (which were given for this article) ob- 
tained from an examination of the old tiles of the South Caro- 



St. Andrew's Society. 283 

lina Gazette, he thought that a fuller examination would dis- 
close valuable information. Acting on this suggestion, the 
papers were looked over with the following result; 

The South Carolina Gazette had not come into being when 
the Society was organized. 

1731. 

We presume that this year the same officers were elected as 
in 1730, because we find in 1732 little or no change. 

1732. 

"Charles Town, December 9, 1732. S. C. Gazette, Decem- 
ber 9, 1732. Saturday, November 30 last, being St. An- 
drew's Day, and the anniversary meeting of St. Andrew's 
Club, his Excellency the Governor, Robert Wright, Esq., 
Chief Justice, Capt James Floyd, Alex. Skene, Eleazer Allen, 
William Saxby, Esqrs., and about 40 other members residing in 
the Province met at the house of Mr. Henry Gignilliat, where 
a handsome entertainment of about 10 dishes was provided for 
supper. When, after reading the rules of the Society, the ten 
following gentlemen were proposed, voted and admitted as 
new members, viz: Capt Thomas Griffin, Com'dr. of IT. M Ship 
Shoreham, Mr. James Douglass, Lieut of s'd Ship, David 
Welshyuson, Esq., the Rev. M. Edward Dyson, and the Rev. 
Mr. Arch. Stobo, the Rev. Mr. John Witherspoon, Dr. Robert 
Smith, Mr. William Stobo, Mr. William Swinton, Mr. James - 
Mitchie ; and at the same evening the following officers were 
chosen for the year ensuing; Alexander Skene, Esq., President; 
Mr. John Eraser, Yice President ; Mr. James Crokatt, Treas- 
urer ; Mr. James Grseme, Assistant; Mr. James Mitchie, Sec- 
retary. 

]\ r . B. The total subscriptions made to the Club since the 
30th November, 1730, when the Club began, is now £700 
currency, and the money given by them in charity is abuve 
£100, a good part of which charity is defrayed by the quar- 
terly payment due by each member of 7s. Op. 

As the principal design of the Club is to assist all people in 
distress, of whatsoever nation or profession they be, it is not 
doubted their numbers and stock will continue to increase. 



284 Appendix to Year Booh. 

1733. 

Papers missing. However, a number of new members then 
joined the Society. 

1734. . 

These are to give notice to the members of St. Andrew's 
Club, that on Saturday, the 30th inst., (being St. Andrew's 
Day,) the anniversary meeting will be held at the house of Mr. 
James Kerr, Yintner, in Charlestown. 

James Mitchie, Sec. (S. C. Gazette, November 23, 1734.) 

1735. 

Anniversary meeting at Mr Charles Shepheard's house. 
James Mitchie, Sec. (S. C. Gazette, November 22, 1735.) 

1736. 

These are to give notice to the members of St. Andrew's 
Club, that on Tuesday, the 30th day of this inst., November, 
the Anniversary Meeting will be held at the house of Charles 
Shepheard, Yintner, in Charlestown. 

By order of the Hon. Alex. Skene, Acting President. 

Maukice Lewis, Secretary. 

It's expected all Arrears due to the said Club will be then 
paid to James Crockatt, Treasurer. 

1737. 

List of Officers not given. From the roll we find that a 
number of new members joined this year. 

173S. 

Meeting held. Alexander Skene, President, Maurice Lewis, 
Secretary. 

1739. 

The last day of the month being the Anniversary Meeting 
of St. Andrew's Club, it is then proposed to revise and con- 
sider the first established rules of the said Club, and to add 
such as may be thought necessary for the further regulation 
of the Society. 

It is therefore expected that every member thereof in this 



-^ 



St. Andrew's Society. 285 



Province will give attendance and come prepared for that pur- 
pose. Alex. Skene, President, 

S. C. Gazette, November 17, 1739. 
N. B. — The Club will be held as usual at Mr. Charles Shep- 
heard's. 

1740. 

Alexander Skene, Esq., President. Alexander Murray, 
Sec and Treas. 

1741. 

James Abercromby, Esq., President. Alexander Murray, 
Secretary. 

1742, 

A notice for Anniversary Meeting signed by Alexander 
Mu rray, Secretary. 

1743. 

A notice for Anniversary meeting signed by Alexander 
Murray, Clerk. 

1744. 

A notice for Anniversary Meeting signed by John Eraser, 
Treasurer. 

1745. 
Notice signed by John Rattray, Secretary. 

1746. 
Do not find published notices of Meetings. 

1747. 
Hon. John Cleland, President. John Rattray, Secretary, 

1748, 
No record published. 

1749-rl750-51. 
Notice of Meetings. David Deas, Clerk. 



286 Appendix to Year Book. 

1752. 

Notice of Meeting* John Stuart, Clerk. 

From 1753 to 1703 we do not find published notices of 
Meetings. Probably the publication of the Meetings was 
abandoned ; for we find a large number of new members 
joining the Society. 

1763. 

Notice of Anniversary Meeting at house of Mr. Robert Dil- 
lon. James Grindly, Clerk. From 1764-1774 we do not find 
notices published, but we see from the list of members large 
additions made to the Society. 

1774. 

St. Andrew's Day— Club to meet at 10 o'clock at Mr. 
Kamadje's in Charles Town to celebrate the 46th Anniversary 
of the Society. By order of the President. 

James Brisbane, Clerk. (S. C. Gazette, Nov. 11, 1774.) 

1775. 

Notice of Anniversary Meeting to elect Officers, &c. Not 
signed by any one. 

During the Revolutionary War there seems nut to have 
been any notice of Meetings published. Occasional Meet- 
ings took place however. In 1.7S0 and 1781 large additions 
were made to the Society. 

1787. 

The members of the Old St. Andrew's Club in Charleston, 
and those who wish to become members of the same are re- 
quested to give in their names at the Bar of William's Coffee 
House. — Columbian Herald, November 19, 1787. 

•'Hon Alex. Skene, John Cleland, James Crokatt, James 
Graeme, James Mitchie and John Stuart were members of the 
•City Council ; James Abercrombie, Attorney General ; Wil- 
liam Stinson, Chief Justice; Maurice Lewis, Judge of Ad- 
miralty." 



St, Andrew's Society. 287 

Officers of ilte Society. 

SINCE ITS REVIVAL AFTER THE REVOLUTIONARY WiK, ELECTED 

AS follows; 

1787-89. 

Gen. William Moultrie, President. George Roupell, Vice-President. 
Charles Johnston, Treasurer. John Troup, Assistant Treasurer. 

John Moncrieffe, Secretary. 

17S9. 

Gen. William Moultrie, President. John Troup, Vice-President. 
AdamTunno, Treasurer. Robert Harvey, Secretary. 

1700-94. 

Dr. Alexander Baron, President. John Troup, Vice-President. 
AdamTunno, Treasurer. Robert Harvey, Secretary. 

1794. 

Dr. Alexander Baron, President. John Troup, Vice-President. 
Adam Tunno, Treasurer. John Moncrieffe, Asst. Treasurer. 

Edwin Gairdner. Secretary. 

1795. 

Dr. Alexander Baron, President. Alex. Chisolm, Vice-President. 

Adam Tunno, Treasurer. John Moncrieffe, Asst. Treasurer. 

Alex Shirras, Secretary. 

1790-1802. 

Dr. Alexander Baron, President. Alex. Chisolm, Vice-President. 
Adam Tunno, Treasurer. Edwin Gairdner, Secretary. 

Dr. G. Buist, Chaplain. 

1802. 

Dr. Alexander Baron, President. Alex Chisolm, Vice-President. 
Adam Tunno, Treasurer. A. McLach'an, Secretary. 

Dr. G. Buist, Chaplain. 

1803-1 SOS. 

Dr. Alexander Baron, President. AdamTunno, Vice-President. 
Wm. Allan, Treasurer. Win . Smith, Secretary. 

Dr. G. Buist, Chaplain. 

1S0S-1S10. 

Dr. Alexander Baron, President, Adam Tunno, Vice-President. 
Wm. Allan. Treasurer. James Blair, Secretary. 



288 Appendix to Year Book. 

1810. 

Dr. Alexander Baron, President. Adam Tunno, Vice-President. 
Wm, Allan, Treasurer. James Blair, Secretary. 

Dr. John Bnchan, Chaplain. 

1811-13. 

Dr. Alexander Baron, President. Adam Tunno, Vice-President. 
Wm. Allan, Treasurer. JohnDmTus, Secretary. 

1813. 

Dr. Alexander Baron, President. Adam Tunno, Vice-President. 
Wm. Allan, Treasurer. Benj. Leefe, Secretary. 

1814-16. 

Dr. Alexander Baron, President. Adam Tuuno, Vice-President. 
Wm. Birnie, Treasurer. A. McLachlan, Secretary. 

1816-19. 

Dr. Alexander Baron, President. Adam Tunno, 1st Vice-President 
David Haig, 2nd Vice-President. Wm. Birnie, Treasurer. 
A. McLachlan, Secretary. 

1819-22. 

Adam Tunno, President. David Haig, 1st Vice-President. 

Wm. Allan, 2nd Vice-President. Wm. Birnie, Treasurer. 
Dunbar Paul, Secretary. 

1822-25. 

Adam Tunno, President. David Haig, 1st Vice-President. 

Wm. Allan, 2nd Vice-President. Wm. Smith, Treasurer. 
Dunbar Paul, Secretary. 

1S25-27. 

Adam Tunno, President, David Haig, 1st Vice-President. 

Wm. Allan, 2nd Vice-President, Dunbar Paul, Secretary. 
Wm. Smith, Treasurer. Rev. Arthur Buist, Chaplain. 

1S27. 

Adam Tunno, President. • David Haig, 1st Vice-President. 

Wm. Birnie, 2nd Vice-President. Dunbar Paul, Secretary. 
Wm. Smith, Treasurer. Rev. Arthur Buist, Chaplain. 

1828 to Nov. 30, 1832. 

Adam Tunno, President. David Haig, 1st Vice-President. 

Wm. Birnie, 2nd Vice-President. Alex. Gordan, Secretary. 
Wm, Smith, Treasurer. Rev. Arthur Buist, Chaplain. 

1832. 

The same, until April 30th, when Mitchell King was elected First Vice-President 
in room of David Haig, deceased. 



St Andrew's Society. 289 

1833-35. 

Mitchell King, President. Wm. Birnie, 1st Vice-President. 

Campbell Douglas, 2nd Vice-Prest. Alex. Gordon, Treasurer. 
George Brown, Secretary. 

1835-38. 

James Robertson, President. Campbell Douglas, 1st Vice-Prest. 

Neill McNeill, 2nd Vice-Prest. Alex. Cordon, Treasurer. 

George Brown, Secretary, 

1838. 

James Robertson, President. Campbell Douglas, 1st Vice-Prest. 

Neill McNeill, 2nd Vice-Pre.st Alex. Gordon, Treasurer; 

W. S. Dewar,. Secretary, 

1839-41. 

James Robertson, President. Campbell Douglas, 1st Vice-Prest. 

Neill McNeill, 2nd Vice-Prest. Alex. Gordon, Treasurer. 

Samuel Cruikshanks, Secretary. 

1841. 

James Robertson, President. C. Douglas, 1st Vice-President. 

A/McDowall, 2nd Vice-President A. Gordon, Treasurer. 
A. F. Wilmans, Secretary. 

1842. 

James Robertson, President. A. McDowall, 1st Vice-President- 

George Brown, 2nd Vice-Prest. A. Gordon, Treasurer. 

A. F. Wilmans, Secretary. 

1843. 

James Robertson, President. A. McDowall, 1st Vice-President. 

George Brown, 2nd Vice-Prest. A. Gordon, Treasurer. 

W. Y. Leitch, Secretary. 

1844. 

James Robertson, President. Andrew McDowall, 1st Vice-Prest. 

George Brown, 2nd Vice-Prest. Alex. Gordon, Treas and Sect'y. 

. 1845-47. 

James Robertson, President. Andrew McDowall, 1st Vice-Prest. 

George Brown, 2nd Vice-Prest. Campbell Douglass, Treasurer. 

Alex. Gordon, Secretary 

■ 1847-50. 

Andrew McDowall, President. George Brown, 1st Vice-Prest. 

James McLeish, 2nd Vice-Prest. Campbell Douglas, Treasurer. 
Alex. Gordon, Secretary 
19 



290 Appendix io Year Book. 

1850. 

Andrew McDowall, President. George Brown. 1st Vice-Prest. 

James McLeish, 2nd Vice-Prest. Campbell Douglas, Treasurer. 
John McKenzie, Secretary. 

1851-54. 

Andrew McDowall, President. Robert Mure, 1st Yice-Prest. 

A. F. Wilmans. 2d Vice-Prest. JohnMcKenzie, Treas. and Secty. 

1854-56. • 

Andrew McDowall, President. Robert Mure, 1st Vice-Prest. 

A. F, Wilmans, 2nd Vice-Prest. John McKenzie, Treasurer. 

Douglas Nisbet, Secretary. 

1856-59. 

Andrew McDowall, President. Robert Mure, 1st Vice-President. 
A. F. Wilmans, 2nd Vice-Prest. John McKenzie, Treasurer. 
David Morton, Secretary. 

1859. 

Robert Mure, President. Alex. Gordon, 1st Vice-President. 

A. F. Wilmans, 2nd Vice-Prest. John McKenzie, Treasurer. 
A. R. Young, Secretary. 

I860. 

Robert Mure. President. Alex. Gordon, 1st Vice-President. 

A. F. Wilmans,. 2nd Vice-Prest. John McKenzie, Treasurer. 
Allan Macaulay, Secretary. 

1861-65. 

Robert Mure, President. A. Gordon, 1st Vice-President. 

A. F. Wilmans, 2nd Vice Prest. Douglas Nisbet, Treas'urer. 
William Paul, Secretary. 

1865-67. 

Robert Mure, President. Thomas J. Kerr, 1st Vice-Prest. 

A. Cameron, 2nd Vice-President. Douglas Nisbet, Treasurer. 
William Paul, Secretary. 

1867. 

Robert Mure. President. Thomas J. Kerr, 1st Vice-Prest, 

Douglas Nisbet, 2nd Vice-Prest. John R. MofFatt. Treasurer. 
William Paul, Secretary. 

1868. 

Robert Mure, President, Thomas J. Kerr, 1st Vice-Prest, 

Douglas Nisbet, 2nd Vice-Prest. Campbell Douglas, Treasurer. 
William Paul, Secretary, 



' St. Andrew's Society. 291 

1869-71. 

.Robert Mure, President. Thomas J. Kerr, 1st Vice-Prest. 

Douglas Nisbet, 2nd Vice.Prest Campbell Douglas, Treasurer. 
Robert M. Gordan-, Secretary. 

1871-74. 

W. G. DeSaussure, President. Douglas Nisbet, 1st Vice-Prest. 

Satnl. O. Black, 2nd Vice-Prest. Campbell Douglass, Treasurer. 
Robert M. Gordon, Secretary. 

1874. 

There was no election of officers November 30, 1874, except Treasurer. On 22nd 
December, 1874, all the officers resigned. 

1875-78. 
W. G. DeSaussure, President. Saml. C. Black, 1st Vice-Prest. 

Robt. D. Mure, 2nd Vice-Prest. Douglas Nisbet, Treasurer. 
Dr. H. W. DeSaussure, Secretary. 

1877. 

Same officers, with the exception of Treasurer, who had died. R. B. 
Dowie acting Treasurer. 

1S73-SG. 

W. G. DeSaussure, President. Robt. D. Mure, 1st Vice President. 

W; I. Middleton, 2nd Vice-Prest. R. B. Dowie, Treasurer.. 
IT. W. DeSaussure, Secretary. 

Same officers, except W. J. Middleton, resigned in 1883. 

1886-89. 

James Allan, President. A. S. Johnston, 1st Vice-President. 

John Paul, 2nd Vice-President. R. B. Dowie. Treasurer. 

Dr. H. W. DeSaussure, Secretary. 

1889-91. 

James Allan, President. A. S. Johnston, 1st Vice-President. 

Alex. W. Marshall, 2nd Vice.Prest. R. B. Dowie, Treasurer. 
Dr. H. W. DeSaussure, Secretary. 

1891-93. 

A. S. Johnston, President. Alex. W. Marshall, 1st Vice-Prest. 

Dr. 11. \V. DeSaussure, 2d Vice-Prest. E. B. Dowie, Treasurer. 
J. Alex. Gordon, Secretary. 

1S93. 

Alexander W. Marshall, President, H. W, DeSaussure, M. D. 1st V. Pres. 
F. G. Latham, 2d Vice-President. Robert B. Dowie, Treasurer. 
J.Alexander Gordon, Secretary. 



292 Ajypendix to Year Book. 

1694-1895. 

Alex. W. Marshall, President. II. W. DeSaussure, M. 1). 1st V. Prest. 

F. G. Latham, 2nd Vice-President. Robert B. Dowie, Treasurer. 

J. Alexander Gordon, Secretary. Rev. Robt. Wilson, D. D.Chaplain. 

And thus this historic and valued Society spans over a cen- 
tury and a half of existence. 

The mere calling of the roll makes the blood tingle in our 
veins, and pictures of the past and present loom up before us. 

We see hallowed names written high on fame's immortal 
pages— the warrior, the statesman, the legal light, the healer 
of the ills that flesh is heir to, the comforter at the bedside, 
when the angel of death hovers near, the man of business, the 
honorably titled, and the laborer in all the fields of life. A 
mighty galaxy of men. 

If out of the shades of the past, where all do sleep so peace- 
fully, their life work ended, with the "well done, thou good 
and faithful servant'' inscribed to their memory, might we be 
permitted for a moment to stand at the grave of one, and re- 
call to life, with bowed head and abated breath, him, who, in 
the words of another, "has written his .name on the brightest 
pages of the history of his country," whence " it will pass 
down with increasing lustre to the latest posterity, and 
while men love freedom and talk of Thermopylae, and Mara- 
thon, and Bannockburn, the battle of "Fort Moultrie will never 
be forgotten." Yes ; Moultrie was not born to die, a hero 
among heroes, time hath no chains to bind him. 

We would fail in our duty were we not to call to mind the 
names of two of our members, now long since dead, but whose 
offerings to mankind still remain with us, a perpetual remem- 
brance of the generous hearts that prompted their noble gifts. 
McKenzie and Shirras. 

McKenzie — Although we have been unsuccessful in our 
search to find what McKenzie's bequest to Charleston was, yet 
we must not permit his name to go down to oblivion, and 
particularly so when his gift has been so emphasized by our 
Society's historian, who, in his address above, so often alluded 
to, says : "The legacy of our McKenzie is believed to have 
been the first liberal donation given here to promote the cause 
of science and literature." 



St Andrew^s 'Society. . 293 

/Shirras. — The Shirras Dispensary is known to us all. In 
1810 Mr. Alexander Shirras, by will, left property in trust, to 
be used to assist the physicians of the city who worked among 
the poor, saying that it was his desire "to mitigate the suffer- 
ings of the distressed, ease the inhabitants and assist the 
medical gentlemen in their humane intentions." 

In 1813 City Council by ordinance honored the donation 
and the Shirras Dispensary was established. On the tablet 
now erected over the entrance of the new building in Society 
Street are these words : " Heal the sick — freely ye have re- 
ceived, freely give." Who could wish a fairer crown ? Many 
a tear has been wiped away, many a smiling face, with upturn- 
ed eye, has called him blessed. 

His remains lie in St. Michael's Churchyard, and the in- 
scription to his memory reads thus : 

"Consecrated to Alexander Shirras, a native of Old Deer 
Aberdeen Shire, Scotland, and for thirty years a respectable 
merchant of this city, who died the 26th day of October, 1811, 
aged 58 years, with an improved mind and a benevolent 
heart, distinguished foi' integrity and punctuality, liberal to 
the unfortunate, charitable to the distressed, beneficent through 
life to all within the sphere of his influence. He acquired and 
retained the esteem and respect of all who knew him. Accu- 
mulated by his honorable industry an independent fortune, and 
at his death rendered his goodness permanent by bequeathing, 
among various generous donations, a considerable part of his 
well-earned wealth to found and endow The Shirras Dispen- 
sary. The munificent institution which he has established, 
the poor, the afflicted and the unhappy of future ages, who 
may enjoy the benefits of his bounty, shall perpetuate and 
bless his memory." 

The past is ended, the present is upon us. 

The history of the Society shows that it has always been in 
the keeping of faithful, progressive and eminently worthy of- 
ficers. And we note in passing that the Presidential chair is 
now filled by one whose untiring services are most valuable to 
its "present members, the number and efficiency of whom have 
been lately greatly increased. 



294 Appendix to Year Book. 

Old customs are being revived, games and amusements in- 
troduced, the social features advanced, the festive hoard, with 
a large family gathered around it, is the personification of life 
itself, and unity and happiness are the watchwords. 

In our long life many vicissitudes have overtaken us, we 
have been "stormed at by shot and shell," again, swept 'by a 
liquid flame of fire that ran from river to river, destroying 
our Hall, and a large part of the city. In 1886 the very earth 
reeled to and fro, and seemed to be yawning beneath us, and 
ruin stalked around. In 1885, and particularly in 1893, the 
deafening roar of the tempest told of death and destruction in 
its wake, the raging winds heaving up the waters of the broad 
and turbulent ocean, as if to engulf us, Yet ! " The eye of 
God shone through," and He that ruleth the tempest said, 
"Peace.be still," and to-day we stand, with scars and wounds 
healed, with a steadily increasing membership, with funds 
sufficient to enable us to help some of the deserving poor 
among us, should we not be grateful and give thanks to the 
Giver of all good things ? 

Long may the old Society live and prosper, may her joy be 
perpetual ! 

"We'll take a cup o' kindness yet 
For Auld Lang Syne." 



295' 



FRAGMENT 



OF A 



JOURNAI 



KEPT BY THE 



Rev, William Tennent 

Describing his Journey, in 1775, to Upper South 
Carolina at the request of the 

COUNCIL OF SAFETY, 

To induce the Tories to sign an Association to sup- 
port the cause of the Colonists. 

Printed for the City Year Book of 1894 from an authentic copy in the 

possession of 

DR. WJVI. L,. BROWN 

a descendant. 



0< 



96 Apjiendix to Year Booh. 



A Fragment or a Journal Kept by the Key. William 
Tennent, who was sent in Conjunction with Mr. Dray- 
ton, by the Committee of Safety to the Upper Coun- 
try of South Carolina, to Induce the Tories There, 
to Sign an Association, not to B far Arms Against, but 
for the Country. 

August 2d, 1775, at 6 A. M. — Set out with Mr. Drayton, in 
a chaise' from Charleston, arrived at Mr. Henry Middleton's 
Plantation at Goose Creek in Company with the Rev. Mr. 

Ellington and reached Mr. Thomas Broughton's Miles, 

W..B. Met about forty Catawba Indians at the Quarter House 
on their way to town. 3d. Set out at 6 in the morning, dined 
at -Martin's Tavern, and reached Capt. Flood's, thirty miles. 
The night spent no ways agreeably, owing to the noise of a 
maniac, occasionally there. 4th. Finding that matters were 
not in the best posture in this county, owing to the dissatis- 
faction of Mr. T g, set out at half after five o'clock to 

breakfast with him. An opening for service seeming to 
present, we staid to dine and had such conversation as 

will probably change his opinion. Arrived at Col. T 's 

at half-past 7 in .the evening. Yesterday we had to ex- 
change a horse, which turns out to be a very good one, 
though poor in flesh, performs well. The Colonel not at 
home, but his absence softened by an agreeable family. I had 
a sick and sleepless night, owing to some green corn eat 

at Mr. G 's. 5th. Set out a little after G, and by the help 

of Mr. Thompson's good pair of horses, passed over sixteen 
miles of the worst road I almost ever saw, owing to the 
steepness of the hills, and the gullies made by yesterday's 
shower of rain. Dined at Air. Patrick's, a man of property 
amoii£ the Dutch, and afterwards rode with him seven miles. 
Arrived at Col. Chestnut's paymaster and there found Col . 

. ? with sundry officers of the regiment. Among others 

was agreeably surprised to find Dr. Charlton, from Phila- 
delphia, a lieutenant, among them. We were soon intro- 
duced to Messrs. Dunn & Booth, two lawyers sent from 



Journal Kept by Rev. William Tennenl. 297 

North Carolina, prisoners, for having boon busy in stirring 
up there in opposition to the Continent. They appear sen- 
sible and plausible men. After making known our errand to 
the Commanding Officer, we consulted with him and con- 
cluded to send the prisoners by a detachment to Charleston 
to the general committee informing them of the time of 
the Congress in North Carolina, to disband the Rangers 
for a few days, to take off the fears of the people. Sun- 
day, August 6th. Preached in Camp at Col. ■ in 

the evening. Finding some disaffected among the soldiers 
Mr. Drayton harrangued them and was followed by myself 
until all seemed well satisfied, and we returned to Mr. Chest- 
nut's 2 miles. About midnight were alarmed by an officer 
from the Camp, who informed us, that they had mutined and 
were determined to go oil in the morning, we agreed to let 
matters rest until they ordered the Companies to come to us. 

Monday, 7th. Discovered that the Mutiny arose from 
some words dropped by some officers concerning their pay 
and duty. We dealt plainly with the Corps of Officers, and 
addressed the men at the head of the "Regiment in such 
a manner as that they all went away happy. Slept badly 
this night. 

Tuesday 8th. Spent the morning in preparing matters, to 
get people together in different parts of the district, crossed 
Congaree River and rode 5 miles to an election for the Con- 
gress, when they refused to proceed, unless we should en- 
lighten them. We found the persons had come a great 
way to oppose the election. Harrangued the meeting in 
turns, until every man was convinced, and the greatest opposer 
signed the Association and begged pardon for the words he 
had spoken to the people. Returned and found that Major 
Mason had come. jN". B, This morning about 11 o'clock 
sent off Lieutenant Dutargue with the prisoners to Charles- 
ton, charged with our despatches. 

Wednesday 9th. Left here about 7, met a Company of 
Militia and liarrangued them. -They signed the Association 
and generally promised to meet Mr. Drayton in the Fork. 
After the Meeting I gained over in private the most 



298 Appendix to Year Rook. 

obstinate. Mr. Kershaw now came to us. Major James 
Mason came through from 96, and gave many melancholy 
accounts. Having agreed upon our route, we separated and 
I rode four miles to Mr. Beard's on the Bank of the Saluda, 
a romantic situation. Col. Richardson accompanies me. r 

Thursday August 10th. Crossed Saluda River early in the 
morning and traversed the Fork, in that place about 4 miles 
wide, and at the Ford called Fuss' Ford on Broad River met 
our Guide. The Ford is very shallow at present, and pre- 
sents a strange, rocky prospect. Crossed at' an old Dutch- 
man's who was said to have influence over many. There 
met with some disaffected men, who became converts by 
proper arguments, and to confirm them that the new bills 
were good gave them gold for them. Reached Capt. Wood- 
ward's of the Rangers after Sun Down, an honest man who 
informed that his company had universally signed. Slept 
badly after riding thirty miles. Riding on horseback fatigues 
me much. 

Friday, August 11th. Preached this day according to ap- 
pointment at Jackson's Creek Meeting House, where we met 
a pretty large congregation. A.ftcr sermon harrangued the 
meeting an hour on the state of the country. Some of the 
most sensible were the most refractory I had met with, obsti- 
nately fixed against the proceedings of the colony. After 
much pains brought over the chiefs, and from the greatest 

confusion brought all Capt. -— *'s company cheerfully to 

subscribe the Association. After a fatiguing but successful 
day rode 5 miles to Mr. Allison's on our way to Rocky Creek. 
He seems an active and prudent member of Congress, as well 
as a sensible magistrate. 

Saturday, August 12th, Detained by shoeing our horse 
until afternoon. We spent our time in writing and sending 
despatches. Finding that a part of Col. Xeal's regiment 
lay contiguous to Mr. Sim's Tavern on Sandy River, 
we determined on a meeting next day, and sent letters 
to Captains Martin and Richard Sadler, as also to 
Mr. Simpson all on Fishing Creek, to meet us at the 
above place and despatched an express to them 50 miles. Rode 



Journal Kept by Rev. William Tennent. 299 

this evening in the rain 12 miles to Mr. Donald's on Rocky 
Creek. 

Sunday, August 13th. Travelled 5 miles to Rocky Creek 
Meeting House and met some hundreds of the inhabitants. 
Preached on Mark 4 and 20 and after Sermon making an 
apology for the necessity of treating on the subject of my 
Mission on the Lord's Day. Harrangued at large, was sup- 
ported by Col. Richardson. The heat almost melted me, but 
had the pleasure to see all the people eagerly sign the Asso- 
ciation, fully convinced of the necessity of it. Rode 10 miles 
in the evening through the rain to Captain — — -. If we 
can stand this we need fear nothing, but the inclemency of the 
skies was not to be compared to the fury of the inhabitants of 
the Bed. After a sleepless and wet night, I was shocked by 
the blood and slaughter of my callicoed shirt and sheets in 
the morning. 

Monday, August 14th. The morning being rainy we spent 
the time in laying the foundation for a Company of Volunteer 
Rangers to serve on horse wrote a solemn agreement and a 
recommendation to the District in favor of it. Robert Alli- 
son, Esq., undertook to enlist and swear an hundred men to 
be ready at a moment's warning and to be at the command of 
the Council of Safety. Enlisted three more Volunteer Com- 
panies, at which the ministerial heroes were much chagrined, 
but there was no recall. Spent the remainder of the day and 
evening in rallying and desultory talk with a collection of the 
most staunch of FletchaPs friends. (The Pamphlet sent up 
by the Governor has done . much damage here. It is at pres- 
ent their Gospel. It seems as though nothing could be done 
here, as they have industriously taught the people that no 
man from Charleston can speak the truth and that all the pa- 
pers arc full of lies.) Some angry discourse between Brown 
and JDrayton sent us to bed. 

Friday, 19th. Capt. Polk now came. We find that he has 
laid under some mistake as to his duty. He accompanied me 
and the Revd. Mr. Alexander to a Meeting, found the people 
just parting, called them together and harrangued them an 
hour. One of Fletchal's Captains and many of his men seem 



£00 Appendix to Year Book. 

convinced and cry out upon the lies that have been told them 
and are ready to sign the Association. Eode to Mr. Alexan- 
der's and in the way crossed Talbot's Ferry on Broad River 
20 miles above the Fishdam Ford, am now but 23 miles from 
Sim's Tavern, when 1 saw the <1- Companies. Have rode to- 
day about 23 miles. 

Saturday, 20th. — Wrote a letter to Mrs. Tennent and one 
upon an important subject to the Council of Safety, and set 
off at half after eight for King Creek, to a muster of Captain 
Robert McAfeis's Company. After a hard and rough ride of 
twenty miles, in which crossed King Creek at a beautiful 
rocky ford, found about one hundred people assembled, 
among whom were some of the most obstinate opposers of- the 
Congress, spoke to the people at large on the state of America. 
They seemed much affected towards the close, but afterwards 
aided by two gainsaying Baptist preachers, they all refused to 
sign the Association but ten. After their refusal, which pro- 
ceeded from the grossest ignorance and prejudice, spoke again 
to their heads, who, upon reviewing the charge, seemed quite 
softened, and only asked a little time. They proposed to ob- 
tain some powder to defend themselves from the Indians, who 
were troublesome, told them it- was impossible, knew they 
would not use it properly, told them as soon as they would 
associate and let me know it, we would try to do' something 
for them This, I hope, will have its influence. Parted and 
crossed the end of King's Mountain about dusk and rode 

fifteen miles to Col. Polk on where we arrived at half 

after eight, having travelled in all thirty-eight miles. This 
has been a hard day's work.. 

Sunday, 21st August. — Went five miles to Beersheba 
Meeting House, found assembled a large body of people, in- 
deed. Preached from Romans 5-5, afterwards spoke largely 
upon the public affairs. The people seemed entirely satisfied, 
and signed the Association almost universally. This I hope 
will bring over Col. — '■ — 's Regiment, let his intentions he 
what they will. Travelled -ten miles, being much fatigued, to 
Captain Beers' on Bullock Creek ; lodged there, rested badly, 
although most kindly entertained. 



Journal Kept by Rev. William Tenncnt. 301 

Monday, 22nd. — Gave Mr. Beers a form of enlistment for 
Volunteer Rangers. Wrote to Col. Polk in Mecklenburg and 
to Charleston. Set out and rode thirteen miles (crossing 
Broad River at Smith's Ford) to a Meeting House at Mr. 
Alexander's on Thicketty, where I found him preaching to a 
crowd of people assembled to meet me. When he had done, I 
mounted the pulpit and spoke near two hours. There were 
present some of the most heated of Major Robinson's friends, 
his wife and others, two Captains, viz : Stern and Coleman. 
The people seemed convinced, and after writing an Associa- 
tion from memory, refreshed myself and drank out of a cow 
bell. Thev signed the Association and retired, seeming con- 
tented. Captain Stern invited me home, Find that he is 
entirely taken off from a most horrid scheme carrying on here. 

Tuesday, 23rd August. — In conversation with Captain 
Stem, he seems fully convinced and ready to sign the Asso- 
ciation. After affectionate assurances, parted, and rode three 
miles to Godeloek's, where met with Messrs. Muchels and Ad- 
dison. After some conversation, rode to Captain Coleman's, 
found him halting, with what he had heard yesterday, took 
pains and convinced him of the ruin of the Boston Charter, 
and left him in a fair way. Went to Captain Plumers for 

lodging, found him a strong friend of Col. ■, honest and 

open, reasoned with him, and before bed-time fully convinced 
him of the justice of our cause and engaged him to a muster 
seventeen miles. 

Wednesday, 24.-th. — Went eighteen miles to the general 
muster at Mr. Ford's at Enoree. We found that the Cap- 
tains had dissuaded their people from coming and met only 
about two hundred and seventy men. The gang of leaders were 
there, all double armed with pistols. Mr. Drayton began to 
harrangue them and was answered in a most scurrillous man- 
ner by Kirkland, when Mr. Drayton interrupted him and a 
terrible riot seemed on the point of happening. This seems 
to have been preconcerted, but the disgust against Kirkland. 
appearing so universal and people pressing on, the matter 
was quashed. I replied to Kirkland. and went at large into the 
argument, had a most solemn and impressive discourse of an 



302 Appendix to Year .Booh. 

hour and quarter. Kirkland remained, but the people mostly 
retired and left only a small circle. He was left by Brown to 
a smaller still, who read the pamphlet and dilated on it. In 
the meantime those who remained began to sign the Associa- 
tion and the greater number appeared convinced, even those 
that did not sign. Many seemed very spirited in the cause of 
America, but a dark design appears to sit upon the brow of 
the Leaders and the Party. The boldness with which we spoke 
seemed to dampen their spirits and the people are of the 
opinion that the opposition will weaken fast. Mr. Drayton 
and I having been long apart, now agreed upon our route and 
proceedings, and set out to-morrow towards Ninety-six. 
Parted from Mr. Drayton, who went to visit a fall of water 
and on his return is to meet a large Cornpan} T at a horse race, 
to-morrow at Duncan's Creek. Forded Enoree River and 
rode 20 miles. Met with several hard showers and directed 
by Mr. John Downee, a Magistrate, arrived in the evening 
at Mr. James Williams, one of the Committee, an honest and 
liberal man, who lives in the midst of Cunningham's Com- 
pany. Was kindly received and better entertained since I left 
the Congarees. Met with the Rev. James Cressweli, Minister 
of Ninety-Six, and this place. Met with the greater part of Mr. 
Pobert Cunningham's Company and two of his Officers in a 
large congregation at the Meeting House, one mile and a half 
from Mr. William's on Little River. Preached to a laro'e and 
concerned audience. After a short intermission, spoke two 
hours and a half upon the subject of my Mission to the most 
fixed People that I have ever yet seen. This is the centre of 
the opposition in this Regiment. Therefore, finding that I 
had catched the attention of the sober and judicious, I spared 
no pains to convince them, and at the close made a solemn pro- 
posal to them to send some men (whom they could trust) to 
me at Charleston, promised them safe conduct, and that they 
should be fully satisfied by all the original papers, I con- 
jured them by all that was sacred that they would not give 
themselves up to be the dupes of ministerial artifice, or the in- 
struments of opposition and slavery, and by God's help so 
touched their minds, that the greater part of. them clustered 



Journal Kept by Rev. William Tennent 303 

around me afterwards and wanted to hear more. Many of 
them seemed much shocked, some declared themselves con- 
vinced, others went away silent, a few very angry. C 's 

Lieutenant and Ensign seemed worthy men, they came home 
with me, and appeared much moved with some papers which 
were read. In short, it would seem that the force of violence 
is broke here. Appointed a sermon for Mr. Hart in this 
place next Tuesday, which hope will fix the matter. Mr, 
Drayton joined us in the evening with Major Terry. 

This day contented ourselves with going to the Be v. Mr. 
James CresswelFs, only 7 miles, spent the evening pleasantly 
with the good people and young Mr. Taylor from Virginia, 
who seemed much engaged in the cause that he got the 
promise of a commission if nothing prevent. 

Went 8 miles to Ninety-Six, put up at Mr. More's. In our 
way crossed Saluda at Mr. CresswelFs Ferry and Wilson?s 
Creek at Pearson's Mill. The fresh was so high, as that we 
were obliged to put the chaise into a flat and crossed the Mill 
Pond, had a considerable Meeting. Preached from Kehe. 
2-3rd. . Mr. Drayton harrangued them and was followed by 
me. The Audience appeared fully convinced, and as I learned 
there remained not one who had not subscribed before that 
did not subscribe now. Met with messengers from Long 
Cane, who came to solicit us to go thither, agreed with them 
on Meetings in different parts of the District. "Were alarmed 
in the night by a messenger to inform us that the wife of 
Major James Mason was drowned in crossing Wilson's Creek 
on her return from Sermon. 

Major Williamson met us in the morning, and after proper 
agreements, parted. Mr. Drayton for Augusta, Mr. Tennent 
to cross Saluda, on his way to a Meeting at Captain James 
Lindsay's in the worst part of FletchaPs Eegiment. Intended 
for Patrick Cunningham's, but was stopped by the rain. 
Lodged at Mr. Cresswell's, attempted once more to Lindley's, 
but only reached James Pollard's, a worthy Virginian lately 
settled here. The waters are too high to pass, and are rising 
constantly. With great reluctance, I am compelled to disap- 
point a congregation. That a day might not be lost, concluded 



304 Appendix to Year Booh. 

to go to little River Meeting House, -where Mr. Hart had ap- 
pointed a Sermon. With some difficulty got thither, heard a 

good Sermon, concluded with touch of the times, and now 
think it providential that we came here, as some opposers had 
collected, who would have brow beat Mr. Hart, Took the 
Storm upon myself and did some good. Returned to James 
Williams, there wrote letters and lodged, having rode this day 
about IS miles. Mr. Williams was so kind as to offer me his 
saddle horse, that mine might stay and recruit with him. Left 
there early in the morning and halted at the Rev. Mr. Cress- 
well's, Crossed Saluda and rude to dinner with Major Terry, 
having swam our horses at two Creeks, with much danger at 
one of them of losing our horses. Conversed plainly with the 
Major, and have reason to think, he is firm in the cause of 
America. He is now become Captain of a Volunteer Com- 
pany. He accompanied me in the afternoon and evening on 
my way, was benighted, and was obliged to put up at one 
Wilson's, having rode 36 miles, part in the rain. Slept upon 
a broken clay floor, all wet, the wind and damp blowing in 
upon me. Passed a bad night, 

Went to a meeting appointed last week in the Long Cane 
Creek in Boonsborough at one of Mr. Harris's preaching 
sheds. Preached and in the midst of the sermon, had the 
pleasure to see Mr. Hart arrive. After sermon spoke as usual 
on the subject of my Mission, was seconded by Mr. Harris 
and Mr. Salvador to good effect. Returned to Mr. Reed's, 
the congregation was solemn and effected. Mr. Calhoun and 
other gentlemen returned with me and spent the evening on 
the subjects fit for the times. 

Passed 12 miles this day. Slept at Mr. Reed's. Finding 
the necessity of ammunition in this place great, and several 
Volunteer Companies formed, engaged Capt. Reed to send 
down. Wrote to the Council of Safety and gave the necessary 
orders. Met with a certain Mr. Ross, who had been greatly 
disaffected. . He confessed he was convinced yesterday, and 
the greater part of Captain's Smith's Company also, who he 
believed would join us. He proposed an Association for them 
on oath, but somewhat different from ours. A thing I 



Journal Kept by Rev. William Tenncnt. 805 

could not agree to. I find the people here agreeing fast and 
ready to obey commands. Set off with Mr. Harris for his 
house, passed by Mr. Bowie's, crossed Little Eiver. The land 
here appears extremely fine, arrived at our Quarters at Sun- 
down 1(5 miles. Found good Mrs. Harris down with the ague, 
as mure or less of every family seems to be in this quarter. 
Could not help observing' the difference between the health of 
this district and that between Broad and Catawba Rivers. 

Studied a sermon in the morning and went and went — miles 
to Bull Town Meeting House, which is about 15 miles to 
Bull Town Meeting House from the Indian Line, The As- 
sembly was the most crowded that I have seen. Preached 
extempore with more ease and freedom than common. The 
people though mostly opposers, appeared very affectionate. 
Finding tham willing to hear, I gave them a discourse upon 
the American dispute, of near three hours. I think I was 
more animated and demonstrative than usual. Its effect was 
very visible. The people holding a profound silence for more 
than a minute after I was done. A certain Justice Ander- 
son, who formerly a friend to American freedom, but receiv- 
ing the magic touch from the other side of the River, sudden- 
ly changed his note and by every artful effort and method, 
has since disaffected his acquaintance. This man arose and' in 
a smooth and plausible way objected to the Association. I 
answered him with as much clearness as I was able. The 
people seemed satisfied and many of those who had signed 
Fletchalls Association, now subscribed ours. This day, it is 
hoped, has put an end to the strength of discord in this Regi- 
ment. Returned to Mr, Harris, took there an affidavit, and 
receiving by express a message from Mr. Drayton, resolved 
to disappoint the Meeting to-morrow, and to lodge this night 
at Patrick Calhoun's, Esq., 10 miles distant, accompanied him 
home, having rode this day 18 or 20 miles. Wrote dispatches 
for my horses to meet me at Augusta, and had a restless 
night. 

Started early in the morning and by half after eight was at 
Fort Charlotte, having missed our way and rode not less than 
15 miles. The rains of last night have made the streams swell 
20 



30fi Appendix to Year- Book. 

greatly. Crossed Little River in a most romantic place at 
Hutchinson's Mills. This country affords the greatest num- 
ber of fine falls for mills than I have ever seen. The soil is 
rich, and the best foundation seems to be laid by nature for 
manufacturers that can be cor ceiVed. Here is stone sufficient 
for all the purposes of building and yet the ploughing of the 
land is not much impeded by them. 

Being very wet when I reached the Fort, had a good fire 
kindled, washed my feet with rum, and took every precaution 
to avoid a cold. Surveyed the Fortification, Magazine, Stores, 
Ordinances and barracks and find that this place, though much 
out of repair, is still capable of good defence. It is a large 
square with good bastions at each corner, so constructed as to 
be able to work 10 cannon. The wall is of stone about 10 
feet in height, with loop holes to fight musketry. The plat- 
forms have not been made as yet but are soon to be finished. 
The barracks are able to lodge 200 men. The Officers' 
building, the Armory and its offices are not despicable. It 
has a good well within and its gate is of strong plank. In 
short I consider this Post as very commanding, and of the 
last importance in the present cause. Gave orders therefore 
for completing its repair, mounting the guns, disposing of the 
ammunition, (fee., cfec. Sent for Capt. Whitfield and consult- 
ed him about cutting away his corn, ordered the horses to be 
sent out of the way of danger, reviewed the soldiers and the 
militia, discoursed with them on the goodness of their cause. 
After proper exhortations, which they seemed to take very 
kindly, prayed with them and took my leave, accompanied 
by Lieut. Cowan to his house 8 miles on the same side of the 
River. Anxiety of mind on account of the madness of the 
opponents of Liberty, robbed me of sleep until the break of 
day. Arose with the early dawn and took a guide and cross- 
ed Savannah River at Cowan's Ferry. The River swell- 
ing much by the rains, was on the Georgia side before sun- 
rise. Rode hard and crossed a wood to avoid a place, where 
an ambuscade was suspected, crossed Little River with great 
difficulty. My guide falling with his horse into the rapid 
current, lost his saddle and/was in some danger. Fording the 



Journal Kept by Rev. William Tennent. 307 

Rivers and some showers wet me exceedingly, wbicli with an 

empty stomach, made me feel badly before we reached the 
Inn. It was nearly 10 o'clock before we broke our fast. 
Met with one of the King's men as they are absurdly called, 
from whom I learned that they expected a Meeting on 
Wednesday, of all their comrades on the banks of the Savan- 
nah, about 20 miles above Augusta, from which and sundry 
circumstances it appears that they mean some stroke. Ar- 
rived at Mr. Rug's at Augusta at J- an hour's sun, having 
rode -17 miles, some say 55, left the horses there and 
crossed the River at Capt. Hammond's. Found his house 
forted in, and a large body of Militia there ready to move 
with Mr. Drayton. This is one of the most lofty and fine 
situations I have seen since I came to this Colony. The River 
lies beneath him and a sounding fall before his door. Navi- 
gation is clear to this place, and with £1,000 sterling, I would 
undertake to clear it near 100 miles further up. Consulted 
with Mr. Drayton, and found on a discovery of the intention 
of Kirkland and the others to embody on Wednesday and go 
upon some enterprise, he had ordered the Regiment of horse 
to march and the Militia, in all, to the amount of one thou- 
sand effective men. We agreed upon the necessary move- 
ments and I consented to make the best of my way to 
Charleston to lay a state of the whole matter before the Coun- 
cil of Safety. The two hundred men, that are now here are 
the quota that Georgia sends under our commanding officer. 
Slept at Hammond's. 

My chaise aiid horses not yet come from Ninety-Six, begin 
to fear some accident, Spent the day with Mr. Drayton at 
Mr- Hammonds', crossed in the evening to Augusta to the 
house of Mrs. Barnet, the relict, of Col. Earnet, deceased, 
was genteelly received and treated by Mr. Goodion ; distance 
from Mr. Hammond's, 4 miles. 

Wrote letters and rode to Mr. John Walters to dine ; on 
the way, the horse taking fright, ran away with Mr. George 
Walton and myself, but Providence so ordered, that the road, 
being fine, after we had been carried with the greatest rapidity 
and danger near a mile and a half, the horse was stopped. 



308 Appendix to Year Book, 

After dinner, as we were about to return to Augusta, another 
horse being in the chaise, we had not proceeded forty steps 
before he took fright also, and ran of! with great vio- 
lence ; the rein breaking we could not direct him, and the wheel 
soon taking a log we were thrown out and the chaise broken 
in pieces. Through God's goodness I received only a small 
hurt on my hip. Mr. Walton was so bruised that I thought 
it best to bleed him and put him to bed. I then accepted a 
sole chair and went to Augusta ; rode this day 18 miles only. 
My chair not yet come, makes me conclude that some miscar- 
riage has happened, and find it necessary to send an express 
to Ninety-Six. This evening our little detachment of 200 
men marched about eight miles to Foxes Creek, having news 
that Major Williamson was on his way to 96, and Col. Thomp- 
son in full march with the Rangers and Militia to join them. 

Wrote letters and despatched a negro man with the horses 
for Mr. Williams on the North of Saluda, with orders for my 
chaise and horses. Went 10 miles to new Savannah, where I 
had appointed a meeting of inhabitants in hopes to draw an 
audience out of Augusta from Mrs. Golphin's settlement and 
Beech Island. But most of the men having marched with 
Mr. Drayton, and Mr. Golphin being from home, I had but 
few. To these few I thought it worth while to speak largely, 
as there were three non-associationists among them. Dined 
and returned to Augusta, in all 20 miles. Was alarmed by 
intelligence that two of Mr. Drayton's men had been killed 
after a short march. Sent to inquire into the report but could 
not find the certainty. Another report came into town, that 
Ivirkland with a large party, was about 25 miles up the river at 
a Ford, and intended to take advantage of the absence of the 
men to attack this place. Determining to make one in the de- 
fence of the town, went with speed to Wilson's Fort. They were 
greatly alarmed at our coming, and received us with guns all pre- 
pared. After finding their mistake we were admitted, and had 
not been there ten minutes before another rapping at the gates 
again alarmed the Fortification, but in a minute was agreeably 
surprised to find that it was Mr. Taylor from Saluda, who, not 
being able to obtain any safe hand to bring my carriage,had trav- 



Journal Kepi by Rev. William Tennent. 309 

eled at the. least 48 miles to bring it to me, although he ex- 
pected to be ambuscaded. He accordingly saw and conversed 
with some men, who seemed to be placed for that purpose, but 
they let him pass after calling him sundry times by my name. 

I find this young gentleman possessed of much cool bravery 
and manly sense. He had missed the army on his way/ by 
going tlie lower road. By a letter with him and by word of 
mouth, I received the joyful news of Gen. Gage's defeat, and 
of the recovery of Boston from the hands of the British Pri- 
vates. The discourse he had with Cunningham confirms me 
in the belief of the extent of Lord William's conspiracy. Af- 
ter arranging matters and agreeing upon a signal, returned to 
Mrs. Barnett's Fort, and found they had loaded 13 muskets 
for service, and were preparing to repel an attack. Thank 
God I slept safely and soundly. Every valuable house in Au- 
gusta is surrounded by a strong wooden fortification, formed 
of three inch plank in deep grooves of upright posts, not 
less than 10 or 12 high. These forts are differently con- 
structed, some have large strong pentagonal Flankers at each 
corner, in which from 20 to 4.0 men each may fight. The 
Flankers have two stories, and on the upper floor are mounted 
a number of three pounders. Others have demi- flankers pro- 
jected from the middle of each side to answer the same pur- 
pose. These buildings serve in time of peace for Chair 
houses and other offices, but in war render the inhabitants se- 
cure in the midst of savages. 

Friday, 8th. — Contented myself- with riding only 9 miles 
on my way to Charleston. Was accompanied by Mr. George 
Walton, and Mr. Taylor. On our way met an express 
from Savannah, who brought letters to Mr. Walton from the 
Council. of -Safety, Avhich I wish I had never seen. Satur- 
day, 9th. — Set out about 8 o'clock, after many civilities, from 
Mr. John Walton, whose plantation is I think the finest I 
ever saw in the article of soil. Crossed Briar Creek in a flat, 
Where it is not more than 35 yards wide. This shows 
the want of Public Spirit in this Colony. Five men 
would build a bridge over this stream in a fortnight. The 
Courthouse on this road is laughable. It is a building of 



310 Appendix to Year Book. 

about 25 by 16 feet, a pen of logs covered with clapboards. 
Before it towers an oaken Liberty Pole with a tattered flag at 
its head. After riding 27 miles put up at Lambert's Tavern. 
This man had tried an experiment lately on three of his 
wagon horses ; it succeeded so well that the buzzards are hard 
at business. Had it happened one month sooner, or had lie 
had the wit to know beforehand that three dead horses arc 
capable of perfuming the air at more than a hundred yards 
distance, I should not have had the amusement I am like to 
have all this night, but every man is not an Apollo. I find it 
better to laugh than to be always snarling at the weakness 
of mankind. I must forget that this day, finding myself 
sleepy on the road, I took the liberty to stop my horses on the 
King's Highway and take a nap in the carriage. I hope his 
Majesty will not be persuaded to get an Act of Parliament 
passed to constitute this treason. 

Sunday, 10th September, 1775. Having no opportunity 
for the worship of God in a country destitute of the least 
form of religion and no time to warn a meeting, and indeed 
not being happy where I was, 1 concluded it best to spend the 
day on the road. Dined at Nicholas Tavern, where, to a very 
bad dinner, were added the oaths and execrations of as de- 
testable a crew as horse thieves in general are, was glad to get 
away, and pushed hard to get to a Mr. Hudson's, about 42 
miles. With difficulty reached it, as my horses began to 
weaken much. Found his house on a high biufl of Savannah 
Eiver, for ted in by Palisades ; on one side you have a rough 
and agreeable view of the Iliver and the lands of South Caro- 
lina, on the other you have a broken prospect of woods and 
fields. The building is tolerably good and the people kind. 
Here wrote letters to the Council of Safety in Savannah, giv- 
ing them the most interesting intelligence. 

Monday, 11th. Set out early for the ferry at the Two Sis- 
ters, reached Fritchland's between 9 and 10 o'clock. He ad- 
vised that the waters were high, but that I might pass. I since 
found that his intention was to convince me by finding it im- 
possible ; that even in so low a Fresh, Mr. Williamson's Ferry 
was not good. He succeeded in the unkind experiment, for 



Journal Kept by Rev. William TennenL 31J 

in addition' to much difficulty I had nearly drowned my best 
horse, and was glad to return to the house. He now kindly 
offered to set me over gratis. I accepted it and undertook, as 
there was no extra hand, to steer the fiat up against the stream, 
but in my life never endured more burning heat of the sun. 
I stripped to my shirt and labored hard for four hours to gain 
but one mile. Got to the ferry house much spent, and after 
a little refreshment threw myself on a bed and slept. Awoke 
in a sweat much relieved by it. My friends would have smiled 
to see my repast and the figure I cut in eating it. Fried pork 
and milk was a dish to which necessity gave a high relish. It 
was in the night before I reached the widow Allison's. It is 
an easy matter to write novels if a .man travels and describes 
nothing more than the truth. The world -is full of variety 
and you meet with such comical animals upon the face of it 
that to paint well is sufficient to interest a reader. At the 
tavern found a recruiting Officer and some newly enlisted Sol- 
diers. But — hold — I have other business to do than to write 
everything I see and hear. I slept well thank God, and got 
once more into my carriage on the morrow. 

Tuesday, 12th. But to my unspeakable mortification per- 
ceived that my two best horses were foundered by getting 
into the corn field last night, hobbled along with the greatest 
difficulty to Coosaw Bridge. Was informed by Mr. DeSaus- 
sure that there was to be a meeting of the officers of Beaufort 
Regiment at Vanlubber's Tavern, where I might be furnished 
with horses. Concluded to stay and dine with them. - In the 
meantime met with the unfortunate Dr. David Gould, whose 
narration was truly affecting. Was very politely treated by 
Col. Bull and others. Horses were found me at the first word. 
After much conversation on interesting matters rode to my 
plantation. This day's jaunt was only 20 miles. 

Wednesday, 13th. Found matters in good order at the 
Plantation, but my horses so poor as not to permit of my tak- 
ing one of them with me ; gave the necessary orders in my 
own affairs and rode in the evening to Dr. Budds', S miles. 
Found there Mr DeSaussure and Dr. Gould, by whom I was 
informed of the unmanly manner in which a certain doctor 



312 Appendix to Year Book. 

had ordered the horse he had lent me out of my chaise. Mr. 
Hamilton's coining relieved me of my difficulty by promising 
me horses in the morning. 

Thursday, 14th. My horses were so entirely weakened that 
with difficulty they dragged me to Arthur Middleton's Plan- 
tation, where fresh horses met me : with only one small dis- 
aster reached Mr. James Skirving's to dinner. He politely 
offered me horses to town, and with a pair of them got to Mr. 
Tobee's in the evening, having rode about 30 miles. 

Friday, 15th September, 1775. Set out in the rain and 
rode this day through the greatest quantity of water that I 
remember ever to have seen, met with some small difficulties, 
but had them all compensated by the joy of my dear family 
and friends on my safe arrival. 



A LETTER FROM CAROLINA IN 171 5, 



AND 



JOURNAL 



OF 



The March of the Carolinians into the 

CHEROKEE MOUNTAINS, 



IN THE 



Yemassee Indian War. 
1715-16. 



FROM THE ORIGINAL 



MS. 



PREPARED FOR PUBLICATION BY 

LANGDON CI I EVES, Esq. 



A Letter from Carolina in 1715. 315 



PREFACE. 



This Journal of the march to the Cherokees belonged to Col. George 
Chicken, came from his son to the Ball family, and from the late Keat- 
ing S. Ball, of" Coming Tee," to Miss Ann S. Deas, by whose kind per- 
mission it is now published. The Letter is from Columbia. 

The Journal of 16 pages stitched together is addressed on the outside 
leaf" To Mr. Bruonfon-in Charles Town- These," and below is scrib- 
bled "Geor; Excused Seruc;" It is endorsed in pencil "I credit Capt. 
Geo. Chicken with this journal. W. J. Ball, 1874." Miss Deas says. 
"It is not known by whom this fragment of a journal was written. 
The letters and the part relating to the negotiations with the Indians 
(p. 12 to 19 and 22) is believed to be in Col. George Chicken's hand- 
writing, as it closely resembles that in an old Latin dictionary which 
belonged to him." The rest may be another hand or his in a careless 
and hasty private diary. 

Col George Chicken was, I believe, a Scotchman. A man of infor- 
mation and parts, and of great energy and courage. He came to Caro- 
lina about the year 1700- Was first in Charleston 1 and served perhaps 
in its defence against the Spaniards. About 1707 he married Mistress 
Catherine Bellam^y, widow of Mr. Thomas Bellamy, of St. James Goose 
Creek, established large plantations there and became a successful 
planter and a man of substance and influence. 2 , a Justice of the Peace 
and member of the Assembly. In 1712 he was captain 3 in the militia 
and as an adventurous explorer and trader among the Indians, had some 
experience in war and woodcraft before the Yemassee outbreak. We 
do not know whether in that dreadful time he marched with Craven 
and fought the Yemassees at Salkahatchie, or gathered forces and 
ranged the frontiers against the Northern Indians. But when "our 
men, exhausted by long marches in the woods," were defeated near 
the Eutaws and massacred at SchenckinghsFort "and the enemy were 
ravaging in all directions" Capt: Chicken, with the Goose Creek militia, 
met and attacked them (June 13, 1715) in the swamps about Wassa- 
masaw, and after a long action drove them back into the wilderness 
and checked the onslaught on the North as Craven had in the South. 
For the next three months he was busy organizing forces and covering 
the frontiers, and finally inarched with this expedition into the wilds 
of the Cherokees In 1717 Col: Chicken was appointed of Governor Dan- 
iell's Council, and next year one of the Judges to try Steed Bonnet, the 



1. In 1701 as ex'or of Chas. Gouring, late of Charleston, deed. Pro: Court. 3A A 
10. Index 29.) 

2. Goose Creek assessmt: Capt Arthur Middleton £4,003. Capt. Da. Daris £3,238 
James Kin loch £2,419, Capt. George Chicken £1,820, Ac. 



316 Appendix to Year Book 

pirate, but was not included in Governor Johnson's Council. In J 719 he 
was colonel of the Berkley Regiment and co-operated with his neigh- 
bours, Moore, Middleton, Kmloch and the rest "to free themselves from 
the Proprietors and get under the King's government," and after that 
successful revolution was one of Gov. Moore's Council. In 1721 Col. 
Bull, Col. Herbert and himself were appointed Gomrs of Indian Af- 
fairs, \ and in 1724 he succeeded Hon. James Moore as sole agent", and 
he, Thomas Broughton,<John Fenwicke and others were recommended 
by Gov. Nicholson ,4 as gentlemen fit to be of the Council." In this 
same year Col: Chicken visited and held a great talk with the Creek 
Indians, and in 1725 (on threatened trouble with the French) he was 
sent by Gov: Middleton among the Cherokees to keep them steady to 
the English. In this he was successful and continued Sole Agent of 
Indian Affairs and Inspector of Garrisons to the time of his death. 
(AA 3. 273.) He presented to the Parish of St. James the land for the 
Chapel of Ease (in which he probably lies buried) and was named by 
James Child, a trustee of the College School of Childsbury. The peaceful 
life of founding chapels and visiting colleges, of hisquiet home and nar- 
row rice fields, of rides and visits to friends and meetings with the 
country side at Church, Musters, Sporting Clubs or Deer Hunts, varied 
by days or weeks in Charlestown on business of his plantation or of 
the Province, in the Assembly or the Council, was in strange contrast 
to the wild excitements of campaigning or exploring in the mysterious 
forests, of journeyings day after day along the narrow trading paths 
thro' howling wildernesses to the distant tribes of the Chattahoochee or 
the Yazoo, or of ranging the woods with hunting or war parties of 
bloodthirsty savages, sharing in camp and field their life of ceaseless 
vigilance and peril, or standing against them in the smoke of battle. 
After such life long in vicissitude and adventure Col. Chicken died 
in middle age early in the year 1727. 2 Having served his country 
well in peace and war. 

His wife survived him and died in 1740, He left three sons, George, 
William 3 and Thomas, and two daughters, Frances m'd Nathl Snow, 
3r. and Catherine m'd Noe Serre, of St. James Santee, Esq. 4 . 

George Chicken (his heir) lived at the Goose Creek place, but owned 
large plantations at Santee also. (In 1735 he offers for sale 1,000 acres 

1. AA 3. 141, He and his friend, Col. Herbert, were in Charlestown together in 
July, 1722, and August, 1723. 

2. Adminn of estate of George Chicken of Goose Creek, Esq: lately died intes- 
tate granted by Govr Middleton to Catherine Chicken, widow. And wart, to 
Col John Herbert, capt Wni Dry, capt Benj. Waring and Mr Jno Ouldfield ap- 
praisers. April 27, 1727. (Pro: Court.) 

3. William Chicken lived in 1711 at Back River afterward at Santee and was 
of the Vestry there 1757. He maul. Elizabeth, widow Chovin and died 1777 leav- 
ing a son Thomas and daughter Catherine (who mard. 1778 Andrew Dewees.) 

4. Noe Serre died 1745. devising to his wife her father's Goosecreek plantation. 
She married Dr David Caw, and 1750 settled these lands on her son, Thos. Caw. 
with remainder to her childreu, Mary, Judith and Noah Serre, and then her 
brothers, William and Thomas Chicken. (MOOBkW.W.) 



A Letter from Carolina in 1715. 317- 3 H 

there with houses, barns and "as good an orchard of fruit trees as any 
in the Province.'') He sold the Goose Creek plantation in 174:5 to Mr. 
Serre, removed to one at Back River, and died at Childsbury in 174G, 
leaving his wife, Lydia, and friends Geo. Seaman and JEtichd. .Singleton 
exors, and his estate (then much impaired) to his children, George and 
Mary, by his first wife, "esteeming his youngest daughter. Catherine, 
sufficiently provided for by her mother's settlement.'' His widow', 
Lydia, married (in 1 748) Elias Ball, of "Coming Tee." (Thus the Jour- 
nal came to his family) and died April 1, 1705. Her daughter. Cathe- 
rine Chicken, was the heroine of the old tradition and of the pathetic 
story of "Little Miss Chicken," which reveals it to us. 1 

1. Her lift- was not all pathos, however. Henry Laurens writes November 9, 
1748, "off the Scilly Isles" of Miss Chicken, one of their gay party, bound for 
England aboard the "Charming Nancy." Her uncle, Dr. Caw, by his will 1753, 
gives ''unto Miss Catherine Chicken, now living in my house, £190 yearly for 
seveu years for her maintenance -aud education," and before the seven years 
past she married (Sept. 27, 17G1 ) Benjamin Simons, jr. of St. Thomas I'arisb. 



A Letter from Carolina in 1715. 319 



LETTER FROM A GENTLEMAN IN CHARLES TOWN 
■TO THE CAROLINA AGENTS IN LONDON. * 



B. P. E. 0. Props B. T. Vol 10 2. m. 

Charles Town July 19, 1715 

Gknt'n • 

I believe the misfortune that befel Capt Barker 2 was 
before you went hence, by winch He lost 27 men, and some 
time after the Garrison at Scbinkins Fort 3 commanded 
by one Redwood was foolishly betray'd by credulity of said 
Captain who listning too much to the insinuations of making 
Peace disarmed his own men, and suffered the Indians to 
come amongst them, who taking the Opportunity drew out 
their knives & Tomahacks from under their eloaths and 
knock'd 22 of Our men on the head, burnt and plundered 
the Garrison but Some time after Cap'n Chicken maich'd 
from the Ponds 4 with 120 men and understanding that 
they were got to a Plantation about 4 miles distant marched 
thither devided his men into three parties, two of which he 
Ordered to March in part to Surround them, and in part to 
prevent their Flight into an adjacent Swamp but before the. 
Said party could arrive to the post designed them, two 
Indians belonging to the Enemy Scouting down to the 
Place, where Captain Chicken lay in ambuscade, he was 

1 This letter is supposed to be from George Rodd Esq. (atty 
general of the Province 1716) to Joseph Boone and Richard Beresford 
Esqs, agents of the Province in London. 

2 Capt. Thomas Barker of Goosecreek & 90 horsemen, were by 
the treachery of an Indian guide, led into an ambuscade above the 
Eutaws, and after a sharp fight, being entangled in the swamps & 
Capt Barker and many killed, were defeated. (Ramsay S. C. 2. p. 549.) 

:! Schenckingh's Fort, afterwards Izards, on a bluff of San tee 
River above the canal. 

-*Near the head of Ashley River now called Sehutz's lakes. 



320 Appendix to Year Booh. 

obliged for fear of Discover)' to shoot them down, and im- 
mediately fell upon the bod}', routed them and as is supposed 
killed about 40 besides their wounded they carried away, 
took two Prisoners and released 4 white men, as I remem- 
ber they had kept alive of those of Schinkins Garrison. The 
white Prisoners informed Us that the Night before the 
Chiroquese to the Number of about 70 understanding that 
of their Nation were Sent by the Gov'r to make Peace went 
away with Steven Fords Son another taken at Said Garrison 
to their own Towns, Since which We have not heard any- 
thing of the Indians from any quarter, tis supposed they 
are gone home with design to come down with a greater 
force, and to make further aliances. 

Last week arrived here the Valeur 1 Cap: Santle from Vir- 
ginia with 160 Small arms 10 barrels of Powder and 25 
casks of Shott and Saturday last Cap'n Middleton 2 arrived 
frome the same place with 120 white men; The Gov'r 
Spots-wood 3 has been very cordial and Assisting to Us in Our 
Extremities having taken a great deal of Pains to send us 
•these men, and promises to assist Us with more if there be 
Occasion, which We have desired him to send Us: We 
have assured him in Our Letter that We will write to you, to 
acquaint the Sec'ry of State therewith, That he may have his 
approbation and acknowledgem't. he has writ us Several 
Letters of which he has Sent Us Copies to the Several Gov- 
ernors of North America in Our favour pathetically moving 
them to Our Assistance. 

We have an Account by way of Rhode Island that the 
Success 4 Man of War is coming hither with 500 Arms, By 



1 H M Ship Valour, Capt : St. Loe, just arrived on the Virginia 
Station to relieve the Success & sent by Gov Spotswood with arms 
to Carolina (Spot : Lets : 2. p. 107. 119. 126.) 

2 Hon : Arthur Middleton of the Council sent Commissioner to 
Virginia for aid. Afterwards President Convention 1710 & Governor 
of the Province. 1725. 30. 

3 Col : Alex : Spotswood, Governor of Virginia 1712, 1722. See Lets. 
* II M Ship Success capt: .Meade., on Virginia Station, sent by 

Gov: Spotswood in March with paeqiiets for Carolina & arrived there 
just at time of Indian outbreak (Spot : let : 2. Jo7. 126.) 



A Letter from Carolina in 1715, 321 

Letter from North Carolina We arc advised that Maur ; 
Moor 1 was to March the 1.0th of this Month with 00 Whites 
and 60 Indians to Our Assistance and proposed to he at 
Cape fear about the 17th and Cap. Seriven 2 of Winyaw Gar- 
rison has Sent a Periago to Cape fear to joyn him & with 
the said Periago to ferry the Horse over that River. The 
Governor 3 Marched Yesterday from the Ponds for Col: 
Broughtons 4 with about 100 White Men & 100 Negroes & 
Indians with a design to pass Zantee River to meet and 
joyn Col : Moor & then make Some Attempt upon the Nor- 
thern Indians. 

I am very much surprized when I consider the barbarous 
Usage Mr. Craven has met with from the Lords Proprietors, 
That they should favour* that person with the most Valu- 
able Place under their Donation, that openly & daily 
affronts & writes against the Gov : That they should Strip 
him of all the Valuable perquisites of his Government and 
a fiord no more than 200£ a Year hardly worth 50£ Stirling 
to Support the State and Grandeur of a Gov: and that to a 
person of his Birth and quality. They are indeed very 
Generous Gentlemen, not a Shoemaker or any mean Trades- 
man but what can earn that money. I have a Carpenter 



* This means Parson Johnson as appears by other Paragraphs 
left out of this Extract. 5 

'Col. Maurice Moore of Cape Fear, Son of Gov, James Moore 
served in the Tusearora war under his brother " the General'' and 
now led the N C forces to aid S. Carolina. 

2 Capt Robert Screven of Winyah, son of Rev. Win, Screven, tax 
conir ; 1716. 1719 died 1732 (ZZ. 202) 

3 Hon Charles Craven, brother to Lord Craven, the Palatine. Ap- 
pointed Governor 1712. On the Yemassees outbreak he led the Caro- 
linians and defeated the Indians in a severe battle at the Salka- 
bafchie. He returned to England April 25, 1716, leaving Col. Dan- 
iel!, as Governor. He was reappointed Governor in 1736. but did not 
act and died in England in 1754. 

4 Col : Thos Brougbtons plantation near Moncks corner. 

5 Rev : Dr. Gideon Johnston Rector of St. Philips & Commissary of 
the Bishop of London in Carolina. He was drowned when taking 
leave of Gov : Craven 16 april 1716 at the very sand bank he had 
been wrecked on at his arrival in 1707. [CaroH £. 56$.) 

21 



322 Appendix to Year Book. 

now at work with mo to whom I give 15 s <$ diem victuals 
and drink. 

Missing the opportunity of Cap ; Harwood I am now to 
the 24th of August and have further to informe you, That 
about a Month Since the Apalatchee and other Southern 
Indians came down on New London and destroy'd all the 
Plantations on the Way, besides my Lady Blakes, Falls, 
Col : Evans 1 and Several others and have also burnt Mr. 
Boons Plantations 2 & the ship he was building. The crops 
thank God are still pretty good. The Grov ; at that Instant 
had marched the Army to Zantee however he returned 
back on the first Notice, upon his approach the Indians fled 
over Ponpon Bridge and burnt it having killed 4 or 5 
White Men, We have not since heard from them only that 
they chaced the Whale Boat with Six Periagoes filled with 
Men, Cap; Stone was thereupon Sent with Six Periagoes 
and J 00 Men to Port Royal where he has cutt off Six Canoes 
of the Enemy and drove them into the woods. 3 

The Northern Indians have not since appeared against 
Us and We are in hopes, the Cheroquese will be Our 
Friends, We have no news of the two Indians formerly 
Sent up to them, however Eleazer Wiggin 5 & another 
Indian Trader have undertaken with two Indians more to 
go to the Cheroquese with design to persuade them to be 
for Us and fall upon the Euchees. Apalatchees & Yamasees. 6 

1 Plantations on Wadmalaw River, of Elizabeth day : of Land- 
grave Axtell & widow of Joseph Blake late Proprietor, Landgrave 
and Governor of the Province She died 1736. and of Maj : Arthur 
Hall, member assembly 1716. 1720. died 1732 & Toogodoo plantation 
of Col: Abraham Eve. member assembly 1706-1720. Died 1723 leav- 
ing said plantation to his wife Hannah & nephew Wm. Eve. 

2 Pro'by Downa island of Joseph Boone Esq: (son of Thomas 
Boone of London mercht : <k Sarah his wife) md Anne widow of 
John Alexander Esq ; Died at Mt. Boone Feb. 24. 1734.5. 

4 Perhaps " Dattassee fight, 1715" near Hilton Head island. 
Spottswood writes 'while the Governor and all the forces of his Gov- 
ernment were on an expedition to the northward about 700 Indians 
fell upon the Southern Parts of the Province & destroyed all before 
them within a few miles from Charlestown ; but the forces from 
here arriving just at that time immediately marched met with and 
defeated yt body of Indians (vol. 2;p- 131. ISO) 

5 See pp • 6 Appendix 1, 3, 4. 



A Letter from Carolina in 1715. 323 

They undertook this dangerous Voyage upon the prom- 
ise of 500c€ each if they effect the business and were paid 
50£ apiece. TIiq Success Man of War is arrived with 
500 Arms and Since the above 30 Men more are arrived from 
Virginia about 80 Whites and 60 Indians from North Car- 
olina. We now have the Assembly Sitting and an Act v is 
passed for payment of the Forces that are to be raised, and 
those arrived from Virginia and North Carolina. There's 
to.be a Lieut. General, a Col : Lieut, Col : and Majors, 600 
Whites inhabitants to be raised to be Commanded by Cap- 
tains of Sixties and 400 Negroes likewise to be divided into 
Companies of Sixties Commanded each by a Captain and 
Lieut. 

Mr. K J as I am informed is a Gentl'n bred up 

at St. Germains and as I suppose with Col : Rhett 2 used to 
pay a great deal of Respect to Sacheverals Picture in the 
Colonels Hall. 

Col: Broiud)ton 3 has writ home to Colonel Johnson 4 I 
believe it advisable you should consult together. 1 am 
afraid of Stewartizing this Letter, therefore shall conclude 
&e. ■-,... 



1 William Keith, Surveyor general of the Customs in America 
Afterwards Knighted & Governor of Pennsylvania 1717, 1726. June 
15. 1715 Mr. Keith sailed from Jamaica in a small sloop for S Caro- 
lina where he arrived the 30th and notwithstanding the war with 
the Indians was at its greatest height put the whole business of the 
Customs in order ; (S. C. Hist col ; 2. p. 227.) 

2 Hon : Win. Rhett, Collector of Customs & Receiver General and 
Speaker of the Commons 1715. 

3 Hon: Thomas Brotighton of Mulberry, Colonel of Berkley County 
Regm't served under Sir Nath: Johnson at the Spanish attack on 
Charlestown 1706, Member of the Council 1702 to 1711 when he con- 
tested the Governorship with Robert Gibbes, Speakei of the Commons 
1716. Reappointed to the Council 1717 Lieut: Governor Oct: 1730 
and Governor 3 May 1735 to his death 22 Nov: 1737. 

'i Col. Robert Johnson, afterwards Governor. 



Appendix to Year Book. 

THE JOURNAL. 



[Endorsed] To Mr BRUONTON 1 

in Charlestown 

November ye 27 ] These 

Sunday. J this day I leaft my own House 2 and 

came to Boochshawe 3 to Corll Mors : Moor from thence 
wee weanfc to Church 4 after Church was done we went to 
Capt : Midletones 5 and dined with him after; dinner 
we seate oute tor ye Pondes in Compney with Capt : 
Smith 6 and Capt: Broughton 7 we came to ye pondes 
a bought 6 a Clocke att night. 

H'o\ Miles Brewton. who came to Charlestown 1684. Served long 
as Powder Receiver and in the Militia and the Assembly (which for 
years sat at his house) became an emenent Merchant and Banker 
& died there in July 1745 aged 70. 

2 Gol. Chicken's house was at the head of an avenue \- mile west of 
the Moncks' Corner road between the 22 & 23 mile posts. His plan- 
tation 1150 acres (known since 1787 as "Cedar Grove) " stretched 
from Groomsville to the Chapel and south to the 22-mile house. His 
neighbours were Hon. James Kinloch at " Grove Hall " Andrew 
Allen at " Thorogood " and Robert Plume on the South. 

3 " Boochawe House" on 1000 acres between Foster's and Goose 
Creeks. Home of Benj : Schenckingh Esq : Bought 1712 of 
Capt : David Davis. Part of 2,400 acres called "Boochawee" & 
" Wapensaw " granted 1GS0 to Gov : James Moore and left at his 
death 1706 to his eldest son James Moore (" the General " of this 
Journal) " who sold part to Davis and lived on 900 acres left. (s. of 
Mt, Holly) 

4 St James Goosecreek. The Rev. Francis LeJeau was Rector. 

5 Hon Arthur Middleton, at his Seat" the Oaks" near Goosecreek 
Bridge noted for its fine avenue of live oaks (said to have been 
planted by his father Hon. Edward Middleton and shewn on a 
plat of 1681) The House was burnt about 1810. 

6 Thomas Smith 3d son of Wm Smith Esq : (of the Council 1695,) & 
Elizabeth dau : of Bernard Schenckingh Esq: He lived near head 
of Fosters Creek & Boochawe House, was an active officer in this 
war & afterwards. Major Berkley RegintJ: 1710 Lieut: Colonel at his 
death 1724. 

3 Nathaniel Broughton Esq: eldest son of Gov. Broughton. Mem- 
ber of Assembly and held other offices. Succeeded liis father at Mul- 
berry Castle 1737, and died 1754,5. 



A Journal from Carolina in 1715. 325 

Monday j this day ye Gouerner came to ye ponds 

ye 28. / with severall of ye Towns Gentlemen att 4 
of ye Clock ye General! 1 came with som Gentlemen 
from Goose Cricke Majr Herbotte 2 came from Wasam- 
saw with ye North Carlona men and part of ye norrode 
[Virginia] forses 3 he was oreaded to marclie them over 
ye brige 4 and ther to in campe. 

Tuesday ) this day part of ye forses marcht to Edstoe 5 
ye 2\). ) with (Jorll Mor : Moor to geatt over ye Biuer. 

1 Hon James Moore, the conqueror of the Tusearoras. Eldest -son of 
Gov ; James Moore (of the Apaliachee wars) He, Middleton, Fen- 
wicke, Bull, Woodward & Cantey were in the Assembly together 
1700. He led the Carolina forces in the Tuscarora war 1713 and 
now against the Yemassees. He was afterwards a leader in the 
revolution of 1719 and Governor 1720 and then till his death 23 March 
1723.4 was Speaker of the Commons and sole agent of Indian affairs. 

2 Col. John Herbert. Served in the Tuscarora wars and had 
great experience in Indian affairs. Was com'r: in 1721 and 
sole agent from 1731 to his death (at his plantation on Goose Creek,) 
23 March 1733, when the Assembly in consideration of his services 
granted £500 to his children. "Herbert's Spring " the mngic 
" French waters " (but a mile from the Tugaloo yet ■ flowing into 
the Mississippi) to drink which made men mad (Adair p. 231) bore 
his name. 

•^Stationed at Wassamasaw during the fail to guard that frontier 
(The Tusearoras were Southward scouting against the Yemassees) 
The N. C. Council ordered [May 25, 1715,] 30 men under Col. Hast- 
ings and 50 more under Col. Moore with some Tuscarora Indians sent 

to S. Carolina (Vol. 2. p ) A plat of Prof : W. J. Rivers has " the 

line shews the way Col. Maurice Moore went in the year 1715 with 
the Forces sent from No : Carolina to the assistance of South Carolina. 
His march further continued from Fort Moore up Savano River 
near a n. w. course 150 mile to the Cherokee Indians who live 
amongst the mountains," His march is shewn from Newberne to jSTew 
River thence to Old Town on Cape Fear and along the sea 
beaches to Santee then across Cooper River at Biggin and up to St 
Julien's thence to Wassamasaw and on by the Ponds and Edisto 
garrison to Ft Moore and past the " Hogolegees" island. 

4 Slann's bridge over Ashly River near the Ponds. 

*The Edisto garrison, a stockade fort on the X. side of Edisto 
River just below the junction of Four Holes creek, one of the out 
garrisons in the fiercest part of the war. N. E. of it about where 
the Wassamasaw road crosses the heads of Cypress Swamp the In- 
dians were defeated by Col. Chicken, 13 June previous- 



326 Appendix to Year Booh. 

Wensday > This day ye Qouernor went to Town ye Gene- 
Ye 30 J rail and Cor'll Broughton went to Edstoe and 

lea ft me to Bring Capt: Cantys 1 Com pney along with me 
abought 2 a Clocke I left ye Ponds and about 5 gott to 
Edstoe and crost ye River where we incampt that night. 

Thursday ^ this day we marcht about 9 incampt about 
Ye 1st >3 in ye after noun [at] Scull swamp 2 
of Desember J marcht about 10 milles and seant scouttes. 



Friday \ this day we marcht about 8 milles and Incampt 
ye '2 /about noone Cor'll Fen wick 3 and som of ye 



/a) 

Southward Rigement joyned us. 4 



1 Capt. John Cantey of St Georges & Santee, Served in the Assem- 
bly and (with Capt: Wm: Cantey) fought the Spaniards in 1706 and 
afterwards the Tnscaroras. (In Col: Barnwell's war 1711 he led the 
Catawba Indians.) Was Tax Com'r 1715, 1716, 1717. 

2 The head of Scull creek. Perhaps scene of some Indian battle. 

5 Col. John Fen wick of the Colleton Regiment, Son of Robert 
Fenwicke Ksq. of Stanton Northumberland, came to Carolina about 
1705. Defeated the Spaniards at Hobcaw 1708. Was a considerable 
merchant & planter. Com'r Indian Affairs 1707, Member of Assem- 
bly 1706 & often afterwards and of the Council from 1730 to his death 
in 174G. When his son Hon Edw: Fenwicke succeeded him there. 

4 Here 2 pages have been torn out. Then comes in a different 

hand or pen the letter to Capt. Woodward (p ) then a blank page 

& 3 torn out and the rest of, the Journal written from the other end 
of the Book ''Sonday Dec'rye IS &c.' n The march was by the Savanna 
Town trail. From Goosecreek to Dorchester & the Ponds crossing 
the Ashly at Slanns bridge & the EdisteatGivham's ferry. Thence 
past the head of Scull swamp, near Red Bank P. O. by the head of 
Bear Branch, Millersville and Barnwell village to the Three Runs 
near Treadway then across the heads of Hollow Creek & Town Creek 
to Ft. Moore [Walker & Johnson's map] There Gen. Moore staid 
with Col. Fenwicke iu position to oppose or flank invaders from the 
Creeks or St Augustine and yet to support the forces sent under Col. 
Moore to the Cherokees. These were Brougbton's, Smiths, Daniells 
& Canteys companies of the Berkley Regm't, Bulls & Scotts of the 
Colleton, Herbert & Hastings No: Carolinians [Gorham's Virginians?] 
Pights & Fords companies of negroes & a few Indians and Ca-sar & 
the returning Cherokees. 



A Journal from Carolina in 1715. 327 

1715 

1715 Son day ^ We seatt out from Saunow Town 1 

Deaskmber ye IS land crosd one Creak e 2 up aboute 3 

day 13 mills 3 mille from Savnow Town and toucke 

up a boute 13 milles from } T e said plase. 

Ye 19 | This da}- we came abought 15 milles ye Rode 
ml 15 J verry mountenase and crost'a Cricke 3 by John 
Steueneses Cowe pen. I Recken wee lies over ageanst ye 
Hand where ye yovabes 4 lived ther was one sicar and a 
cowe and calfe kild. 

Ye 20 1 this day we seat out att 10 a Clocke and marched 
mlls 18 | till fovre in ye afternoun I judge ye quanty of 
milles to he 18 this days march. 

Ye Inclines kilde onedeare and ye white men one young 
Bolle and a cowe. 

There was 4 of Cap. Bull mean and one of Capt. Brough- 
tones mean was oute all night, 6 



1 Savaria Indian town (then Ft Moore a new frontier garrison) on 
a blufi of Savannah river (near Sand Bar Ferry) where the trail 
from Charlestown to the Apallachees crossed the river. For 30 years 
before & after until the rise of Augusta, a flourishing trading post. 

2 Horse creek. Camped north of Foxe's branch. 

J Stevens creek. The}' crossed near its, mouth & marched along 
the ridge between it and Savannah River, clearing the trail as they 
went. 

4 Vouches? Hugcbees or Hogolegees on an island in the Savan- 
nah, marked on Prof : River's map No. II: " Tohogoleas 30 men," 
& No III, " Hogologees deserted in 1715," when they retired to the 
west bank of the Chattahoochee [Henry County, Ala.] Camp about 
opposite Lloyd's creek. 

5 . Hon W.m Bull, eldest son of Hon Stephen Bull (Lord Prop'r 
Deputy). He was in the Commons 1704 ,1700, &c, Indian Com'r 1721, 
with Cols. Chicken c^ Herbert. With Gen'l Oglethorpe chose the site 
and laid out Savannah. Was Colonel & then Brigadier of the 
Provincial forces & com'r to the Six Nations 1751. Was of the Council 
from 1719, Lieut. Gov'r 1737,' and from 1737 to 1743 Governor of the 
Province. Born in Carolina 1683 ; Died at Sheldon March 21, 1755. 

6 Camp about Westcoats creek. 



A Journal from Carolina in 1715. 327 

1715 

1715 Sonday "j We seatt out from Saunow Town 1 

Deasember ye 18 Vand crosd one Creake 2 up aboute 3 

day 13 mills ) mille from Savnow Town and toucke 

up a boute 13 milles from ye said plase. 

Ye 19 | This day we came abought 15 milles ye Rode 
ml 15 j verry mountenase and crost a Cricke 3 by John 
Steueneses Co we pen. I Recken wee lies over ageanst ye 
Hand where ye yovabes 4 lived ther was one stear and a 
co we and calfe kild. 

Ye 20 ) Ibis day we seat out att 10 a Clocke and marched 
mlls 18 / till fovre in ye afternoun I judge ye quanty of 
milles to be 18 this days march. 

Ye Indines kilde onedeare and ye white men one young 
Bolle and a cowe. 

There was 4 of Cap. Bull 5 mean and one of Capt. Brough- 
tones mean was oute all night. 6 



1 Savana Indian town (then Ft Moore a new frontier garrison) on 
a blufi of Savannah river (near Sand Bar Ferry) where the trail 
from Charles town to the Apallachees crossed the river. For 30 years 
before & after until the rise of Augusta, a flourishing trading post. 

2 Horse creek. Camped north of Foxe's branch. 

J Stevens creek. They crossed near its. mouth & marched along 
the ridge between it and Savannah River, clearing the trail as they 
went. 

4 Touches? Hugchees or Hogolegees on an island in the Savan- 
nah, marked on Prof : River's map So. IT: " Tohogoleas 30 men," 
& No III, " Hogologees deserted in 1715," when they retired to the 
west bank of the Chattahoochee [Henry County, Ala.] Camp about 
opposite Lloyd's creek. 

5 . Hon Wm Bull, eldest son of Hon Stephen Bull (Lord Prop'r 
Deputy). He was in the Commons 1704 ,1706, &c, Indian Com'r 1721, 
with Cols. Chicken & Herbert. With Gen'l Oglethorpe chose the site 
and laid out Savannah. Was Colonel & then Brigadier of the 
Provincial forces & com'r to the Six Nations 1751. Was of the Council 
from 1719, Lieut. Oov'r 1737," and from 1737 to 1743 Governor of the 
Province. Born in Carolina 1683 ; Died at Sheldon March 21, 1755. 

6 Camp about Westeoats creek. 



328 Appendix to Year Book. 

Wendday I this day we seatt out att 10 of ye Clocke and 

Ye 21,4 f marched aboute 4 milles wee eroste a Crieke 1 
and touke up for foude for ye Horreses they having none 
ye night before, ye Indenes kild one deare ye white mean 
retorned this day as wee touck up. 

Thorsday v this day wee seate out halfe a nower after 9 

ye 22 > clocke and marched tell 2 in ye after noun 

mlls 14 J ye way verry hilly and stonny ye Indens 

kild 2 dcares and 2 Torkeys ye quanty of milles marched 

this day is 14 by judgmeant. Lost one horse. 2 

Fryday, -\ this day we marched for ye most part by ye 
ye 23d day y River 3 side ye way verry hilley and stonny 
Mlls 15. J we came by several! Islands in ye River we 
touke up by a crieke side that is callde Conow Crieke 4 this 
day we seat cute at 10 a Clocke and march : tell fowerin ye 
afternoon, ye quanty of milles that wee marched to day is 
15. Ye Indens killde 2 deares this day. 

Sat day v this day we seatt out from Connow Crieke wich 
ye 24 I we crost abought 10 a clocke seuerall of ower 
12. j men feall of ther horsses and was verry much 
wette itt being very steape one eiche side. We came up 
with a campe of ye Cherreykees that was a hontting wich 
had abondance of Barbyque venson wich they destrabeated 
very pi en t} T foil to ower mean this days march is about 12 
milles. 5 

Sonday » this day wee seat out att 10 a clocke and marched 
Ye 25 I 6 milles then came to ye River 6 where we were 
m. 6 ) to forde ouer, wich was uerry brode all most 

halfe a mille over and ye strime verry strong itt toucke sev- 

1 Little River near Mapleton. 2 Camp about Mount Carmel. 

3 Savannah River, 

4 Probably .Rocky River and not the creek 14 miles further up, now 
called Canoe Creek. 5 Camp about Moffettsville. 

6 Savannah River. The distances would make this crossing be- 
tween, the mouths of Little Generostee and Generostee Creeks, or 
perhaps Gray's shoa 1 . It could doubtless be located by one who knows 
the river. 



A Journal from Carolina in 1715. 329 

erall mean of ther liggesther was one man drowned He 
belonged to Capt : Smithes eomppney his namn was Daues a 
pipe mocker that lived with Mr Barksdall l we touke up 
by ye River side about 2 in ye after noun, itt was 1 a Clock e 
befor all ye armey was over ther was one clear killd as we 
touck up campe. 

Munday .) this day we seat out from ye River side 
ye 26 r and marched throwe preatty good land itt being 
Mlls 15 ) a Htta.ll hilly We crest one cricke 2 about 8 
milles from ye River side we seat out aboute 11 a clock and 
touck up att 4 in ye after noone this day we marched 15 
milles. 

Tusday ) this day we marched 12 milles it being verry 
ve 27 I Riney and Could itt frose as it fealle, we crost 2 
creakes this day and toucke up by ye Riversides ther was 
2 Indines meatt use with flower. 3 

Weaday ) this day wee marched 15 milles ye way verry 
ye 28 ) hilley we crost 4 creakes about 2 milles from 
ye Town called Tosey 4 [Tossee] we meatte severall Indines 
with flower for ye mean and som bread We toucke up this 
night by ye midail of ye Town, one ye side of a hill where 
a mesanger came to us from tugaloe and tould use that we 
most not come in with — aney Ride a bout use. 

Thoksday 1 This day we drewe up ower men and marched 

ye 29 J to tugaloe 5 where ye Indens meat us with 

ther Eigalles Talles and made their serimoneys 6 then come 

1 John Barksdale, of Christ Church, J. P. He died 1727. 

2 Cedar Creek. Camp near Lightwood Creek, 
8 Camp near Knox's Bridge. 

4 The lowest Cherokee town. On'S. side ofthe Savannah River at 
the junction ofthe Coweta and Tugaloo trails. 

5 Cherokee town, and afterwards English factory on N. side of Tuga- 
loo River (near Jarrett's Bridge.) 

r> hi their ceremonies of making peace the Indians invoke the holy 
name of Yo-he-wah, with many incantations, while their visitors 
drink the sacred eassena and the young warriors, painted with -white 
clay and crowned with swans down, dance before them, waving their 
large fans of eagles' tails, their emblems of Peace. {Adair, p. 167.) 



330 Appendix to Year Book. 

som ould men with black drinke 1 to give us when they 
Retorned back they tould us to march into ye Town they 
made [a] lane of there men to ye Round Howes 2 where ye 
Congyer 3 satt in State to Recive us after we toucke him by 
ye hand We stept back then he came and stode before us 
with his hands oupen to Recive ye 2 white fiages wich lie 
did then gave them to one of his men to scat one ye Tope 
of ye Round Howes when this all was done they brought 
us uitalles to eight. 

Fkyday 1 This day we had a meeting with ye Congger 
ye 30 j and Reast of ye head 'men ye discours we had 
with them was to know whether they would aseast us 
ageanst ower Enmies ore noe he tould us that he and ye 
Einglish was all one that he nore none of his men should 
ever fitte ageanst us aney more and as for } 7 e yemassees 4 
they wer his anchent peapall and that he would not fitte 
ageanst them and as for ye Crickes they hade excepted ye 
flag of trouce that was scant to them and had promesed to 
com down when wee came up then he was asked whether 
he would assiste us agenst ye norrode Indens he tould us 
they hade bein att Yerginey and ye gouernor 5 hade given 
them everry one a cotte and a gone and Blankeat and hade 
promased them a Trade and that they were all still and 



1 A decoction from "the famous Cassiny, whose admirable and in- 
comparable virtues are extolled by the French and Spanish writers — 
none among the Indians, but their great men and captains are ad- 
mitted to the use of this noble Bevaridge." Carroll 2, p. 70. 

• 2 The Council or State House* built of pallisades and usually raised 
on a mound. 

3 The Conjurer. So the traders called theliighPriests or great Medi- 
cine men of the Indians. The Cherokees entitled them "Cheera-ta- 
he-ge." "Possessed of the Divine fire.". (Adair, p. — J This Cliera- 
ke Hayge of Toogaloo, archi magus of the lower towns, was a firm 
friend of the English and greatly esteemed by them. (See Logan.) 

4 Usually supposed akin to the Muscogee. (Rivers, S. C. p. S8.'\ 

5 Gov: Spots wood. The Saraws had come July 1715 to sue for peace 
on behalf of two of the most powerful nations who had by mere acci- 
dent been drawn into the war & promised to cease all hostilities. (Let. 
tcrsZp. 129, 1S1) 



A Journal from Carolina iv 1715. 331 

queatt and would not come down aney more to fitteye Eng- 
lish, botte if they should then he would cotte them all of 
he allsoc laves ye Blame that was done by ye norrade' pea- 
pall to ye Wawwees 1 and seemes to cleare ye Cotabase 
[Catawbas] of itt he is willing to ware ageanst none botte 
ye Sauonose and yutsees and apolaches. [Savannahs, Eu 1 
chees and Apal laches.] 2 

Satterday 1 this day ye Congeror scant a miseag to ye 
ye 31 / Head men of ye Crick to come toSpiche with 

us consarning pice and to bring ye white prisners 
that is among them to us ye time that is sette for ther Retorn 
is 14 days he tould us that ther has been a white woman 
tacken seance we leaft ye settallment by Edstoe ore there 
aboutes and is carrideto ye Cricke by yeSannowes we allso 
are informd by ye Congerare that abought ye latter end of 
August last ther weant out 50 of ye Charrykeese to goe 
agenst ye Coeakeas 3 and about 4 day jorney down ye River 
meatt with severall Conowes wich they engaied : in ye fitte 
they killd 50 of ye Coeakees and 1G frinch men and toucke 
all ther women and cheldern slaves with abondnce. of goods 
that ye frinch was going to Trade with all among them. 

1715.16 -^ this day ye measengers was seant to ye 
Jenwary \ Saunow town to carry Letters to- ye Generll 
Sonday [to give him acounte of ouer porsedans heare 
ye first J aboute 12 a clocke Coll: Moore and 
maj'r Herbert with abought 24 men to goe to 
Chottee 4 to talke with the ye Head men of that plase and 
m arch t west about 5 milles to a Town called Tawcoe 5 
[Toccoa] a place newly settled by them from thense we 



1 Perhaps the Erioes & Keyauwees or Keeawawes (north of the 
Saraws) who were engaged in this war (iV.0 Rec 2 p. 243). 

2 Bee Appendix. II, III, IV. ' • 

3 Perhaps Kiokees or Keyokees. The Tennessee River is meant. 

4 Chote— Town of Refuge of the Lower Cherokees." 

5 Indian town on Toccoa river probably a little below the falls. 



332 Appendix to Year Book. 

roarcht about 15 milles farther to another Town called 
Sukehee 1 [Soquee] where we lay this night. 

Monday "1 this day continued our march west to an- 
ye 2 ) other Town, about 12 milles called Nocou- 

chee 2 ye way that we came is verry hill ey and stoney with seu- 
erall small Crickes wee stayed a littall from this Town untill 
ouer Company come up and ye Indians painted them sealues 
then wee marcht to a Town of peace adjoining to it called 
Chotte. whare wee was mett by ye head men of that place 
and most Towns from ye other sides of ye Ililles wdioe 
Recived us with a bondances of seri moneys as is use'll in 
there maekeing of peaces then went befor us into ther 
Round Howes fireing ther guns as wee w°nt up then thay 
with ther Eagles Talles* weant to danceing ye warriers of 
this Town Recivd ower fiaggs ye Red. and ye white and sett 
them up on ye Top of ther Round House in ye Eiuening 
majr. Harbert and sealfe weant to ye Round house where 
Ceaser 3 • was telling ye warriers and ye } r oung men all ye 
passages that past in ye setlmeant and his promeases to ye 
Gouner and ye nesseateas of going to warr, ageanst ye Creek 
Indines ye young men and ye warriers very Readely joyned 
with him and weant to call ye Resc of ther Compney to 
be gine ye warr dances bott was Interropted by seuerall of 
their quid men telling them seuerall reasons for them to 
desist att present bot ye yung men continued all night 
dancing. 

Tuesday > this clay we weant to meet ye Congurers 

ye 3 / and head men of this place who gave 

us 3 Letters from Mr. James Alford 4 att ye Chickesaws 

1 Indian town on Soquee river a few miles N. of Clarksville (proba- 
bly near "Ginas" where large Indian mounds exist). 

2 Nacouchee. In the lovely valley of that name. Qualatche, Chote & 
Nacooche were towns of the Cherokees on the head waters of the Chat- 
tahoochee. (Logan). 

3 Cseser of Chotte, a chief of the Overhill Cherokees- Returned 
from Charlestowo, whither he and other chiefs had been induced by 
Wiggan to go to make peace with the English. 

(*) a Chickasaw trader. Living in Berkle3 r Co. 1703.4. (AA 2,257.) 



A Journal from Carolina in 1715. 333 

one was directed to ye Gouemer one to Mr. John Wood- 
ward 1 and one to King James att ye Cherreykees ore to 
any white man if any should he thare the contents of them 
as below Corll: Moore not being will weant down to Tugo- 
low with Capt: Bull and Capt Canty and six men more. 
The Letter from ye Checksows infomes us that Mr West and 
John Dickson Jon: Moore and Jonathan that liveed with 
the Gouernor formly were all killd at Mr Dickson house 
by messingers that came from ye Cowetaws wich came 
in ye night ye white men and great beloued men of ye 
Checkesaws knew nothing of itt untall thay had killed 
them if they had they would have preuented them Mr 
Allford being att home in his own hows by God's proui- 
denee was saved alive with ye healpe of ) T e greatt men 
ther is allsoe one Owen Dauis wich was Mr Hughesis 2 
man alive with him Mr. Hughes was killed by 2 Span- 
yards goeing to pansokollahe desires mitly to have aanser 
from ye gouner : that ye hide men might come down to 
speacke with ye gouner: and to cipe ther frindship wich 
they hade bofore } T e frinch is dayly porswading the In- 
dines to cotte them of to geatt ye Checkswas wholly 
oner to them thay have gott ye Chaktowes ouer to them 
allridey.* 

( ] ) Col, John Woodward, eldest son of Dr. Henry Woodward (who 
was left by Sandford in 16(36 a hostage with the Indians & thus the 
first settler of S. Carolina.) An explorer and trader among the Indians 
& large planter. Served in the Assembly 1706, 3717, etc. Settled near 
Beaufort & was Colonel of the Granville County Regmt. mard. Eliz- 
beth, dan : of James Stanyarne Esq : Died at St. Helena Jan: 6 1725 

2 Price Hughes, Esq: ''one Mr Hughs, an English Gent: who had 
a particular fancy for rambling among the Indians, who (as I heard) 
was killed by some French Traders last war at one of the Chicasaw 
Indian Towns" [Spotswood let. 2 p. SSI) Mr Rivers map HI shews: 
" The course, of Esq: Hughs in summer 1714" (from the Alabama 
factory to tbe upper Choctaws) Thence " Esqr: Hughs course to Ft 
Lewis in 1715" (down W side of the Tombigbee and on to his death 
at fensaw.) "hereabouts Esq: Hughs wasmurthered by the Indians 
by order of the French." 



33-1 Appendix to Year Book. 

Ye discours of Cherry heague * of Cusauewaithee 

and reast of ye head men of Chotte and ye Towns from 
the farther parts of ye moun tans hee sayes seance ever he 
knowe a white man hee respected them and loued tiiem 
if ill was bott a boy of JO year ould — nor liee never had 
any thougt of anything as has happened there -was 2 
white men in his Town wich hee kept alive till such 
times as he thought all was ouer then went out a honi- 
ing and in his absence 2 of the habecaues 2 fellows came 
and • killd them in a shorte time after he heard of Mr 
. Wig-ens ¥ coming up but not being att home did not 
come [with] him but after came home he inquied what his 
men had done and when- lie had herd Mr Wigan was 
gon down with soe many people with him he was very 
thankful! and sead if he had bein in ye way he would 
have gon down himselfe and now is very glad to see 
his people com up again haveing Received that great 
kindness as the)" neuer had done befor and from this day 
hence forward houpe neuer to see ore here ye like again 
from Indcnes lett itt be what Town ore man it will that 
doth any mischief to ye English he shall be the first man 
that shall bee for ye cutting of them of. 
The reasons he giues that he has had from seuerall of the 
warres first breaking out was one Allexander Long 4 
Tuning away from Carolinay came up hear and tould 
theas pople that ye Einglish was goeing to macke warrs 

1 Great medicine man of Cusauwaiehee. 

2 Abequas a tribe of the Wn. Muscogee on the Tallapoosa above 
the Alabamas. 

3 Eleazer Wiggon, a trader at Savanatown & then among the 
Over-hill Cherokees. By the Governors direction in summer of 1715 
he. induced the Cherokees to sue for peace & had gone down to 
Charlestown with Gsesar and the rest and just returned. Pie was 
still a trader in 1733. 

4 About 1711 Alex: Long and Eleazer Wiggon traders at Chestowe 
a small Euchee town near Silver Bluff persuaded Gesar, Capt: Flint 
and other chiefs of the Over-hill Cherokees to raid it. The}'- secretly 
crossed the lower settlemts. & destroyed Chestowe and all its people. 
Long fearing punishment for this act tied the Province. Logan, 



A Journal from Carolina in 1715. 335 

with them and that they did design to kill all their head 

warders wich was ye reason he ran away and loued them 

and could not Induer to stay to see itt Likewise the same 

discours from Jon: Horwood x about a month or 6 weekes 

before ye war fell out, and then the Traders had ben 

uerry abusefull to them of latte and not as whitte men 

used to be to them formerly the same messagges as ye 

aforesaid whittemen had tould them of came from there 

frindl}' Indenes wich made then believe what the men said 

to be trew. 

this night about 9 a Clocke in ye round house ther wase a 
talke among all ye warrers ye discours was if ye Crickes 
did not come down 2 days after ye time sette for to com 
them then they would scand ye Ride Stacke [Red Stick] 
tli row the nashon and geatt all Ridey one a day to goe and 
fitte with ye English.* 

The heads of a Letter Directed to Capta: Jno. Yv 7 ood- 
ward by mr Jams Alford from ye Chickesaws. 

Mr West, Jno. Dickson, Jno Moore and Jonatha: that 
lived wth ye Governr: was all killed at Dickson's house by 
Cowetaws yt went up there unknown to ye Great and well 
beloved of ye Chickesaws untell ya had killed ym. 

but myselfe and Owen Davis, being at my own house 
was Protected by ye Great men who are civill to us waiting 
an answer from ye Governr. 

The bearors hereof are 2 Chickesaws yt are real true to 
ye English, and Great men amongst these People. 

They desire! me to write in humble obedience to ye 
Governr assureing yt ya knew nothing of ye Warr tell it 
was all done; and yt their desire is still to continue in 
freindship wth ye English. 

If yu Receive a favorable answer from ye Governr Some 
of their Great men will be ready to goe down to ye Eng- 
lish and settle a freindship wth ym and Protect myselfe and 
Owen Davis down. 



1 He lived at Goosecreek in 1713. a John Har wood was buried in 
Charlestosvii mar; 11J72S.9 



336 Appendix to Year Booh. 

The french are Terry buise in setting these People to 
knock us in ye head but as yet. can't Prevail nor I hope 
will not. 

Thay have brought over ye Choctaws to ym again The 
Chickesaws desires a wte man may be sent here to satisfye 
ym yt ye English are willing to continue freindship wth 
them." 

I hear yt Mr Hughs is killd by 2 Spaniards goeing to 
Pancicola. 

Weadnsday 1 this day majr Harbotte and Sclfe with 
ye 4 / Wigan and the Cherrykee haggea and 12 
whitte men more seatt out from Chottoe for tugaloo 
wee marcht 12 milles East and came to a town cald 
Suckhee [Soquee] where we touke up this night this Eive- 
ning was snowney this Town is settled by a Cricke that is 
a brinch of Chatteyhouchee River. 

Thorsday J this day wee seatte out from Succkhee 
ye 5 i tow wards Tugeloo and marcht all milles 
to a Town called Tawcoe and then we marcht 4 milles 
and came to Tugeloe whear we meat a Inden that came 
from ye Cricke he tould us that he meat ower mesanger 
that was going to ye Cricke, and that he was suere they 
would be kindly Recived by them that ye whole Talke of ye 
Kings and head men was for a pease with ye whitte men 
and would exceapt of ye first measeag that came from aney to 
them for pease hee saves thatallthe Yeamoesees are gone to 
Santaugusten exceapt the Tomatieys wich is att ye Cricke 
among them. 

Mr Alford. 

On Jan' y ye 3d I came to Chotee a small Town of the Char- 
rikees where I rec'd yor: Letters to ye Governr & Gapta: Wood- 
ward Dated ye 19th of Septembr last and am glad to hear 
you are alive, and because it would take so mch time to 
wait for an answer from ye Settlemt. I thought fitt to 
Dispatch away Jno Chester 1 to you wth this answer and 

1 Indian trader and Interpreter. He and Win. Hatto'n were assist- 
ant factors in the Nation in 1717, one at Keowee and the other at Tug- 
aloo. (Logan, p. 307.) He was employed in the Cherokecs 17:2-3. 



A Journal from Carolina in 1715. 337 

another to ye Great and well beloved men of ye Chickesaws. 

The sence and meaning of wch you are to comunicate to 
them in ye best manner yt you can. 

This calamity of Warr was first fomented by some of ye 
lower Creeke people but ye first stroke was given by ye 
Yamasees who are fled from their settlemt. 

I need not spend tirneingivemg you a pticulr. accot: of all* 
our Proceedings since ye Warr began because John Chester 
can doe it as well. 

However we have made Peace wth ye Charrikees and ex- 
pect ye head men of ye Creek here to goe down wth us to 
the Governmt: in order to make Peace So yt in all Proba- 
bility wee shall have a Peace wth all our Indians again in 
a little time and our Trade wth ym may flourish again as 
it has done in time Past. 

.1 send you this answer in ye behalfe of ye Governmt: 
fearing a Delay should Prove Dangerous. Considering how 
long it is since yo'r Letters were written. 

You would doe well if you could Possibly bring down 
wth you some of ye head men of ye Chactaws Albamas and 
Abequas ; So wishing you a Safe return to our settlemt. I 
remain yo'r &ca. 

Jany ye 5th 1715. 

To the Great and Well beloved men of the Chickesaws 

I being just now come to ye Charikees where I reed, yo'r 
Letter, by wch I understand yt some of our white People 
are alive amongst you, and that yu have had no hand in 
murdering those white People yt were killed* amongst 
you ; And yt you are yerry sorry for wt misfortunes has 
happened to our white People that were among you. And 
yt if you had foreseen ye mischief before it happened you 
would have Prevented it, and that it is yo'r Desire to live 
in freindship, and have a Peace continued with ye English 
Governmt: of South Carolina and have sent some of your 
great and well beloved men in order to seek for a Peace 
wth ye English. 

Therefore in ye behalf of ye Governmt: I send you Jno 
Chester wth vs: answer, to acquaint vou yt wee take it 

99 



3 OS Appendix to Year Book. 

verry kind and are verry well Pleasd to hear that you 
have saved our while men alive and are still incline! to 
have a Peace continued wth- ye English. 

I therefore advise that some of your Great and well he- 
loved men come down to ye English Governmt: wth our 
white People yt is amongst you and Jno Chester by way of 
ye Charrikees, for ye Charrikee Conjurer on ye farther side 
ye Hills will wait for yo'r coming there; and yn will goe 
down wth you to ye English Settlemt: in order to confirm 
ye freindship between us. 

And I doe assure you that ye English Governmt will 
kindly accept of yo'r freindsh'p and continue a Peace and 
Trade wth you, as wee have done formerly. 

The Charrikees are our friends and the head men of the 
Creeks are coming here to us in order to go down wth us 
to. ye English Governmt: to sue for a Peace and Trade wth 
us. 

So wishing you well I remain yos: &ca. 

Jany ye 5th 1715. 

Toogeroo at ye Charrikees. 

Friday 1 this day wee past away without aneything worth 
ye 6 J tacking notteses of. 

Satterday ) this day John Chastter was seant to the 
ye 7 / Cheaksays [Chickasaws] with Leatters to ye 
belovied men of that plase and one to Mr James Alford 
ye conttents of ye great mens Letter was to lett them know 
how will ye Einglish took itt that they had noe hand in 
killing of whitte men that was among them and did dessire 
them to com down with mr Allford and Chaster by ye way 
of ye Cherreykees in order to joyne ye head men of ye 
other side of ye Ililles to com down to tallke with ye Gou- 
neur and. to settall a trade as they youseed to have with ye 
English* 

Sunday 1 this day mr Wigan and Doctt: Conyers went 
ye 8 j to a Town called tohowee 1 abought 25 milles 

( : ) Tohowee or Tehoee, Cherokeeto wn opposite Toogaloo near 
the Sahvege 'river. 



A Journal from Carolina in 1715. 339 

from hence ther was a greatt ball play among the Indens 
this day, 

Munday "I this da} we past away without hearing aney 
ye 9 j nueSj ye latter part of ittwas Ranney and Could. 

Tuesday 
ye 10 



} 

1 thi 

/ Esl 
Wigan and Doctter Coneres came from toliowee. 



Weadnsday 1 this day ther was a greatt ball play att 
ye 11 / Esttohee 1 agenst ye peapl of Tugaloe Mr 



Thorsday V this day all ye Capts: were called togither 
ye 12. land Generall Moor orders wear Read over 
to them to have ther opean [opinion] of them in order 
to discours the head men of ye Cricke when they come 
to vs wich wee expeact euerry da) r . 

Friday \ this day Corll. Moor and Majr. Harbott weant 
ye 13 I to a Town about 5 millesfrom hence to see Capt. 
Fight 2 and ford itt being a plase where ye nigrous 
are quartered. In this Town was 2 Cricke fellows 
thattould Mr. Pightes Indens that they hard of an ar- 
mey that was coming out. of ye Settellment an Brirae 3 
scant out scoutes to discover us and to equate how manney 
wee were they say that they see us everry day and night bott 
could not tell how 7 manney wee were they say that they 
could have killd severall of us but Brimes bide them not 
to kille aney of us."' 

( ] ) Old Estatohe, the highest town of the lower Cherokees on 
the Toogaloo River. 

( 3 ) John Pight. In camp at Change. Commanding some In- 
dians and perhaps a negro Company. He had been in N. Carolina 
and owned lands there. Was a planter on S. side Goosecreek near 
" Totbili " and then an Indian trader. In 1717 was captain of Ran- 
gers at Ft Moor and Col. Maekey and himself were sent by the Coun- 
cil with peace messages to the Creeks and Cherokees. He died in 
1726.. Perhaps Stephen Ford, of Colleton County. 

( 3 ) Breem, Head Chief of the Moscogee. In July 1721 Auletta 
"eldest son of Breem Emperor of the Creek Indians" came to 
Charleston to hold a talk with Gov. Nicholson and make up their 
differences. 



310 Appendix to Year Book. 

Sattekdaj ) this day Majr. Harbotte is gone (o Tugloe to 

ye .13 fealle Capt. Smiths and Capt. Broughtons 

Comppneys togither for to see ther amies and amana- 

shou for fear they should macke way with aney of itt. 

Munday 1 this day ther come in 3 Indines frpm ye 
ye 16 J Sauanow Town wich sayes they leaft Corll. 
Hastings * and 4 more whitte men more with some In- 
dines ye night before last. 

Tuseday V this day Edward Catton s and 4 white men 
ye 17 J and 2 Indines v, 7 ere seant to ye Cricke pathe 
to see if they could meite with ye Crickes a coming, they 
were ordered to ride all this day and next day till night 
and if they could not see them then to Retorn Backe 
Corll. Hastings and 5 men came in from Savano Town 
with letters from the General! 

Weadnesday ) this day Majr. Harbot and I went to a 
ye 18 ) Town that is cald Chaghe 3 [Chauge] to 
see Capt. Pight that is quartered there with his men 
itt is about 5 miles from Tugaloe. 

Thoksday ) this day ye oferces were caled togither to con- 
ye Id ) cloude what methords to tacke to geiia ye 
other sides of ye hi lies pipeall to goe ageanst ye norad 



1 Col Theophilus Hustings was a trader among the Indians before 
1710 & the first chief agent at Savannah Town factory. Fought in the 
Tusearora wars and in June 1715 led from N. Carolina part of their 
forces. He was left with 50 men to act with the Cherokees against 
the Creeks. In 1716-17 he was agent at Tugaloo for the Cherokee trade. 
In Aug. 1717 the Council sent Col. Hastings and. Capt. Musgrove to 
the Southern Indians to treat for peace. Musgrove returned with a 
few Creek Chiefs but Hastings and others were held as hostages and 
were reported killed but escaped. He was an efficient officer, serv- 
ed as agent and linguist 1721 to 1725 and on some emergency among 
the Chickesaws was sent to reside among them. 

2 Edward Keating of Goosecreek. He mar'd Mary dau: of 
Wm, Norman and lived on 100 acres next Col Chicken. In Grand - 
Jury list 1731 as " Edward Keaton." Tax Com' r 1736. Died 1743. 

3 Chauga on west side of Chauga Creek about 5 miles below 
Toogaloo. 



A Journal from Carolina in 1715. 341 

Inclines itt was concluded that Majr. Harbott and I 

dowe goo to talk with them and see what they will dowe 
In this afare.* 

Friday ) this day Majr. Harbott and I seatt out from 
ye '20 ) Tugloe to a Town called Quoneashee 1 to 
spicke with ye Head men of ye other side of ye 
hilles they disiring us to come to them Wee seatte out 
about J 2 aclocke and marcht till night and toucke 
up att a Town cald Suckhee where wee lay all night before 
wee seatt out Mr. Oatton and ye men with him came 
in from ye Cricke path bott see no sine of ther coming to 
us. 

Satterday } this day wee seatt out about 7 in ye morn- 
ye 21 ) ing and about a llaclock come to a Town 
called Chottee itt is 12 milles of Suckhee Mr Wigan por- 
swaded us to stay heare all night ther being noe town 
that wee could Riche this night and tomorrow we 
should have a gide. 

Sunday ) this day at 8 a clocke we seatt out from 
ye 22 j Chottee to go to Quoneashee we marcht 
about 20 milles ye way verry mountannas and stoney 
being forct to light and walke more then ride then we come 
to ye tope of ye mounton and ther we see the hade of a 
River that Rones in to Chattahouchey River about a mille 
one ye other side of ye mounton ther begon ye hade of a 
npther River that Rones into masashipey over march this 
day was 40 milles wee come to Quoneashee -J hower after 5 
a clocke where ye River that we seeye had of was veriybrode 
we matte Seaser hear I asked him what he hade to say to 
us he tould me that yeheadc men should a have bean down 
ye night befor onely ye snow one ye mountanes had stopt 
them bott if I would stay till Tusday they would come and 
then we should tallke about whare to goe to ware. 



1 Quanassee One of the Westmost towns of the Over hill Cherokees 
on the Pliwasse, afterwards an English factory. 



342 Appendix to Year Book. 

Munday > this day was verry Ranney In ye Eivening 
ye 23 J I & Majr Herbert went up to ther warr 

house where all ye head men were set according to their 
ranks and quality, then we ask'd of Czar & ye rest ye 
head men of those parts what their Business was in sending 
for us there. Their ansr. was these people had been down 
wth our Govr. & now re-turn'd back & they were very well 
pleas'd at what these people had told them which was to 
go to warr against any nation of Indians that were our 
Enimies, accordingly they were willing when in ye Settlem't 
to go against ye northward Indians & then was told to go 
wth us to ye Southward wth us against ye Creeks which 
they complyed wth & now are all ready to go against them 
they being ye first that began ye warr against ye English. 

Then I use'd my Endeavours to perswade them to Desist 
at. present from going against ye Southward Indians telling 
them that I did not know but that the} r were gone Down 
to Savana Town to Left: Generale Moore to go. Down wth 
them to ye Govr. In order to have a peace conferm'dwth 
them And if not gone down It was no proper time to go 
against them at present by reason they have had such 
timely notice to move their wifes & children & efects that 
they could not at present make any advantage of taking 
of slaves or any plunder. Their answr: was It was not 
plunder they wanted from them but to go to war wth them 
and cut them of, for it was but as. yesterday as they were at 
war together & It was by ye perswasions of ye English they 
were ever at peace wth them & sence they have done ye 
Damage to ye English, they have been told to get ready to 
go to war wth them and that messengers were sent to them 
& 14 days prefixtfor their coming in. And also told them 
if they did not come at that time then ye red Stick should 
be sent through ye Nation & all things got in readyness to 
go against them & that now ye time has been expired a 
long time & that they have had no message from ye Eng- 
lish So sent for some of them to let them know they were 
all ready and that they would go against them by there- 
selves If ye English would not joyn.* 



A Journal from Carolina in 1715. 343 

Joyn <fe go wth them. I told them that ye Discours Cezar 
& their head men had wth Our Govr: was contrary to what 
they proposed for that they were not to make war or peace 
wthout ye Consent of ye English & to have them to joyn 
them & not to do things of their own heads wthout advising 
wth ye English, They said they had been told they should 
go against ye Southward Indians If they did not come 
accord'g to ye time & that they had now sent for all their 
head men & warriours to meet there this Day & that they 
would' have been there If ye bad weather had not prevented 
them that they could not now send them back again <fc that 
they were resolved to go to war wth there Short knives in 
their hands & with what amunition they had by them If not 
suplyed by ye English and sayd they beleived Our Govr: 
had tow talks for they were told by there head men that 
they should be supplyed wth ammunition and all tilings 
neeissary to go against an Enimie, & that ye English would 
joyn wth them against there Enimies. Then I asked 
them how many men they had, they began a numbering 
them & they said they had 2000 three hundred and saventy 
men, I then asked of them how many Gun men there was 
of them they said they beleiv'd half of them had Guns, I 
again tryed my endeavours to perswade them to St[ay] 
untill farther orders & that when I came Down to Col : 
Moore he would send them a messenger to tell them when 
they should proceed wth which they seemd to be pret}' 
well sattisfied I being we went to our Lodging. 

Tuesday 1 This morning we order'd our horses to be 
ye 24 j got ready to return but they sent us a mes- 
senger to tell us we must come to their war house be- 
fore we went which accordingly we did, & then they 
began their Discourse which is followes, That they had 
got 48 men ready to go Down to Savana Town for ammu- 
nition.* Then I told them they must not do so, for that I 
could not tell but that ye Southward Indians may be come 
in before we could get down to Coll : Moore to Togalew Town 
If not come Down at present I used several arguments wth 



344 Appendix to Year Boot 

them telling them some accident might happen to stop 
them telling them an Instance that happened to themselves 
that when we sent up 2 of their own Indians to them to 
come down to us asureing them of ye Love & friendship ye 
English had for them & that they would have them come 
come Down <fc confirm a peace wth. them that they were then 
aComeingDown but ye 2 Brogues of negroes run away 
from ye English and came & told them a parcell of Lies, 
which hindred their corneing & that we sent other messen- 
gers & It was a long while before thsy came or that we had 
any news from them <k that we could not tell but that ye 
same might be hapened to ye Southward Indians So would 
have them quiet for ye present, but ye head warriours were 
in a great pasion & said they could not tell ye meaning of 
our purswadeing them against going to war wth ye South- 
ward Indians at this time &■ that they found we gave Ear 
to what Chareke Heaggy said & did not mind them & that 
If they made peace wth ye other Indians they should have 
no way in geting of Slaves to buy amunition & Clothing & 
that they were resolved to get ready for war. J again pur- 
swaded to be in friendship one wth ye other, but. ye Head 
warriours were in a great passion & went from there seats to 
ye other side of ye war house & said they were resolved for 
war & would stay no longer but march wth their warriours 
to a Town called Chote.* 1 

I again used abundance of arguements for them to stay for 
an answr: from Coll: Moore 2 they seemed to be in mighty 
hast, but by abundance of perswading & telling them we 
would send them an answr: back by one of there own men 
as soon as we could get Down to Coll Moore, They then 
told us they would trust us once again. Then we took 
our Leaves of them. 

Tuesday ] set foi wards on our journy to Togalew & came 
Ye 24. ) through a Town called Ta-santh-ha & another 

1. Ciiote the town of Befuge of the Over hill Cherokees— near the 
site of Fort Loudon, in the Fork of the Little Tennessee & Tellico 
Rivera. 

2. Maurice Moore at Toogaloo. 



^1 Journal from Carolina in 1715. 345 

Town caled Suk-ca-cha then came to another town called 
Cutta-co-chi whore we stayd this night. 

AVensday I 1 this day itt Rand all day Long wich stopt 
ye 25 ) us att this town. 

Thorsday 1 this day we seat oat for Tugaloe and TraulcJ 
ye 26 J all day and att night come to Chottee where 
wee toucke up ower quarters for this night. 

Fryday 1 this morning we seant for ouer horses in ye 
ye 27 J Time ye hoye went for them ther came in 
ye warre houpe from tugaloe we sant to heare what 
nues ye measanger brought us nueas that there was 12 
Creake In dines come in to Tugaloe and they hade killd 
them all we seatt out as fast as we could for Tugaloe and all 
ye way we Read ye Inclines flock tt after us by ye alaram 
they hade before from ye Indin that brought ye noueas, we 
gott to Tugaloe a bought 5 a Glocke where ye noueas w r as 
confirmd of all being killd and one given to ye whitte men 
to be shott att night they killd another that they had saved 
befor, he w 7 as a Cricke fellow that Corll Hastings calld his 
frind* 

when it was darke ye Conger : seant for all ye whitte 
men to com to Tugaloe for to Cipe [Keep] gard for feare 
they should bring ther body in apone us In ye Towns wich 
we did att night ye acount that we hade from Corll 
Hastings frind of ye noumber of men they had broughte 
with them to kill ye whitt men was 3 hondred men som 
others sade 2 and some 2 hondred and eighty. 

Satterday "J this day all ye whitte men and all ye 
ye 28 j Indines gotte to gither and marcht about 
3 milks out of Tugaloe to waylay the pathe 3 as we 
marcht we mette 2 ore 3 Indins bringing a prisner in and 
another that they had killd in ye night that that was 
Brought in was ye Indin that was sent with ye measeage to 
ye Cricke he tould us that he was seant to see what wase 

1 Here the handwriting of the Journal is resumed. 

2 From the Cowetas— See n. p. 



34G Appendix to Year Booh. 

ye matter that ther peapeall did not com out to them we 
waylade ye path till all most night then the Scoutes 
brought in 2 pxesners and killd them both we thought that 
we were discouereed soe ye body Retornnd Backe to Tossey 
wher we lay all night. 

Sunday \ this day we herd we were not discovered 
ye 29 J ther was orders given out for all ye men 
to gett Riddy to march to waylay ye path a cordingly 
we marcht about 5 milles and seant out Scouts about a 
nouer after they broute in one Indin King that belonged 
to ye Adasee Town ! wich tould us that ye Enimey had 
not discouered us as yeat that they only thought that ye 
English hade tyde ther head men and that he was come to 
see what ye matter was and that ye Enimey was Resouled 
to come to us ore stand and fitt tell they dye we then seant 
him to ye Towns and continied ouer march tourdes them a 
bout Tow howers after we toucke a n other fellow that was 
a Yeamasee and he tould us that they were att plase that 
was about S milles from us and that they were Resouled 
to stay there tell the} r herd from there peapell that- was 
seant to ye Towns*. 

We marcht tell it was darke and toucke up by a Cricke 
side a bout five milles from ye plase where ye Enimey lay 
and seant out Scoutes to see if they were there ye Scoutes 
meastoueke ye plase and came Backe and see noting we 
stade there all night Scoutes goeing out all ye night long 
bott could Discover nothing. 

Munday | this morning att brick a day we seatt out 
ye 30 \ to goe upon them we marcht about 5 milles 
and came to ye plase where they hade Incampt 
bott found they were gone ye horse was gone along ye path 
and ye fotte hade scattered them selves in ye woods to 

1 Attasees or "Addasees 20 men" one of the Creek tribes settled 
before 1715 on the Ocmulgee below the Cowetas, after 1715 on the 
west blink of the Chattahoochee River. [Barbour Co: Ala] 



A Journal from Carolina in 1715. 347 

macke ye best of there way home wee see itt was in vane 
to follow the])} therfore we Retornd Back to Tugaloe. 1 

TusdayV this day ye CoDgare scant for us to tallk 
ye 31 ( with him and his head men acordingly 
we scant for all the offerees together to thinke of s'om 
Expedisen for ye perceeding in caring one this warr with 
ye Indins acordingly wee held a Counsell of warr and it 
wasconclued upon that Corll thophahlus Hastines Remane 
in ye Cherrykees nasiori with 50 men and that 200 firearms 
be seant up to ye Indins with powder and Bulleatts to carry 
one the warr ageanst ouer Enimy Indins we considring ye 
uast charges and expences our Conttry now stands att and 
ye head men of ye Indins macking such porposalls thought 
litt to imbrase they saying our army being of greatt charge 
to them they beleved that 50 good Briske men might clow as 
well as ye wholle noumber one of ye Indins that was tacken 
l\one away this night.* 

Tugaloe Jan'y 31st 171f, 

Att a Councill of Warr held at this Place by ye Officers 
whose Names are here under written it is agreed and con- 
cluded upon by them as follows (Vizt) That Coll: Theo: 
Hastings wth 50 white men do stay in the Charrikees 
Nation ; and yt ye other part of the Icigement march to ye 
Savana Town; And yt 200 fire armes wth Powder & 
Bulletts be sent up to the Charrikees Indians. In order to 
carry on the Warr against the Creeks & Yamasees or any 
of our Indian Enemys. 

Wee having considdered of ye vast charge & expence 
that our Countrey now lies at — And the head men makeing 
such Proposals to us. and asshureing us of their freindship 
to us ; wee have thought fitt to Imbrace it They saying that 

1 Trail from Tossee across the heads of the Salwege <.V Oconee to 
the Cowetas where the trail from Savanna town to the Apallachees 
crossed the Ocmulgee (near Macon). The Assembly mem'l: April 
28,1716. says "little alteration in the posture of affairs except upon 
some of the Creek Indians being massacred by the Cherokees, the 
whole nation of the former moved themselves nearer the French at 
J.loville'' (His: Col: 2. p. 22Gj See Appendix VI. 



348 Appendix to Year Boole, 

the Kigement that is now hero is a great charge to ym and 
they beleive 50 brisk men may be as serviceable to ym as 
ye whole. 

Man: Moore TJios: Smith Willi: Scott * C Glover 2 George 
Chickm Willi: Bull Wm: Gov am Theo: Hastings - John 
Caniey RoU: Daniell 5 John Herbert Nath: Broughton, 

Febw^ry ye frst 1 this day ye men were dran up and 50 
day Weadday j of them dran out to stay a long with 
Corll hastines att ye Cherreckes to goe to warr with them 
when they goe they thinking that noumber better than the 
whole quantey that is heare. 



Thorsday 1 this day ye Congeore come to Corll Moore 
ye 2 J and tould him that his gritte men had halde 
a Counseall and that they were for having 80 nigrous left 
with a briske whitte man to command them they think- 
ing they would be verry serveasabeil to them in Honing 
after ye Enimy wich was grant to by Corll: Moore — Capt: 
Forde Compne} r was ordered to Stay. 



1. Capt. Wm Scott of Colleton County was a merchant at Wiltown 
1716.1719. married Susanna dau : of John Simmons, removed to 
Charlestown & became a merchant there, 

2. Col: Charlesworth Glover. He commanded an armed sloop in 
N. Carolina 1712. was engaged in the Tuscarora wars & 1713 on an 
embassy to King Blount with Maurice Moore & came with- him on 
this Campaign. After it he v.' as an officer at Ft Moore & agent & 
commander therein 1717. at Charlestown in Sept: was appointed 
by the Council to escort 2 Indian Chiefs on board a ship with a 3 
gun salute. He continued agent and trader among the Indians & 
was employed in negotiations with them in 1727. S & agent Indian 
Affairs 1732.. He had lands in N. Carolina & in St George's parish 
S. C. where he was living in 1729 & of the Grand Jury & J. P. until 
his death in 1732. 

3. Robert Daniel jr: (eld: son of Hon: "Robert Daniel, Landgrave & 
Governor) Captain in the Berkley Reg rut: Tax Comr: 1703. Died 
1717 soon after this campaign leaving his wife Sarah & two minor 
Sons — Robert Daniel (who succeeded his grandfather as 2d Land- 
grave in 1718 & died 1732) and Marmaduke Daniel. 



A Journal from Carolina in 1715. 349 

Sunday 1 this day Corll. Moore seatt out for ye Settellment 

Ye 5. J with Capt. Broughton and Twenty ofhisCom- 

pney lie desin<*d to lye att a small Town about 4 milles 

of this plase calld Tockasovey 3 to gett flower for ye men, 

One Tusday ye Congare : is to seatt out to mitte him. 



Monday) this day majr: Herbet and I seatt out with 
Ye G. J part of the army for Savnonow Town We 
marcht from a Town cald No : u : wee 2 to a nother that is 
calld Chagiey [Chauga] att bout 6 milles distons where 
we lav all night. 



a 



Tusday i this day we seatt out from Chagey wee crost 
Ye 7. ? Cricke 3 by ye Town ye way was verry good all 
m: 20. J this day wee touck oup att fower a clocke ye 
quntity of milles mart, this day is 20 and touck up by 
a Cane'brinche. 4 

Weadsday ) this day we seatt out att 9 a clocke marcht. 5 

Ye 8 > milles and came to a brinch of Saunow River 

11. ) 5 We were about 2 houers befor all gott ouer 

then we marcht. a mill and halfe and came to a greatte 

Cricke that was verry dippe We crost ye Cricke and 

marcht. about 5 milles and touck up for this day.?* 

Thorsday "J this day a littall befor wee seatt out come 
Ye 9 > Capt : ford with a note from Corll. Hastings to 
m. 22 J inform us that Sesier was angry that more 
whitte men did not stay to go to ye Cricke with him 
allsoe that ther was 3 of ye men that was dran out to stay 
att ye Cherreckes was Ron away, we seatt out att 8 a clocke 
and marcht tell J hower alter 3 in ye afternown We 

1 Perhaps a town near Walhalla called on Carolls map Tockwash- 
uaw and elsewhere Tockasirooah. 

2 Noyowee near and northeast of Tugaloo. 

3 Chauga, near Mason's mill 

4 Head of Farrer's Creek. 

. 5 6 Seneca River & Deep Creek, at Shallow Ford. 

7 At head of Devil's Fork NW of Anderson. Probably because of 
high water and the difficulty of crossing the Savannah" River, this 
return march was made by the Keowee trail. [For this trail See 
L oga np. 312 A c la ir p . — ] 



350 Appendix to Year Bool: 

marcht 22 milles. We crosl 4 crickes 1 one of them was 
verry dipe. 

Friday \ this clay we marcht 20 milles wee crost 4 crickes 2 

Ye 10 I ye way pretty good all ye after nown itt Rand 
m : 20 j verry hard tell a bout term att night then leaft 
of and was a small frost, 

Satterday "j this day we seatt out att Eight a Clocke and 
Ye 11 } toucke up att 3 in ye after novne We crost 
21 J 5 or 6 Crickes 3 3 of them was soe dipe we 

were forst to unlode ower pack horses we toucke up. by 
ye last ower march e this day was 21 milles after itt was 
darke ye Conger: over touck us and brought a Letter 
from Corll. Hastings to Inform us that ye uper pipole 
and ye Loere were agread to goe to ye Cricke in 15 day 
time We kiild a boflow this day. 4 

Sunday \ this day we seatt out att 9 a clocke and come 

Ye 12 V throw the woods for ye Savnow Town we left 

20 t ye Conger : att ye Camp watting for Corll. Moore 

and ye Indines to goe to ye settellmeant this day we 

marcht 20 milles throw ye woods noe pathe. 5 

Munday \ this day we seatt out from over Campe marcht 

Ye 13 j 3 milles and came to a large Cricke 6 which 

we crost and marcht throw ye woods after over pylatt 

and crost 2 more and seuerall small Rones about 3 a 

Clocke we came to a small River 1 wich we crost and 



1 Heads of Generostee, Rocky River, Broadway and Hen Coop 
CreeksCamp near Craytonville. 

2 Barker's, Big and Little Hog Skin and Long Cane Creeks, 
Camp north of Hodges near the head of Mulberry Creek. 

3 Coronoca, Black Bock, Little Wilsons, Brightmans & Hanleys' 
creeks camped on the latter near old Ninety Six. 

4 The only contemporaneous account I've seen of killing Buffalo 
in S. Carolina. Logan gives traditions of them (p. 16, ]8) &.Bartram 
saw their bones near Ft. Charlotte. 

5 Having left the Trail at Ninety Six to go towards Savanna 
Town. Camped near the head of Wine Creek. 

6 Wine Creek and its branches. 

7 Stevens Creek above the junction of Turkey Creek. Crossed it 
and camped there. 



A Journal from Carolina in 17.15. 351 

touck up for foude for over horsses this day we marcht 
12 milles itt Rand all ye after nown.* 

Tusday | this day we seatt out att 7 a Clocke and marcht 
Ye 14 v about 5 milles and came into ye pathe that 
25 J we made in going to ye Cherreckes we marcht 
along ye path a bout 16 mills and came to John Steven- 
sons Cow penn where wee crost ye Cricke l and marcht 
4 milles and toucke up this day s march I jug: to be 25 
milles Tucke up att 4 a Clocke. 

Weadsday/v this day Ave seatt out from ye Camp about 
Ye 15 > 7 in ye morning and marcht Tenn milles 
13 J and came to a dipp Cricke 2 where we were 
forst to unlode hower horsses and swime them over 
thean we marcht about 2 milles and come in sitte of 
Savnow Town where ye Generall come to miette us this 
day wee marcht 13 milles, att night ye Generall with 
ye Reast of ye Ofterceses . held a Counsall of Warr to 
know whatt to dowe with ye forsses itt was agread that 
all should goe down to ye Garreasons where they did 
belong to before only a 100 whitte and 15 nigrows to 
stay att ye fortte att ye Savnow Town. 

Tiiorsday 1 Wee seatt outte for ye Settellmeant about 12 
Ye 16. J a Clocke and came to ye 3 Rones 3 wich is 
16 milles and thean toouck up all night. 

Friday \ this day wee seatt out att 7 a Clock and marcht 
17. i tell 5 att night thean tuck up wee marcht this 
day as much as wee marcht in 3 days in going up ye 
quanty of milles marcht : is 31. 4 



1 Stevens Creek where they crossed going up. Camped north cf 
Foxe3 Creek. 
* Horse Creek where they crossed going up. 

8 Three Rum at Treadway Camp about the head of Bird's Creek. 
4 Probably about the heads of Buckhead Creek. 



352 Appendix to Year Booh. 

Sattfrday ) this day we seatt out att 8 Clocke and tuck 
Ye 18. J up att five att night att ye Camp by ye 3 
holes where we touke the 2 boyes in going up over march 
this day is 25 milles. 1 



1 The Act Mar : 24, 1715, 10. recites "it is still necessary that n 
body of white men be sent up and joined with our friendly Indians 
the Cheraques to go against the Creek Indians" and provides for 100 
volunteers for that expedition and also for numerous garrisons and 
for retaining the Tuscarora Indians at Pt. Royal. 



A Journal from Carolina in 1715. 353 



APPENDIX. 

I. Yamassees. Usually supposed akin to (he Muscogees (Itivers 
38) By Mr. Gallatin to the Savanas. Thoy lived under the Spaniards 
in Florida but revolting pushed northwards (.1680-85) thro' the 
"man eating" Westoes (then struggling with the Savanas) and 
settled near Port Royal. 'Whence they were in 1685 ' ravaging 
the Timechees" & afterwards ceaselessly scouting & raiding against 
the Spaniards, but helpful to " the English in trading to the 
Inlands/' 6: their brave allies in the Apallachee [1702. 4. 9] & Tusca- 
rora wars [1711-13]. In 1708 they had ten towns (Pocataligos, 
Pocosabos, Huspaus, Tomotleys, &c) & 500 men. and " were become 

. great warriors," {Rivers 230.) In 1715 they retired to St Augustine. 
Whence the3 r harrassed Carolina until their extirpation ' by the 
Creeks in a last decisive battle near San Juan River.' Where Par- 
tram saw their burial mounds. In 1750 they were but20 men. Some 
suppose the Seminole?) their descendants. (Rivers.) 

II. Savanas or Siiawnkes. The greatest raiders & wanderers among 
the Indians. Mr Rivers plat I. shews £ Chauanos old settlements' 
on Cumberland River & their then towns near the Gulf west of 
the Apallachicola River. In 1670 Woodward saw " at ye Westoe 
town als: ye Hiekauhaugau (on Savanna River) two Savano 
Indians (living 20 days journey West southerly,) who by signs 
asked friendship & told them the Cussetaws, Chicksaws & 
Chiokees were coming to fight them.' This seems their first visit 
to the Westoes. But by 1680 they had pushed to the Westoe River 
& these two potent nations broke out into a civil war * * & the 
Westoes the more cruel of the two were at last forced quite out of 
the province & the Savannahs continued good friends & useful 
neighbours to the English (Arch:) who had traders in their towns 
1685-90. In 1708 they had three towns [near Sand Bar Ferry] & 
150 men but revolted [A.A2. 324] and in 1715 were but 67 men who 
retired to the Creeks. 

III. Euchees— ''declared themselves the ancient people of the Coun- 
try. Theirs of all the Indian languages of this region was the most 
uncouth & guttural. Bartram declares it radically different from 
the Muscogee {River 1 * Topics) In 170S they had 2 towns & 130 
men on the Savannah [above Augusta]. These in 1715 retired to 
the Creeks but never uuited with them. They had other settle- 
ments near the Oconee (where the Euchee trail still bears their 
name) and 1730-50 extended towards the Savannah and the Coast. 

IV. Apala cues— Were settled in So. Florida but being harried by the 
Carolinians many in 1701 'deserted from the Spaniards & came 



854 Appendix to Year Book. 

with our forces from them.' These settled on the Savannah at & 
opposite Silver Bluff & in 170S were 250 men "& behave themselves 
very submissive to our Govcnim't:" But in 1715 their 4 towns & 
275 men revolted with the rest & all retired to the southward- 

V. Muscogees. In 1708 there were settled on the Oehasee (Ogeechee) 
"River eleven towns of Indians, 600 men, good warriors & hunters. 
In 1715 the Ochesees were ten towns & 730 men. Prof:, Rivers 
map III has ' In 1716 the Ochessee, Creek Indians, with the 
Cowetaws, Hogologoos & Oeonees & Apallaches & several remnants 
of other small tribes removed to this river [Chattahoochee]. They 
are now at peace with us but sutler the French as well as us to 
trade with them & in all are about 1000 men the most military 
Indians in these parts.' Map II shews (before 1715) Tohogaleas 30 
men Savanos 60 m: Apalachees 2 towns 150 men each & Pallachu- 
colas 100 ra: on Savannah River (From the Hugchee island to the 
Pallachueola town) Oconerys 70 m: on the Oconee. Westas 15 m: 
Co.wetas 30; Tiskegas 60; Addasees 20; Collawees & Sowagees on 
the Ocmulgee (about Macon) Towaleges 20 m: SW & Counetias 50, 
Chehaws 20 Euchees 30 lower down. Map III (after 1715) shews 
Chattahoochee, Woomashatchie, Cowetas, Westos, Cullowees, 
Attasees, Tassegees, Oakmulgees, Achilla, Hogologees & Savanos on 
the West bank of the Chattahoochee (In Russell, Barbour & Henry 
Counties Ala-) & the Palachucolasat its junction with Flint River. 

VI. The Cowetas a Muscogee tribe in 1715 settled on the Ocmulgee. 
(near Macon) whence they retired to the Chattahoochee (Russell 
Co Ala:) They claimed to the Salwege & earlier were settled there. 
Woodward in 1674 says "eight days from ye Westoe town ye River 
hath its falls W.N.W- where it divides itself into three branches 
amongst which inhabit the Cowatee & Chorake Indians." At the 
junction of the Salwege and Savannah many huge mounds <k 
terraces exist called by some the Outisachique of De Soto. 'The 
fruitful province of Chusytachyq:' of Woodwards 'discovery' in 
1670 seems higher up. 



^ 



A3 ? 2d 1 
>2G 237 



'■ S /9 o 
*CO /.9o 



THREE SEPARATE SURVEYS OF 
CHARLESTON BAR 

Are shown, with corresponding- points 
exactly below each other. 

The tipper chart, shows the survey of 
1884, before the jetties had begun to 
affect the natural conditions. Between 
the area shown and Charleston (to the 
left) there is a wide low tide channel not 
less than 21 feet deep at any point. To 
the right is the open Atlantic Ocean. 

The middle chart shows the bar in 
t 894. The large shoals included by heavy 
black lines have become much smaller, 
and large areas of 20 feet depth and over 
at low tide have appeared. 

The lower chart shows the present 
condition. Between the city and the 
ocean there is only 2,000 feet where there 
is less depth than 26 feet at high tide 
feet at low tide). In this 2,000 feet 



22 feet at high tide. 



(21 

the least dec 

" § 
The channel is straight, and well lighted 

at night. Between 1303 and 1895 over 
2,000,000 cubic yards of sand have been 
removed from the area shown. More 
than half is the result of scour pro- 
duced by the jetties. The rest has beer- 
dredged. The present outer shoal, conn- 
posed exclusively of material pushed 
down from between the jetties is rapidly 
and surely being dissipated by currents 
and waves. 

The jetties were completed in July, 
1895, and the cost of the work has been 
£3.800,000, or $550,000 less than the esti- 
mate. The ultimate depth desired is 26 
feet at mean high water. Originally the 
distance on which there was less than 
this depth was 15,000 feet. It is now 
less than 2,000 feet and the gain during 
the past twelve months was over 5,000 
feet. 

FREDERIC Y. ABBOT, 
Captain of Engineers. 



COMPART SON"' ■ SURVEYS 

JETTY CHANNEL 

CI1A1TLEST0N 5. C.